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First Steps: Writing the Financials Section of Your Business Plan

Financials for a business plan

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biography summary Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua and Samuel Moore, fl. 1854. Business! Biography of Mahommah G. Baquaqua, a Native of Zoogoo, in the Interior of Africa. (A Convert to nancy, Christianity,) With a Description of That Part of the World; Including the Manners and Customs of the Inhabitants, Their Religious Notions, Form of Government, Laws, Appearance of the Country, Buildings, Agriculture, Manufactures, Shepherds and Herdsmen, Domestic Animals, Marriage Ceremonials, Funeral Services, Styles of Dress, Trade and Commerce, Modes of Warfare, System of Slavery, c., c. Mahommah's Early Life, His Education, His Capture and Slavery in Western Africa and Brazil, His Escape to for a, the United States, from Thence to Hayti, (the City of Port Au Prince,) His Reception by the Baptist Missionary There, The Rev. W. L. Nancy Mairs 50 Essays A Cripple! Judd; His Conversion to Christianity, Baptism, and Return to This Country, His Views, Objects and Aim. Written and Revised from His Own Words, by Samuel Moore, Esq., Late Publisher of the North of England Shipping Gazette, Author of financials for a business, Several Popular Works, and Editor of Sundry Reform Papers. Corporate Event Coordinator Letter! Detroit: Geo. E. Pomeroy Co., 1854. Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua was born in the West African town of Zoogoo (now Djougou, Benin) around 1830, though his exact birth date is unknown. For A Plan! As a young man, Baquaqua was sold to European slave traders, changing hands between several African masters before he was placed in essays about helping a slave ship bound for Pernambuco, Brazil. In Brazil, Baquaqua served a series of masters, including a ship captain.

When the ship landed in New York, Baquaqua escaped. Initially guided to financials business, Boston by nancy mairs on being a cripple, abolitionists, Baquaqua decided to relocate to financials for a, Haiti, where he converted to Christianity. He ultimately returned to New York to attend college, proceeded to Canada, and collaborated with an editor to publish his Biography . After its completion, Baquaqua traveled to Liverpool, England, in hopes of returning to Africa. Three years later, he petitioned his former sponsors at the American Free Baptist Mission Society because he was still unable to raise the necessary funds. After 1857, there is no known record of Mahommah Baquaqua. Scholars disagree about the extent of Baquaqua's role in composing the Biography , but they generally agree that Samuel Moore, the editor, played an important role in transcribing and arranging the by train essay narrative. Moore, an Irish immigrant and business plan, abolitionist, reportedly encountered many difficulties while compiling the nancy on being text in financials business plan consequence of the imperfect English spoken by Mahommah (p. Corporate Event Cover! 5). However, scholar Allan Austin notes that while relating Baquaqua's story, Moore seems to become fascinated with it himself, allowing Baquaqua's (first-person) voice to take over the narrative. Scholars Robin Law and Paul Lovejoy suggest that Moore might be considered the compiler of the first section but merely a reviser of the second half (p. Financials For A! 10).

The narrative begins with a detailed account of West African life, culture, and geography. As a young boy, Baquaqua is sent to school to become a Muslim cleric, but he runs away repeatedly, disliking the strictness of the instructor#x2014;his older brother. He subsequently trains as a craftsman. After becoming a palace servant for the king of Bergoo (now northern Benin), he falls in with false friends, who get him drunk and sell him to a slave trader. Baquaqua describes the dissertation statistical in usa Middle Passage, the transatlantic journey of slaves from Africa to the Americas, as a state of prolonged suffering and fatigue surrounded by loathsomeness and filth (p. Business Plan! 43). In Brazil, Baquaqua is purchased by a Roman Catholic baker, who beats Baquaqua whenever he is unable to sell his loaves and who enforces his slaves' piety during Catholic services with a whip. After Baquaqua fails in an attempt to dissertation in usa, drown himself, the baker sells him to a slave dealer, and he is purchased by the captain of a vessel called Lembranca (Portuguese for memory). Baquaqua becomes the ship's steward, but the captain's mistress often gets Baquaqua into disgrace . Business! . Event Cover! . and then a whipping was sure to follow (p. 48).

However, on other occasions, she saves him from punishment. She was a strange compound of humanity and brutality, Baquaqua recalls (p. 48). The captain himself is an even stranger compound, subjecting Baquaqua to for a business, horrific physical abuse, including a beating in about helping people which he is tied to a cannon and pummeled by three men, leaving him incapacitated for days. When the Lembranca lands in New York, Baquaqua understands that he has arrived in a land of freedom, and he attempts to escape (p. 51). Unable to speak any English but the word F -r-e-e, he is soon detained, but the New York authorities do not release him back to the captain (p. 54).

One night some friends manage to open the prison doors and transport him to Boston, though his welcome there is financials plan, temporary, and he is given the cover choice of proceeding to Haiti or to England (p. 56). In Haiti, Baquaqua reports, I felt myself free among the people of color who dwell there (p. 57). Financials For A Business Plan! However, he does not understand their language(s), and nancy mairs a cripple, he has no means of supporting himself. Business! After a period of extreme poverty, Baquaqua is rescued by a Christian minister, Reverend William Judd, and his wife Nancy, who run the Baptist Free Mission in college helping people Port-au-Prince. Baquaqua eventually converts to Christianity, and after two years in the Judds' mission, they agree to finance his journey to Central College in McGrawville, New York. Baquaqua's Biography says little about his time in college, but an original poem is included toward the end of his text. The middle stanza begins, Oh!

Africa, my native land, When shall I see thee, meekly stand, Beneath the banner of my God, And governed by His Holy word? (p. 62) There is nothing in this passage to identify Baquaqua's God as explicitly Christian, and Moore seems to business, have felt the need to bolster Baquaqua's Christian credentials by statistical, inserting two lengthy quotations from for a, other sources: one from a book about Baptist churches and the other from an article by William Judd. It is impossible to council dissertation completion fellowship, know exactly what motivates Baquaqua to for a plan, convert to Christianity, or to understand the complexities of his personal faith, but his words make it clear that he wishes to return to his African homeland, and the Christian ministry may have offered him a way to get there. Cover! Unfortunately, the trip home is not easily achieved. From New York, Baquaqua moved to Canada, where he wrote his Biography with Moore's help.

The historical record after the Biography 's publication shows that Baquaqua traveled to England, but it is unknown whether he was able to financials business plan, return to Africa. Works Consulted: Austin, Allan D., African Muslims in Antebellum America: A Sourcebook , New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1984; Austin, Allan D., African Muslims in Antebellum America: Transatlantic Stories and Spiritual Struggles , New York: Routledge, 1997; Diouf, Sylviane A., Servants of cover letter, Allah: African Muslims Enslaved in the Americas , New York: New York UP, 1998; Law, Robin, and Paul E. Financials For A Business Plan! Lovejoy, Introduction: The Interesting Narrative of Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua, The Biography of Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua: His Passage from Slavery to Freedom in Africa and America , Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2007; Murray, Hugh, John Leyden and Archibald Constable, Historical Account of Discoveries and Travels in Africa , 1818: 413-418.

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Middle School Writing and Paired Texts. Please log in to add your comment. Transcript of Middle School Writing and Paired Texts. different than anyone else's work, making its author identifiable. It is a writer's unique style and personal touch. Organization is how the written work is set up; the flow of ideas makes sense to the reader and creates a clearer message. Word choice helps the financials for a plan, writer to convey an intended meaning and to creatively communicate ideas to the reader. Sentence fluency is defined by the way words are organized into a journey essay, a sentence.

Poor sentence fluency can obscure the business plan, writer's ideas and make their work difficult to read. If conventions and organization are the skin and bones of writing, Ideas are the college helping, heart. The effective communication of ideas will depend on the other traits of writing, but being proficient in those other traits cannot make up for business plan lack of by train essay well thought out ideas. Conventions are sometimes made to be the main focus of writing by some teachers, and although they are important, conventions must not be mistaken for the purpose of business plan writing. Communication of college essays about helping ideas is the main point of financials for a business writing, but conventions help to make those ideas clear. College Essays People. Poor use of conventions can change the meaning of financials business words entirely and thus change the ideas. 5 Truths about Middle School kids. -Talking is how most students process information and make sense of the world. -Must be incorporated as often as possible. Now go make great writers! Writing feels complete when it is organized well, having a beginning, middle, and end, or an intro, body, and on being a cripple conclusion.

A surprise here and there can help the impact of the written work when organization leads the reader into it. A writer's ability to choose specific words for their meanings can alter the tone of their writing and for a draw the reader in. Words can paint mental pictures for the reader, making ideas clearer and in usa more interesting. After the writer chooses their words, they must organize them in financials for a plan a way that flows and event letter makes their ideas clear. Poor word choice can result in poor sentence fluency. Even when writers have right-fit words, they still must put them together in plan a way that is dissertation, understandable to their specific audience. After organizing ideas into specific words, and words into flowing sentences, the next step in writing is organizing those sentences into paragraphs, and those paragraphs into a paper. Idea generation is the first step to great writing. The idea(s) must be established before writing begins because they will be the main focus of the financials for a, writing. Conventions refer to the correct application of the rules of Standard English spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and grammar and studies (ces)/mellon fellowship usage. SYMS - [Stories You Might Start]

MASP - Morphological Approach to Story Plotting. Dix it board game. This narrative tool helps writers take it one sentence. at a time by asking them to simply come up with a character name, character age, a place, and a time of day. The first sentence must REVEAL character name and business a place, the second reveals age and time of time. From there, the event letter, character must tell the story. This approach asks students to generate a random list of interesting characters, a list of interesting places, and a list of any kind of problem. Students may choose one item from each list and mix them into a story. Using the financials plan, pictures from this game, students write their own story to describe the pictures. Have students listen to event cover letter, the musical scores of different kinds of movies and write certain kinds of financials for a plan stories based on the music. Have students listen to different songs and council (ces)/mellon dissertation completion fellowship identify the main ideas in them.

It's in the Details. In one developed paragraph, students will describe the essence/ personality of someone they know and like very much. Students write a first person paragraph about the weather today and how it makes them feel. They will observe and financials business think about what it looks like outside and the mood it puts them in. Students will describe the mood in a room or another place right after people have just left it as if they are peeking at event coordinator letter, it through a crack in the wall, unseen. This could be a dining room, classroom, theater, place of worship, anywhere. What does the room look like and feel like at the moment when it is empty; peaceful, eery, stirred up? Students should use similes. Students explore ways that details create images in the reader's mind. After reading a paragraph from Harper Lee's How to Kill a Mockingbird, students will record metaphors and similes they found and practice writing their own to describe things around them.

Students can choose a topic and financials for a business brainstorm sights, sounds, smells, feelings, and tastes that they associate with that topic, and college people then use some of for a business plan their ideas to write a poem or short story. Students will write about the most exiting thing that ever happened to them (or make something up) and a journey by train they will choose words that really convey how exciting it was so that the for a business, reader will feel excited too. First students can practice alter 'tell sentences' to make them 'show sentences', and then they will practice this in their own writing. Variety is the Spice of Life. Playing with Sentences.

Dialogue with Sentence Focus. This exercise plays with literal and figurative meanings of puns. Students will go to on being, a website that lists popular puns and then will attempt to create a unique list of their own: http://examples.yourdictionary.com/examples-of-funny-puns-and-punny-funs.html. Students will listen to Martin Luther King's famous speech and with the refrain I have a dream and then without it, and discuss what difference it makes. Students will then think about financials business, what they hope for in their future or for the world and will write a series of paragraphs that begin with I dream or I sometimes dream. Students will look for figurative language in a passage of text and sort it into categories of simile, metaphor, or personification. Students are given a passage with three common mistakes: unnecessary repetition of key nouns, sentences that are all the same length, and flat language.

Students will discuss what is wrong with the passage and nancy mairs 50 essays a cripple be explicitly directed to financials business plan, rewrite the paragraph using fewer words, and for european (ces)/mellon completion fellowship then rewrite their new paragraph to financials, make it more interesting. Students are given examples of a 'when/then' sentence, a sentence beginning with 'to', and a sentence with a strong sense of contrast. After reading each the students will each write their own sentence that imitates the examples. Students will write a dialogue between two very different people; one who speaks in long sentences, and one who speaks in by train essay short short sentences. Financials Plan. The characters will have an by train argument, and by financials for a business plan, the end of the story, the argument should be resolved. Blueprint for the Future. Home Sweet Home. The teacher will give the mairs 50 essays, students a selection of intriguing sentence starters to choose from and students will practice writing an introduction.

Students will practice writing a strong concluding sentence. Students will be introduced to transitions such as, In conclusion, and In light of this evidence, and they will write a paragraph describing how they feel about a 'new' fictional homework policy requiring at least six hours of financials for a homework every weekend. Students will write two sharply focused paragraphs about the place where they live; one about the outside environment, and one about the inside environment. This can be done in tandem with a sense chart. These two paragraphs be linked together using transitions. Using a worksheet, students will unscramble the 50 essays, order in which sentences should go that have been extracted and reordered from two pieces of writing.

Students should sort them into financials business plan, columns A and B, and decide what the topic sentence and concluding sentences are for each group. On a separate piece of paper students will put the paragraphs together again, paying attention to in usa, the flow of logic and viewing transitions as clues. In a five paragraph essay students will discuss the merits of three kinds of candy or favorite snacks. The body of the paper will devote a full paragraph to a description of each kind of candy, using their five senses. Financials For A Plan. In the conclusion, the student should identify which kind of candy is the best. Students will write a five paragraph essay about something that they believe needs improvement. They will propose changes. They could write about something in their hometown, school, in a sport, in a food, a store, something on business television.

They should use what they've learned about brainstorming topics before writing an outline and writing. Stream of financials for a business plan Consciousness. Same Theme, Different Reader. Students will hear a story with strong voice, such as The True Story of the Three Little Pigs by Jon Sciezka, and discuss what makes the voice sound like the college about people, wolf's voice. Students will discuss how they know it's the wolf talking, and discuss the wolf's audience and word choice. Ask students to write a sentence on their own describing what they think happiness is, and what they think sadness is financials plan, (encourage use of coordinator letter similes, metaphors, and personification). Ask students to share and record their responses on a T Chart for the class to see, then compare and financials for a plan contrast the student answers. Make sure they understand that although they all wrote about the same subject, they all described it a different way, and council for european studies (ces)/mellon dissertation completion fellowship that's voice. Students will use a formal voice (not first person), to state an opinion about why their town/city/area/neighborhood, is a good or bad place to live. They will back up their opinion with examples.

The students will write a first person narrative about. a character who confesses to doing something. It can be a major crime or a minor crime. It can be humorous or dramatic. Students will write about anything on their mind until told to stop, not worrying about paragraphing, spelling, or grammar. They will write as quickly as they can, trying to get every thought on paper. If students get stuck, tell them to keep repeating their last word in their mind until a new image or thought comes. Some prompts may be I always remember, I hate, Yesterday I dreamt about. . This is to free them from structured writing and help them experience idea generation and language in a new way. Students will experiment with diction by writing about the financials for a business, same topic in two ways, in two paragraphs, for essays helping people two different audiences.

The first paragraph they should use formal diction, and the second they should use informal diction. They can describe something they have done recently. First, the teacher should read some sentences and have class discussion about financials, which sentences are formal and which are colloquial. Capital Letters Search. Twenty Odd Ducks. Eats, Shoots, and Leaves. Students will understand that adjectives describe nouns with this memorable activity. Students will choose noun at council for european studies (ces)/mellon dissertation, random, and then choose a fun adjective from a bag, and the students will create a picture of that adjective noun combination. This activity will require 3 people. Financials Plan. A sentence will be provided with several verbs missing. The student will then choose a secret word to fill it in, whisper the statistical services in usa, verb to another participant, and then it out for for a the 3rd person will then guess.

Students will listen to the story Eats, Shoots, and Leaves by event coordinator cover letter, Lynne Truss and financials for a plan then after class discussion, they will have pictures photocopies from the book and sentences to accompany them and they will try to fill in the punctuation to fit the picture. The teacher will read Twenty Odd Ducks by business, Lynne Truss to the students and the class will discuss what punctuation is for and why it's important. Students will go through a newspaper or some text and find the capital letters. They will then explain why those words had capital letters. Students will read a paper of theirs from the bottom, up, to better find errors. Middle School ELA. By: Tyler Phipps. 1. They have a hard time remembering. 2. They don't like to do ordinary, repetitive tasks. 3. For A Business Plan. They must talk to learn.

5. They aren't high school students yet. Give us a common language for feedback. It encourages students to corporate event coordinator cover, get into financials, a process mindset. It gives criteria for setting a standard. What have you seen not work with your kids when it comes to writing?? How students do not learn to a journey by train, write. Filling out work sheets and responding to financials for a plan, isolated drills. By writing infrequently.

By only completing assignments. By using only pencil and paper. By focusing exclusively on product. By writing about topics that they don't care about. By writing every day.

By using technology. By practicing in content. By writing for real purposes and on corporate cover TOPICS that matter to them. By writing to incorporate their EMOTIONS. What successes have you experienced with your kids. in terms of writing? A. Finding the topic. B. Focusing the topic. C. Developing the topic.

D. Using details. A. Applying strong verbs. B.Selecting striking words or phrases. C. Using specific and accurate words. D. Choosing words that deepen meaning. A. Crafting well-built sentences.

B. Financials. Varying sentence types. C. A Journey. Capturing smooth and rhythmic flow. D. Breaking the Rules to business plan, create fluency. A. Creating the council dissertation, lead. B. Using sequence words and transition words. C. Structuring the body. D. Ending with a sense of resolution. A. Establishing a tone.

B. Conveying purpose. C. Creating a connection to the audience. D. Taking risks to for a, create voice. A. Checking spelling. B. Punctuating effectively and paragraphing accurately. C. Capitalizing correctly.

D. Applying grammar and usage. A different approach, Paired Texts is typically done in one of two ways. A different approach where the focus is placed on the reading to develop your middle schoolers writing.

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28 Citations De » L’alchimiste » De Paulo Coelho. Financials For A. Lors de mes recherches pour l’ecriture d’un precedent article « 10 Livres Indispensables Sur Le Developpement Personnel », j’ai ete etonne de decouvrir que ce court roman apparaissait frequemment comme une reference parmi les livres a lire en rapport a l’epanouissement. Essays Helping. Je restai plus que perplexe ; Qu’est ce qu’un roman pouvait bien apporter de tellement fort au point de figurer parmi les 10 ou 20 livres les plus important aux cotes de Napoleon Hill et Tony Robbins? Je decidai donc de me procurer une copie de « L’alchimiste » de Paulo Coelho. Je fus completement transporte. J’ai devore ce livre l’alchimiste en deux nuits et en suis ressorti plus motive que jamais. Financials Business. Le livre parle de voyages, de magie, de la poursuite de vos reves et de comment trouver l’amour dans des endroits inattendus. A Journey By Train Essay. Paulo Coelho partage une histoire incroyable, rempli de puissants conseils que n’importe qui peut appliquer afin d’ameliorer la qualite de son existence. For A. Je ne veux pas vous gacher votre experience. C’est donc tout ce que j’en dirais hormis ces 28 citations provenant du livre qui ne pourront que vous donner l’envie de courir vous en procurer un exemplaire.

28 Citations de » L’alchimiste » de Paulo Coelho. Essay. 2. Business. « Rien ne l#8217;empechait, sinon lui-meme. » 3. « Dans la vie, tout est signe. Agri Business. » Paulo Coelho. For A Plan. 4. 50 Essays. « Lorsqu’une chose evolue, tout ce qui est autour evolue de meme. » 5. Plan. « Le desert est une femme capricieuse, qui parfois rend les hommes fous. On Being. » 6. For A Plan. « Quand on veut une chose, tout l’Univers conspire a nous permettre de realiser notre reve. » 7. « On ne peut se fier a un homme si l’on ne connait pas la maison qu’il habite. » 8. Dissertation. « Les hommes revent du retour plus que du depart. Financials For A Business Plan. » Paulo Coelho. 9. Corporate Event Letter. « Une quete commence toujours par la chance du debutant. Et s’acheve toujours par l’epreuve du conquerant. Financials For A Plan. » 10. Essays About Helping People. « Personne ne peut fuir son coeur. Business. C’est pourquoi il vaut mieux ecouter ce qu’il dit. A Journey Essay Short. » Paulo Coelho. Business. 11. Nancy Mairs 50 Essays On Being A Cripple. « L’heure la plus sombre est celle qui vient juste avant le lever du soleil. » 12. « Peut-etre Dieu a-t-il cree le desert pour que l’homme puisse se rejouir a la vue des palmiers. Business. » 13. « Il n’y a qu’une chose qui puisse rendre un reve impossible, c’est la peur d’echouer. » 14. « Si tu t’en vas en promettant ce que tu ne possedes pas encore, tu perdras l’envie de l’obtenir. People. » 15. Financials. « Quand nous avons de grands tresors sous les yeux, nous ne nous en apercevons jamais. Corporate Coordinator. Et sais-tu pourquoi ? Parce que les hommes ne croient pas aux tresors. Plan. » 16. Dissertation Services In Usa. « C’est justement la possibilite de realiser un reve qui rend la vie interessante. » Paulo Coelho. 17. « Quand quelqu’un prend une decision, il se plonge en fait dans un courant impetueux qui l#8217;emporte vers une destination qu’il n’a jamais entrevue, meme en reve. » 18. Financials For A Business Plan. « A un moment donne de notre existence, nous perdons la maitrise de notre vie, qui se trouve des lors gouvernee par le destin. C’est la qu’est la plus grande imposture du monde. Essay. » 19. Financials For A. « En general, la mort fait que l’on devient plus attentif a la vie. Short. » Paulo Coelho. 20. Plan. « Ecoute ton coeur.

Il connait toute chose, parce qu’il vient de l’Ame du Monde, et qu’un jour il y retournera. Council For European Studies Fellowship. » 21. For A Business. « On ne s’apercoit pas toujours que l’on parcourt chaque jour un nouveau chemin. » 22. Short. « C’est justement la possibilite de realiser un reve qui rend la vie interessante. For A Plan. » 23. « Ne t’abandonne pas au desespoir #8230; Cela t#8217;empeche de pouvoir converser avec ton coeur. » Paulo Coelho. 24. Dissertation Statistical In Usa. « Ils ont peur de realiser leurs plus grands reves, parce qu’ils croient ne pas meriter d’y arriver, ou ne pas pouvoir y parvenir. » 25. Financials Business. « Alors, pourquoi dois-je ecouter mon coeur? Parce que tu n’arriveras jamais a le faire taire Et meme si tu feins de ne pas entendre ce qu’il te dit, il sera la, dans ta poitrine, et ne cessera de repeter ce qu’il pense de la vie et du monde. Services In Usa. » Paulo Coelho. 26. Financials For A Plan. « Si tu ameliores le present, ce qui viendra ensuite sera egalement meilleur. College About Helping People. » 27. Financials Plan. « Quand on corporate cover, ne peut revenir en arriere, on financials for a business, ne doit se preoccuper que de la meilleure maniere d’aller de l’avant. Statistical Services In Usa. » 28. For A. « Il eut soudain le sentiment qu’il pouvait regarder le monde soit comme la malheureuse victime d’un voleur, soit comme un aventurier en quete d’un tresor. » Paulo Coelho. For European (ces)/mellon Dissertation Completion Fellowship. Avez-vous lu » L’alchimiste « ? Qu’en avez-vous pense?

Les derniers articles par Olivier Charles (tout voir) Problemes De Sommeil ? Voici Ce Que La Science Nous Conseille - 17 septembre 2017 6 Films Sur Le Developpement Personnel Et Bien-etre a Voir Absolument - 27 juillet 2017 Comment Detecter Le Mensonge : Le Visage Decrypte - 4 juillet 2017. Financials. 37 Citations de Dwayne Johnson « The Rock » Pour Rester Motive. Nancy. 22 Des Meilleures Citations De Mark Twain Sur Le Developpement Personnel. Plan. 27 Citations Inspirantes Du Livre Reflechissez Et Devenez Riche Napoleon Hill. Dissertation. Tres belle citation du livre qui est passionnant et tellement motivant ! Ce livre devrait etre etudie a l’ecole. Financials. C’est le genre de bouquin qui fait aimer la lecture et nous pousse a vivre pleinement notre vie. Un livre particulierement fantastique. Je l’ai lu plusieurs fois sans me lasser. Plan. Une vraie lecon de vie. Plan. Ma citation preferee C est le numero 6 « quand on for european completion fellowship, veut une chose, tout l’univers conspire a nous permettre de realiser notre reve » Merci et meilleur a vous.

Bonjour Olivier et merci pour ces magnifiques citations. Cela me donne envie de relire le livre. For A Business. Tout y est ! L’etat d’esprit du guerrier de lumiere qui se connecte a ce pour quoi il vit et se donne corps et ame a cette mission. L’art de vivre pleinement avec enthousiasme et lacher-prise#8230; vous avez entierement raison moi aussi j ai lu l alchimiste l’ete passe et ce qui m’a plus c ‘etait la tenacite et le courage de Santiago , un homme optimiste,cherchant toujours a savourer et tirer profit du moment present.

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consumerism essay Frequently brilliant. #151;Publishers Weekly. Perhaps the most unfashionable man ever to financials for a business plan, appear in Details. #151;Roger Trilling, Details. [Frank is] perhaps the most provocative young cultural critic of the moment, and certainly the most malcontent.#151; The New York Times. An indispensable book that is so retro it's the closest thing our culture has seen to hip. Essay! . . . Superb and immensely readable. . . . With The Conquest of Cool , Frank#151;brilliant, excoriating and wickedly funny#151;assumes the mantle of the preeminent cultural critic of financials for a business his generation.#151;Tom Grimes, Houston Chronicle. This is a powerful and important argument. . . The Conquest of Cool helps us understand why, throughout the last third of the 20th century, Americans have increasingly confused gentility with conformity, irony with protest, and an extended middle finger with a populist manifesto. . . Mairs! . For A Business! Frank deftly shows the myriad ways that advertising has redefined radicalism by conflating it with in-your-face consumerism. . Council For European Studies (ces)/mellon Dissertation Fellowship! . . His voice is an for a plan exciting addition to the soporific public discourse of the late 20th century.#151;Jackson Lears, In These Times. Frank is a leading Gen-X cynic.

His favorite target: how corporate America forces conformity on the masses.#151; Newsweek , 100 Americans for the Next Century Oldsmobile, 1961: detroit's utopian imagination. For more of Thomas Frank, visit The Baffler website. The Conquest of Cool. Business Culture, Counterculture, and the Rise of Hip Consumerism. by Thomas Frank. Why do this kind of advertising if not to incite people to college essays about people, riot?#151;Nike copywriter, 1996. of commerce and counterculture. F or as long as America is torn by culture wars, the financials business plan, 1960s will remain the historical terrain of conflict. Although popular memories of that era are increasingly vague and council for european completion fellowship, generalized#151;the stuff of classic rock radio and commemorative television replayings of the 1968 Chicago riot footage#151;we understand the sixties almost instinctively as the decade of the big change, the birthplace of our own culture, the for a plan, homeland of hip, an era of which the tastes and discoveries and passions, however obscure their origins, have somehow determined the completion fellowship, world in which we are condemned to live. For many, the world with which the sixties left us is a distinctly unhappy one.

While acknowledging the successes of the civil rights and for a business, antiwar movements, scholarly accounts of the decade, bearing titles like Coming Apart and The Unraveling of America , generally depict the sixties as a ten-year fall from grace, the loss of council studies (ces)/mellon dissertation completion fellowship a golden age of consensus, the end of an edenic epoch of shared values and for a plan, safe centrism. This vision of social decline, though, is essays about helping positively rosy compared with the fire-breathing historical accusations of more recent years. For Allan Bloom, recounting with still-raw bitterness in financials for a plan, his best-selling The Closing of the American Mind the student uprising and the faculty capitulation at Cornell in statistical services in usa, 1969, the misdeeds of the campus New Left were an intellectual catastrophe comparable only with the experiences of German professors under the Nazis. So far as universities are concerned, he writes in his chapter entitled, The Sixties, I know of nothing positive coming from that period; it was an unmitigated disaster for them. Lines like Whether it be Nuremberg or Woodstock, the financials for a plan, principle is the same, and Bloom's characterization of Cornell's then-president as of the moral stamp of those who were angry with Poland for resisting Hitler because this precipitated the war, constituted for several years the high watermark of agri anti-sixties bluster. But later texts topped even this. By 1996 it had become fashionable to extend the blame for unhappy events in the academy that Bloom heaped on financials for a plan the sixties to the demise of civility and, taking off from there, for virtually everything that could be said to be wrong about event coordinator, America generally. Financials For A! For Robert Bork, the sixties accomplished nothing less than sending America Slouching Towards Gomorrah: thanks to the decade's revolutionary nihilism and the craven Establishment's surrender, cultural radicals and their ideology are all around us now (a fantasy of defeat which, although Bork doesn't seem to realize it, rephrases Jerry Rubin's 1971 fantasy of corporate letter revolution, We Are Everywhere ). Political figures on the right, waxing triumphal in the aftermath of the 1994 elections, also identify the sixties, a term which they use interchangeably with the counterculture, as the source of every imaginable species of the for a business, social blight from which they have undertaken to rescue the nation. Republican speechwriter Peggy Noonan puts the fall from agri grace directly, exhorting readers of a recent volume of conservative writing to business, remember your boomer childhood in (ces)/mellon completion fellowship, the towns and suburbs when you were safe and the cities were better, back before society strained and cracked, in the storms of sixties selfishness.

Former history professor Newt Gingrich is the most assiduous and prominent antagonist of the sixties, imagining it as a time of countercultural McGoverniks, whom he holds responsible not only for the demise of traditional values and for a plan, the various deeds of the New Left, but (illogically and anachronistically) for the hated policies of the Great Society as well. Journalist Fred Barnes outlines a theory of American history related to agri business, him by Gingrich. in which the 1960s represent a crucial break, a discontinuity. From 1607 down till 1965, there is a core pattern to American history. Here's how we did it until the Great Society messed everything up: don't work, don't eat; your salvation is spiritual; the business plan, government by definition can't save you; governments are into maintenance and all good reforms are into transformation. Then, from 1965 to 1994, we did strange and weird things as a country. Now we're done with that and we have to recover. The counterculture is business plan a momentary aberration in American history that will be looked back upon as a quaint period of Bohemianism brought to the national elite. The conservatives' version of the sixties is not without interest, particularly when it is an financials for a plan account of a given person's revulsion from the culture of an agri business era. Their usefulness as history, however, is undermined by their insistence on understanding the sixties as a causal force in and of itself and business plan, their curious blurring of the lines between various historical actors: counterculture equals Great Society equals New Left equals the sixties generation, all of them driven by some mysterious impulse to tear down Western Civilization. Bork is particularly given to nancy mairs 50 essays on being a cripple, such slipshod historiography, imagining at one point that the sixties won't even stay put in for a, the 1960s.

It was a malignant decade, he writes, that, after a fifteen-year remission, returned in the 1980s to metastasize more devastatingly throughout our culture than it had in the Sixties, not with tumult but quietly, in the moral and political assumptions of those who now control and guide our major cultural institutions. The closest Bork, Bloom, Gingrich, and their colleagues will come to explanations is to revive one of several creaking devices: the sixties as a moral drama of millennialist utopians attempting to work their starry-eyed will in the real world, the sixties as a time of excessive affluence, the sixties as a time of council studies (ces)/mellon dissertation completion fellowship imbalance in the eternal war between the financials plan, generations, or the sixties as the by train essay, fault of financials for a plan Dr. Spock, who persuaded American parents in the lost fifties to pamper their children excessively. Despite its shortcomings, the conservatives' vision of sixties-as-catastrophe has achieved a certain popular success. Both Bloom's and Bork's books were best-sellers. And a mere mention of hippies or the sixties is event coordinator cover capable of arousing in some quarters an astonishing amount of for a business rage against what many still imagine to have been an era of corporate coordinator cover letter cultural treason. In the white suburban Midwest, one happens so frequently across declarations of sixties- and hippie-hatred that the posture begins to seem a sort of plan historiographical prerequisite to nancy 50 essays a cripple, being middle class and of a certain age; in the nation's politics, sixties- and hippie-bashing remains a trump card only slightly less effective than red-baiting was in for a, earlier times.

One bit of political ephemera that darkened a 1996 congressional race in south Chicago managed to appeal to both hatreds at a journey essay once, tarring a Democratic candidate as the nephew of financials business a bona fide communist and the choice of the still-hated California hippies, representatives of whom (including one photograph of Ken Kesey's famous bus, Further) are pictured protesting, tripping, dancing, and agri, carrying signs for the Democrat in question. In mass culture, dark images of the treason and excess of the 1960s are not difficult to find. The fable of the financials for a plan, doubly-victimized soldiers in Vietnam, betrayed first by liberals and essays people, doves in government and then spat upon by members of the indistinguishable New Left/Counterculture has been elevated to cultural archetype by business the Rambo movies and a journey by train essay, has since become such a routine trope that its invocation#151;and the resulting outrage#151;requires only the mouthing of a few standard references. The exceedingly successful 1994 movie Forrest Gump transformed into financials for a archetype the rest of the conservatives' understanding of the nancy mairs on being a cripple, decade, depicting youth movements of the sixties in a particularly malevolent light and their leaders (a demagogue modeled on Abbie Hoffman, a sinister group of Black Panthers, and an SDS commissar who is attired, after Bloom's interpretation, in a Nazi tunic) as diabolical charlatans, architects of a national madness from which the movie's characters only recover under the benevolent presidency of Ronald Reagan. But stay tuned for just a moment longer and a different myth of the counterculture and its meaning crosses the screen.

Regardless of the financials for a, tastes of Republican leaders, rebel youth culture remains the cultural mode of the corporate moment, used to promote not only specific products but the general idea of life in the cyber-revolution. Commercial fantasies of rebellion, liberation, and outright revolution against the stultifying demands of agri plan mass society are commonplace almost to the point of invisibility in advertising, movies, and television programming. For some, Ken Kesey's parti-colored bus may be a hideous reminder of national unraveling, but for Coca-Cola it seemed a perfect promotional instrument for its Fruitopia line, and the company has proceeded to send replicas of the bus around the for a plan, country to generate interest in the counterculturally themed beverage. Council (ces)/mellon Dissertation Completion! Nike shoes are sold to the accompaniment of words delivered by William S. For A Business! Burroughs and songs by The Beatles, Iggy Pop, and Gil Scott Heron (the revolution will not be televised); peace symbols decorate a line of cigarettes manufactured by R. J. Reynolds and the walls and (ces)/mellon completion, windows of Starbucks coffee shops nationwide; the products of Apple, IBM, and Microsoft are touted as devices of liberation; and for a business, advertising across the product category sprectrum calls upon consumers to break rules and find themselves. The music industry continues to rejuvenate itself with the periodic discovery of new and evermore subversive youth movements and our televisual marketplace is a 24-hour carnival, a showplace of corporate event coordinator letter transgression and inversion of values, of financials for a business plan humiliated patriarchs and shocked puritans, of council studies dissertation completion fellowship screaming guitars and concupiscent youth, of fashions that are uniformly defiant, of cars that violate convention and shoes that let us be us. A host of self-designated corporate revolutionaries, outlining the accelerated new capitalist order in magazines like Wired and Fast Company, gravitate naturally to financials business plan, the imagery of rebel youth culture to dramatize their own insurgent vision. This version of the countercultural myth is so pervasive that it appears even in the very places where the historical counterculture is being maligned. Just as Newt Gingrich hails an individualistic revolution while tirading against the counterculture, Forrest Gump features a soundtrack of rock 'n' roll music, John Lennon and Elvis Presley appearing in their usual roles as folk heroes, and two carnivalesque episodes in event coordinator cover, which Gump meets heads of state, avails himself grotesquely of their official generosity (consuming fifteen bottles of White House soda in one scene), and for a business, confides to them the tribulations of his nether regions.

He even bares his ass to Lyndon Johnson, perhaps the ultimate countercultural gesture. However the conservatives may froth, this second myth comes much closer to what academics and responsible writers accept as the standard account of the decade. Mainstream culture was tepid, mechanical, and uniform; the revolt of the young against it was a joyous and even a glorious cultural flowering, though it quickly became mainstream itself. Rick Perlstein has summarized this standard version of what went on in the sixties as the declension hypothesis, a tale in which, as the Fifties grayly droned on, springs of contrarian sentiment began bubbling into the best minds of a generation raised in essays, unprecedented prosperity but well versed in the existential subversions of the Beats and Mad magazine. The story ends with the financials business, noble idealism of the New Left in a journey short, ruins and the counterculture sold out to Hollywood and the television networks. So natural has this standard version of the countercultural myth come to seem that it required little explanation when, on the twenty-fifth anniversary of the historical counterculture's greatest triumph, a group of cultural speculators and commercial backers (Pepsi-Cola prominent among them) joined forces to business plan, put on a second Woodstock. But this time the commercial overtones were just a little too pronounced, and services in usa, journalists rained down abuse on the venture#151;not because it threatened traditional values but because it defiled the memory of the for a, apotheosized original. Woodstock II was said to be a simple act of exploitation, a degraded carnival of corporate logos, endorsements, and product-placement while the about people, 1969 festival was sentimentally recalled as an event of youthful innocence and financials for a plan, idealistic glory.

Conflicting though they may seem, the college about people, two stories of for a plan sixties culture agree on a number of essay short basic points. Both assume quite naturally that the counterculture was what it said it was; that is, a fundamental opponent of the capitalist order. Both foes and partisans assume, further, that the counterculture is the appropriate symbol#151;if not the actual historical cause#151;for the big cultural shifts that transformed the United States and that permanently rearranged Americans' cultural priorities. They also agree that these changes constituted a radical break or rupture with existing American mores, that they were just as transgressive and financials for a, as menacing and as revolutionary as countercultural participants believed them to be. Essay! More crucial for our purposes here, all sixties narratives place the stories of the groups that are believed to business, have been so transgressive and revolutionary at their center; American business culture is thought to essays helping people, have been peripheral, if it's mentioned at all. Other than the occasional purveyor of stereotype and conspiracy theory, virtually nobody has shown much interest in telling the story of the executives or suburbanites who awoke one day to financials for a, find their authority challenged and paradigms problematized. And whether the narrators of the sixties story are conservatives or radicals, they tend to assume that business represented a static, unchanging body of by train faiths, goals, and practices, a background of muted, uniform gray against financials for a business plan, which the counterculture went through its colorful chapters. But the actual story is quite a bit messier. The cultural changes that would become identified as counterculture began well before 1960, with roots deep in bohemian and romantic thought, and the era of upheaval persisted long after 1970 rolled around. Agri Business! And while nearly every account of the decade's youth culture describes it as a reaction to the stultifying economic and cultural environment of the postwar years, almost none have noted how that context#151;the world of business and of middle-class mores#151;was itself changing during the 1960s. The 1960s was the era of Vietnam, but it was also the high watermark of American prosperity and a time of fantastic ferment in managerial thought and corporate practice.

Postwar American capitalism was hardly the unchanging and soulless machine imagined by countercultural leaders; it was as dynamic a force in its own way as the revolutionary youth movements of the period, undertaking dramatic transformations of both the way it operated and financials, the way it imagined itself. But business history has been largely ignored in accounts of the nancy mairs 50 essays on being, cultural upheaval of the 1960s. This is financials for a unfortunate, because at the heart of every interpretation of the counterculture is coordinator letter a very particular#151;and very questionable#151;understanding of corporate ideology and financials for a business, of business practice. According to the standard story, business was the monolithic bad guy who had caused America to become a place of puritanical conformity and empty consumerism; business was the great symbolic foil against college essays about helping people, which the business plan, young rebels defined themselves; business was the force of irredeemable evil lurking behind the college essays about, orderly lawns of suburbia and the nefarious deeds of the Pentagon. Although there are a few accounts of the sixties in which the two are thought to be synchronized in a cosmic sense (Jerry Rubin often wrote about the joys of watching television and expressed an interest in making commercials; Tom Wolfe believes that Ken Kesey's countercultural aesthetic derived from the consumer boom of the fifties), for the vast majority of countercultural sympathizers, the only relationship between the two was one of hostility.

And from its very beginnings down to the present, business dogged the counterculture with a fake counterculture, a commercial replica that seemed to ape its every move for financials, the titillation of the TV-watching millions and the nation's corporate sponsors. Every rock band with a substantial following was immediately honored with a host of imitators; the 1967 summer of love was as much a product of lascivious television specials and Life magazine stories as it was an expression of youthful disaffection; Hearst launched a psychedelic magazine in 1968; and even hostility to co-optation had a desperately authentic shadow, documented by a famous 1968 print ad for college essays helping, Columbia Records titled But The Man Can't Bust Our Music. So oppressive was the climate of national voyeurism that, as early as the fall of 1967, the San Francisco Diggers had held a funeral for Hippie, devoted son of mass media. This book is a study of co-optation rather than counterculture, an analysis of the for a plan, forces and logic that made rebel youth cultures so attractive to corporate decision-makers rather than a study of those cultures themselves. In doing so, it risks running afoul of what I will call the co-optation theory: faith in the revolutionary potential of authentic counterculture combined with the notion that business mimics and mass-produces fake counterculture in order to cash in on a particular demographic and to subvert the 50 essays, great threat that real counterculture represents. Who Built America?, the textbook produced by the American Social History project, includes a reproduction of the now-infamous Man Can't Bust Our Music ad and this caption summary of co-optation theory: If you can't beat 'em, absorb 'em.

The text below explains the phenomenon as a question of demographics and financials business plan, savvy marketing, as a marker of the dissertation, moment when Record companies, clothing manufacturers, and other purveyors of consumer goods quickly recognized a new market. The ill-fated ad is also reproduced as an object of financials business mockery in underground journalist Abe Peck's book on the decade and mentioned in countless other sixties narratives. Council Studies (ces)/mellon Dissertation Completion! Unfortunately, though, the weaknesses of this historical faith are many and critical, and the argument made in these pages tends more to stress these inadequacies than to uphold the myths of financials authenticity and co-optation. Apart from certain obvious exceptions at either end of the coordinator cover, spectrum of commodification (represented, say, by the MC-5 at one end and the Monkees at the other) it was and remains difficult to distinguish precisely between authentic counterculture and fake: by almost every account, the financials plan, counterculture, as a mass movement distinct from the bohemias that preceded it, was triggered at least as much by developments in mass culture (particularly the arrival of essays people The Beatles in for a business plan, 1964) as changes at the grass roots. Its heroes were rock stars and rebel celebrities, millionaire performers and employees of the culture industry; its greatest moments occurred on dissertation statistical in usa television, on the radio, at rock concerts, and in movies. From a distance of for a business thirty years, its language and music seem anything but the authentic populist culture they yearned so desperately to be: from contrived cursing to saintly communalism to the embarrassingly faked Woody Guthrie accents of Bob Dylan and to the astoundingly pretentious works of groups like Iron Butterfly and The Doors, the relics of the counterculture reek of affectation and phoniness, the leisure-dreams of white suburban children like those who made up so much of the people, Grateful Dead's audience throughout the for a business, 1970s and 1980s. This is a study of business thought, but in its consequences it is necessarily a study of cultural dissent as well: its promise, its meaning, its possibilities, and, most important, its limitations.

And it is, above all, the story of the bohemian cultural style's trajectory from adversarial to hegemonic; the story of council for european studies completion hip's mutation from native language of the alienated to that of advertising. It is more than a little odd that, in financials for a plan, this age of nuance and negotiated readings, we lack a serious history of co-optation, one that understands corporate thought as something other than a cartoon. Statistical Services In Usa! Co-optation remains something we vilify almost automatically; the historical particulars which permit or discourage co-optation#151;or even the obvious fact that some things are co-opted while others are not#151;are simply not addressed. Regardless of whether the financials for a plan, co-opters deserve our vilification or not, the process by which they make rebel subcultures their own is clearly an important element of agri plan contemporary life. Financials! And while the event letter, ways in business plan, which business anticipated and reacted to the youth culture of the 1960s may not reveal much about the individual experiences of countercultural participants, examining them closely does allow a more critical perspective on the phenomenon of co-optation, as well as on the value of certain strategies of cultural confrontation, and, ultimately, on the historical meaning of the cover letter, counterculture. To begin to take co-optation seriously is instantly to discard one of the basic shibboleths of for a plan sixties historiography. Agri! As it turns out, many in American business, particularly in the two industries studied here, imagined the counterculture not as an enemy to be undermined or a threat to consumer culture but as a hopeful sign, a symbolic ally in their own struggles against the mountains of dead-weight procedure and hierarchy that had accumulated over the years. In the late 1950s and for a business, early 1960s, leaders of the advertising and menswear businesses developed a critique of their own industries, of over-organization and creative dullness, that had much in common with the nancy mairs 50 essays on being, critique of mass society which gave rise to the counterculture. Like the young insurgents, people in more advanced reaches of the American corporate world deplored conformity, distrusted routine, and encouraged resistance to established power. They welcomed the youth-led cultural revolution not because they were secretly planning to financials for a business plan, subvert it or even because they believed it would allow them to tap a gigantic youth market (although this was, of course, a factor), but because they perceived in corporate event coordinator, it a comrade in their own struggles to revitalize American business and the consumer order generally. If American capitalism can be said to have spent the 1950s dealing in conformity and financials business, consumer fakery, during the decade that followed, it would offer the public authenticity, individuality, difference, and rebellion.

If we really want to understand American culture in the sixties, we must acknowledge at least the possibility that the co-opters had it right, that Madison Avenue's vision of the counterculture was in some ways correct. A dvertising and menswear, the two industries with which this book are directly concerned, were deeply caught up in both the corporate and cultural changes that defined the sixties. The story in men's clothing is simple enough and is often cited as an indicator of changing times along with movies, novels, and popular music: the fifties are remembered, rather stereotypically, as a time of gray flannel dullness, while the sixties were an era of sartorial gaudiness. The change in the nation's advertising is less frequently remembered as one of the important turning points between the fifties and sixties, but the changes here were, if anything, even more remarkable, more significant, and took place slightly earlier than those in dissertation in usa, music and youth culture. Both industries were on the cutting edge of the shifts in corporate practice in the 1960s, and both were also conspicuous users of countercultural symbolism#151;they were, if you will, the leading lights of co-optation. But both industries' reaction to youth culture during the sixties was more complex than that envisioned by the co-optation theory. Both menswear and advertising were paralyzed by financials business similar problems in the 1950s: they suffered from a species of creative doldrums, an inability to move beyond the conventions they had invented for themselves and to tap into that wellspring of American economic dynamism that Fortune called the permanent revolution. Both industries underwent revolutions in their own right during the 1960s, with vast changes in corporate practice, in productive flexibility, and especially in that intangible phenomenon known as creativity#151;and in both cases well before the counterculture appeared on the mass-media scene. In the decade that followed, both industries found a similar solution to their problems: a commercial version of the mass society theory that made of alienation a motor for fashion.

Seeking a single metaphor by which to characterize the accelerated obsolescence and enhanced consumer friendliness to change which were their goals, leaders in both fields had already settled on nancy on being youth and youthfulness several years before saturation TV and print coverage of the summer of love introduced middle America to the fabulous new lifestyles of the young generation. Then, in financials business, 1967 and 1968, advertising and menswear executives seized upon the counterculture as the preeminent symbol of the revolution in corporate event letter, which they were engaged, embellishing both their trade literature and financials for a business plan, their products with images of rebellious, individualistic youth. Event Cover Letter! While leaders of both industries appreciated the demographic bonanza that the baby boom represented, their concentration on the symbols of first youth and then culture-rebel owed more to new understandings of consumption and business culture than to a desire to sell the kids. Financials For A Plan! The counterculture served corporate revolutionaries as a projection of the new ideology of business, a living embodiment of plan attitudes that reflected their own. In its hostility to established tastes, the counterculture seemed to be preparing young people to rebel against whatever they had patronized before and to financials for a plan, view the cycles of the new without the suspicion of earlier eras. Its simultaneous craving for authenticity and suspicion of tradition seemed to make the counterculture an ideal vehicle for a vast sea-change in American consuming habits. Through its symbols and myths, leaders of the menswear and advertising industries imagined a consumerism markedly different from its 1950s permutation, a hip consumerism driven by council for european dissertation completion disgust with mass society itself. Capitalism was entering the for a plan, space age in the sixties, and mairs, Organization Man was a drag not only as a parent, but as an financials for a plan executive. The old values of caution, deference, and hierarchy drowned creativity and denied flexibility; they enervated not only the human spirit but the consuming spirit and the entrepreneurial spirit as well.

And when business leaders cast their gaze onto event cover letter, the youth culture bubbling around them, they saw both a reflection of their own struggle against the stifling bureaucracy of the past and an affirmation of financials a dynamic new consuming order that would replace the council studies dissertation fellowship, old. For these business thinkers, the cultural revolution that has come to be symbolized by the counterculture seemed an affirmation of their own revolutionary faiths, a reflection of their own struggles to call their corporate colleagues into step with the chaotic and frenetically changing economic universe. The revolutions in menswear and advertising#151;as well as the larger revolution in corporate thought#151;ran out of steam when the great postwar prosperity collapsed in the early 1970s. In a larger sense, though, the business plan, corporate revolution of the 1960s never ended. In the early 1990s, while the nation was awakening to the realities of the hyperaccelerated global information economy, the language of the business revolution of the sixties (and even some of the dissertation, individuals who led it) made a triumphant return. Although on the surface menswear seemed to have settled back into for a placidity, the reputation of the designers and creative rebels who made their first appearance during the decade of dissertation in usa revolt were at their zenith in business, the 1990s; men's clothes were again being presented to the public as emblems of nonconformity; and the magazines which most prominently equated style with rebellion ( Details and GQ, the latter of which had been founded at the opening of the earlier revolution in 1957) were enjoying great success. The hottest advertising agencies of the late 1980s and early 1990s were, again, the small creative firms; a new company of creative rebels came to dominate the profession; and advertising that offered to help consumers overcome their alienation, to facilitate their nonconformity, and which celebrated rule-breaking and insurrection became virtually ubiquitous. Most important, the corporate theory of the 1990s makes explicit references to dissertation services in usa, sixties management theory and the experiences of the counterculture. Like the laid-back executives who personify it, the plan, ideology of information capitalism is by train essay a child of the 1960s; the intervening years of the 1970s and 1980s may have delayed the financials for a plan, revolution, but they hardly defused its urgency. Placing the culture of the 1960s in this corporate context does little to support any of the standard countercultural myths, nor does it affirm the consensual notion of the 1960s as a time of mairs a cripple fundamental cultural confrontation. It suggests instead that the counterculture may be more accurately understood as a stage in the development of the values of the American middle class, a colorful installment in financials for a business, the twentieth century drama of consumer subjectivity.

This is not, of course, a novel interpretation: in the 1960s and 1970s it was a frequent plaint among writers who insisted that the counterculture was apolitical and self-indulgent, or, when it did spill over into obviously political manifestations, confused and anarchistic. This critique of cultural liberation even extends back to coordinator cover, the late 1950s, when Delmore Schwartz reacted to the rise of the Beats by pointing out that the attack of the san francisco howlers on the conformism of the organization man, the advertising executive, the man in the grey flannel suit, or the man in the brooks brothers suit was. a form of shadow boxing because the Man in the Brooks Brothers suit is himself, in his own home, very often what [Bertrand] Russell has called an upper Bohemian. His conformism is financials for a business plan limited to the office day and council, business hours: in private life#151;and at heart#151;he is as Bohemian as anyone else. Financials Business Plan! Michael Harrington described the counterculture in 1972 as a massification of the bohemia in which he had spent his youth, an in usa assumption of the values of Greenwich Village by the decidedly nonrevolutionary middle class. For A Business Plan! i wonder if the mass counterculture may not be a reflection of the very hyped and video-taped world it professes to despise, he wrote. Bohemia could not survive the passing of its polar opposite essay and precondition, middle-class morality.

Free love and all-night drinking and art for art's sake were consequences of a single stern imperative: thou shalt not be bourgeois. But once the bourgeoisie itself became decadent#151;once businessmen started hanging nonobjective art in the boardroom#151;Bohemia was deprived of the business, stifling atmosphere without which it could not breathe. Others understood the counterculture explicitly in terms of accelerating consumer culture and the crisis in corporate thought. having professed their disdain for middle-class values, wrote novelist and a journey by train essay short, adman Earl Shorris in 1967, the hippies indulge in them without guilt. Shorris envisioned the counterculture not as a movement promising fundamental transformation but as an expression of a solidly middle-class dream: The preponderance of financials business plan hippies come from the statistical services, middle class, because it is financials for a business there even among adults that the illusion of the hippies' joy, free love, purity and drug excitement is strongest. A man grown weary of singing company songs at I.B.M. picnics, feeling guilty about the profits he has made on defense stocks, who hasn't really loved his wife for 10 years, must admire, envy and wish for essay short, a life of financials business love and contemplation, a simple life leading to a beatific peace. He soothes his despair with the possibility that the statistical services, hippies have found the answers to problems he does not dare to face. In a famously cynical essay that appeared in for a plan, Ramparts in 1967, Warren Hinckle pointed out that, for a journey short, all the rhetoric of alienation, the inhabitants of the Haight-Ashbury were brand name conscious and frantic consumers. In this commercial sense, the hippies have not only accepted assimilation . . Financials Plan! . , they have swallowed it whole. The hippie culture is in many ways a prototype of the most ephemeral aspects of the larger American society; if the services, people looking in from the suburbs want change, clothes, fun, and financials, some lightheadedness from the new gypsies, the hippies are delivering#151;and some of them are becoming rich hippies because of it.

Looking back in 1974, Marshall Berman directly equated cultural liberation in the sixties sense with dynamic economic growth. Andrew Ross pointed out in essay, 1989 that this curiously ambivalent relationship with consumerism has always been the plan, defining characteristic of hip: an essentially agnostic cult of a journey style worship, hip is financials business plan concerned more with advanced knowledge about the illegitimate, and about, staying one step ahead of the financials business plan, consuming crowd than with any ideology of good community faith. Nor did those who were the completion, counterculture's putative enemies feel that it posed much of a threat to the core values of consumer capitalism. On the contrary, they found that it affirmed those values in certain crucial ways, providing American business with a system of easy symbols with which they could express their own needs and solve the financials business plan, intractable cultural problems they had encountered during the 1950s. The counterculture has long since outlived the enthusiasm of its original participants and 50 essays on being, become a more or less permanent part of the American scene, a symbolic and musical language for the endless cycles of rebellion and for a plan, transgression that make up so much of our mass culture. With leisure-time activities of consuming redefined as rebellion, two of late capitalism's great problems could easily be met: obsolescence found a new and more convincing language, and citizens could symbolically resolve the contradiction between their role as consumers and their role as producers. The countercultural style has become a permanent fixture on the American scene, impervious to the angriest assaults of cultural and political conservatives, because it so conveniently and efficiently transforms the myriad petty tyrannies of economic life#151;all the complaints about council (ces)/mellon dissertation fellowship, conformity, oppression, bureaucracy, meaninglessness, and the disappearance of individualism that became virtually a national obsession during the 1950s#151;into rationales for consuming. No longer would Americans buy to fit in or impress the Joneses, but to demonstrate that they were wise to the game, to express their revulsion with the business, artifice and conformity of consumerism. The enthusiastic discovery of the nancy mairs on being a cripple, counterculture by the branches of American business studied here marked the consolidation of a new species of hip consumerism, a cultural perpetual motion machine in which disgust with the financials for a plan, falseness, shoddiness, and everyday oppressions of consumer society could be enlisted to dissertation statistical services, drive the ever-accelerating wheels of consumption.

Both of the industries studied here are often written about in quasi-conspiratorial terms. Business Plan! Many Americans apparently believe advertising works because it contains magic subliminals; others sneer at fashion as an insidious plot orchestrated by agri plan a Paris-New York cabal. Both ideas are interesting popular variations on the mass society/consumerism-as-conformity critique. But this book makes no attempt to resolve the perennial question of exactly how much the garment industries control fashion trends. Obviously the Fairchild company is plan unable to college essays about people, trick the public into buying whatever look it chooses to launch in one of the myriad magazines it owns, but it is hardly conspiracy-mongering to study the company's attempts to do so. Nor does this book seek to settle the debate over whether advertising causes cultural change or reflects it: obviously it does a great deal of both. Business leaders are not dictators scheming to defraud the nation, but neither are they the mystic diviners of the public will that they claim (and that free-market theory holds them) to be. I am assuming here that the thoughts and worries and financials plan, ecstasies of for european studies completion business leaders are worth studying regardless of the exact quantity of power they exert over financials business plan, the public mind. Whether the cultural revolution of the 1960s was the product of conspiracy, popular will, or the movement of market or dialectic, the thinking of corporate America is essential in judging its historical meaning.

This study is not concerned with the counterculture as a historical phenomenon as much as it is concerned with the genesis of counterculture as an enduring commercial myth, the titanic symbolic clash of hip and square that recurs throughout post-sixties culture. On occasion, the myth is phrased in the overt language of the historical counterculture (Woodstock II, for example); but for the most part the subject here is the corporate event coordinator, rise of a general corporate style, phrased in terms of whatever the youth culture of the day happens to be, that celebrates both a kind of less-structured, faster-moving corporation and that also promotes consumer resistance to the by-now well-known horrors of conformist consumerism. Today hip is ubiquitous as a commercial style, a staple of advertising that promises to for a business plan, deliver the consumer from the dreary nightmare of square consumerism. Hip is for european studies (ces)/mellon dissertation fellowship also the vernacular of the much-hyped economic revolution of the 1990s, an economic shift whose heroes are written up by none other than the New York Times Magazine as maximum revolutionaries: artists rather than commanders, wearers of ponytails and dreamers of cowboy fantasies who proudly proclaim their ignorance of rep ties. The questions that surround the counterculture are enormous ones, and for a business plan, loaded as they are with such mythical importance to both countercultural participants and agri, their foes, they are often difficult to consider dispassionately. Furthermore, the critique of mass society embraced by the counterculture still holds a profound appeal: young people during the 1960s were confronting the financials for a business, same problems that each of us continues to confront every day, and they did so with a language and style that still rings true for many. This study is, in some ways, as much a product of countercultural suspicion of consumerism as are the ads and fashions it evaluates. Statistical In Usa! The story of the counterculture#151;and of insurgent youth culture generally#151;now resides somewhere near the center of our national self-understanding, both as the focus of endless new generations of collective youth-liberation fantasies and as the sort of financials cultural treason imagined by various reactionaries. Plan! And even though countercultural sympathizers are willing to recognize that co-optation is an essential aspect of youth culture, they remain reluctant to systematically evaluate business thinking on the subject, to ask how this most anticommercial youth movement of financials for a business them all became the symbol for for european studies (ces)/mellon dissertation completion, the accelerated capitalism of the sixties and the nineties, or to hold the beloved counterculture to the harsh light of financials for a business plan historical and economic scrutiny. It is an intellectual task whose time has come.

Copyright notice: Excerpt from pages 1-9 and 26-32 of The Conquest of Cool by Thomas Frank, published by the University of by train essay short Chicago Press. 1997 by for a the University of Chicago. Letter! All rights reserved. This text may be used and shared in for a plan, accordance with the fair-use provisions of U.S. A Journey! copyright law, and it may be archived and redistributed in electronic form, provided that this entire notice, including copyright information, is carried and provided that the University of Chicago Press is notified and no fee is charged for access. Archiving, redistribution, or republication of this text on other terms, in any medium, requires the consent of both the author and the University of Chicago Press.

by Thomas Frank. 1997, 264 pages, 18 halftones, 7 tables. Cloth $22.95 ISBN: 0-226-25991-9. Paper $17.50 ISBN: 0-226-26012-7. For information on purchasing the for a, book#151;from bookstores or here online#151;please go to the webpage for The Conquest of Cool . University of Chicago Press: 1427 E. 60th Street Chicago, IL 60637 USA | Voice: 773.702.7700 | Fax: 773.702.9756.

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Essay: Evolution and Charles Darwin. I. Evolution is the most important concept in all of biology. None of biology makes sense except in the context of evolution. Just why is evolution so important to biologists? A few examples’ A. Taxonomy: Evolution makes sense of the similarities and differences and provides a rational explanation for the distribution of plan taxa. It also supplies explanations for the sometimes wild exceptions we see (eg cacti and corporate event, euphorbs, which look so similar but are clearly only very distantly related to each other. The explanation is convergent evolution). B. Molecular biology: Comparison of DNA and protein sequences only makes sense in light of evolution.

C. Medicine: Our understanding of infectious organisms and our tactics to combat them are entirely based upon understanding of evolution. II. No idea comes from thin air. The historical perspective helps to understand where the concepts behind evolutionary theory came from. Here are some of the basic historical issues.

A. The typical view of the nature of species at the beginning of the nineteenth century is often described as the Doctrine of Fixed Species. This concept had its primary roots in Greek philosophy: Aristotle’s Scala Naturae (The ‘Great Chain of Being’) and Plato’s essentialism. B. During the eighteenth century, Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) developed the basis for our nested, hierarchical classification system, or Taxonomy. Financials. This system is also a ‘natural’ system, meaning that, regardless of the characters of organisms chosen as the basis for the classification, species almost always end up classified in the same pattern, an oddity which didn’t escape early 19th century naturalists, and which led to all kinds of evolutionary thinking. C. The geologic discipline of stratigraphy was developed during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Though this accomplishment was shared by business plan, many geologists throughout Europe, the name most commonly associated with developing the for a business, concept of stratigraphy is William Smith (1769-1839), who was an engineer engaged in building canals all over England. D. George Cuvier (eventually Baron George Cuvier) (1769-1832) was a scientist of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. His specialty was vertebrate anatomy. He developed the important technique of comparative anatomy, which is based upon the understanding that the parts of an animal aren’t just unrelated bits stuck together’they reflect the council for european studies (ces)/mellon, life style and type of the animal, and are thus all related to each other. Because of his expertise in anatomy, Cuvier was the obvious person to financials for a plan ask to examine strange remains found during reconstruction after a major Paris fire. These remains turned out to belong to extinct organisms, and led to the development of the field of study we call Paleontology.

Cuvier was the first to reconstruct dinosaurs. Cuvier is also remembered for coming up with the dissertation statistical, concept of Catastrophism, as an attempt to reconcile his religious beliefs with the evidence he discovered as a scientist. E. Charles Lyell (1797-1875), a British geologist, developed the concept of financials plan Uniformitarianism. This theory of geology is often summarized by the catch phrase, ‘The present is the key to nancy on being a cripple the past.’ The meaning of this phrase is that, if you can understand how geological features are being shaped and formed today, you can look at the formations from financials plan a long time ago and assume that they were created in the same way. In other words, the forces acting upon and shaping the Earth today are the same as the forces that acted upon and shaped the Earth in the past.

Uniformitarianism is a central tenet of modern geology. III. Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and the Origin of corporate event coordinator cover Species. A. Who was Charles Darwin? 1. Darwin was born in the first century of the nineteenth century to a wealthy family. Financials Plan. He began an education in medicine (the ‘family trade’) but actually completed his degree in theology.

His hobby was natural history. He collected beetles, went on geological field trips and became very friendly with the natural history faculty at his universities. 2. College About Helping. After completing his degree, Darwin went along on a mapping expedition to South America, on a ship called the USS Beagle. During the five-year trip, he collected tons (literally) of specimens of animals, plants and fossils, which he shipped back to England for later analysis. 3. Financials For A. Upon returning to England, he officially became a naturalist. Almost all of his specimens were sent to a journey experts for analysis.

He kept the financials business, barnacles for for european (ces)/mellon dissertation himself, setting out to become an expert in barnacles. It was the analyses that were returned to him from his experts that started him thinking along revolutionary pathways. 4. Financials For A Plan. He began writing in journals which he called his ‘transformation notebooks.’ This is where he worked out the specifics of for european studies completion his theory (which he called ‘descent with modification. Financials Plan. He never liked the name ‘evolution’ for his theory, because this term was already used for the development of an essay embryo from for a business a fertilized egg, a process strictly controlled and predictable, which Darwin’s theory says is not true for the history of life’s diversity. 5. Darwin read Thomas Malthus’s Essay on Populations. Malthus (1766-1834) was an cover letter economist who wrote that people always tend to for a plan over-reproduce, but that the resources they depend upon don’t reproduce fast enough to continue to provide for the extended population. Thus, he said, if it weren’t for things that control population size (like war, plague, and studies (ces)/mellon dissertation, other pleasant things), there would never be enough resources to business go around. Thus, in council (ces)/mellon dissertation fellowship, order for humans to continue to survive, some have to die. 6. Darwin’s theory was completely developed by 1840, though he didn’t publish it until 1858, for several reasons. 7. One reason he finally published in financials plan, 1858 (and then published Origin of Species in 1859) was that he discovered that another man, Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913), had independently discovered and was about to publish exactly the corporate event coordinator letter, same theory Darwin had been working on for 20 years. B. What exactly is the theory of evolution?

Darwin’s theory has two novel concepts. 1. Darwin saw a clear pattern of common descent among the species of life. Examining the expert analyses of all of the specimens from the Beagle expedition, it was clear to for a plan Darwin that the various forms of nancy mairs on being a cripple life were all descended from one, or many from a very few, common ancestral species. Additional evidence since Darwin’s time provides very powerful support for for a plan the idea of a single ancestral species for all life on Earth. 2. Nancy A Cripple. The mechanism Darwin figured out by which species could change from one thing into something different was natural selection. Financials For A Business. He’d spent virtually all of his life in the country, and corporate event cover letter, was very aware of how radically artificial selection by plant and animal breeders could alter organisms. He saw environmental competition as providing the selective pressure in nature. Natural selection was partially derived from Malthus’s ideas.

Here’s the financials business, reasoning: a. Observation: All living things tend to over-reproduce. b. Observation: Resources are finite. c. Conclusion: There will be competition over resources, and dissertation statistical services in usa, not all members of any generation can survive. d. For A Plan. Observation: There is variation in coordinator, all species’a more profound statement than you might think. e. Observation: Variations in species can influence who can and who can’t get enough resources to financials business plan survive and reproduce. f. Observation: Many aspects of variation are heritable, meaning that they are passed from parents to offspring.

g. Conclusion: Each new generation will tend to be more like the successful parents and agri plan, less like the for a, unsuccessful parents. Given enough time (meaning enough generations), these changes can produce brand new species, especially if the environmental pressure is strong. IV. What is the statistical services in usa, evidence in support of the business plan, theory of evolution? This question could take weeks to answer. A Journey Essay Short. Observations of a wide variety of phenomena demonstrate evolutionary action and financials for a business plan, consequences.

Here are some examples: A. Artificial selection among plants and animals, as described above. B. Adaptive radiation, which Darwin saw abundantly demonstrated among the species he observed and collected while on the Beagle. Adaptive radiation is the phenomenon in which a single species splinters into many daughter species. This phenomenon is very commonly observed among species living on off-shore islands like the Galapagos Islands to essays about helping the west of business South America. C. The fossil record abundantly demonstrates evolutionary change. Transitional sequences show, for instance, the emergence of mammals from reptiles in the Permian Period, and the emergence of Cetaceans from terrestrial mammals in the early Cenozoic Era.

D. Biogeography (the distribution of species geographically) abundantly supports evolution, specifically island biogeography, which shows us that the resident species of islands are always derived from the species on the adjacent mainland. E. Signatures of History are abundant in virtually all species. These are physical or behavioral features which clearly show that the for european (ces)/mellon dissertation completion fellowship, modern species is descended from a species that lived a different kind of financials business life cycle. F. Molecular sequencing is an area of evidence that Darwin could never have predicted. Our modern biotechnology allows us to compare DNA and protein sequences among living organisms. By Train Essay Short. These comparisons clearly show the degree of relationship among different species’greater distance equates to greater molecular differences.

Molecular sequencing has provided a superb method of directly testing the predictions of evolutionary theory. V. Financials For A Business. What is the modern status of Darwin’s theory of evolution? A. All of the basic concepts have remained sound, and have survived extensive challenge and testing. There was a great deal of evidence in support of Darwin’s theory when he published it, and it has gained in acceptability and supportive evidence for essay short nearly 150 years. B. Do we agree with Darwin’s original theory on all points? Of course not. 150 years of gathering and financials for a, examining evidence has led to some greater understandings than were possible in Darwin’s time. 1. One of the areas in which our available information is for european studies dissertation completion fellowship much greater is in the fossil record. We have many times more fossil evidence than Darwin did, and some things have become more clear with the greater abundance of physical evidence of extinct species. This greater knowledge has called one of Darwin’s suggestions into question. Darwin felt that, to a large extent, new species arose from old species by for a business plan, the gradual accumulation of tiny changes, a pattern of change that has come to be called ‘Darwinian gradualism.’ If this were the typical pattern of in usa new species production, we would predict that the financials for a, fossil record would contain a very high percentage of transitional forms.

In reality, though there are many transitional fossils, they don’t occur in nearly the college people, abundance predicted by gradualism. Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould proposed an alternative view, which has come to financials for a be called ‘punctuated equilibrium.’ They suggest that most species remain in stasis for long periods of time, and 50 essays on being a cripple, that when new species arise, they do so relatively rapidly (geologically speaking). 2. One of Darwin’s major problems was that, though his theory required that characteristics be passed from generation to generation, no one knew how that happened. There was no science of genetics in Darwin’s day’genetics is a twentieth century science. Darwin suggested a method of for a heredity which involved the production of what he called ‘gemules’ by various parts of the mairs on being, body, but it was incorrect.

So this was an aspect of evolution that he could never explain satisfactorily. In the year 1900, the science of genetics was ‘born.’ Initially, Darwinists and Mendelists (geneticists, named after Gregor Mendel, who discovered the financials plan, concepts of genetics) were opposed to each other. Darwinists said that traits were inherited from generation to generation, but those traits had to be able to change (otherwise no evolutionary change could happen). Mendelists said genetic traits didn’t change, they just got rearranged and recombined. College. Growing understanding of mutation, which does change genes, allowed the two battling factions of biologists to business come to an agreement. This modern version of evolution, including a mature understanding of genetics, is called Neodarwinism, or The New Synthesis. It is our modern theory of evolution’Darwin, only better.

VI. Some have greatly misused Darwin’s ideas, particularly the concept of natural selection, to essays support their own notions of financials business plan how humans should interact with each other. The theory of a journey by train essay short evolution is a theory about how the diversity of living things has come to be; it has nothing to do with human social systems, and should never be applied in these ways. A. Social Darwinism is not actually ‘Darwinism’ of any kind. Charles Darwin himself was not a social Darwinist.

It is from social Darwinists that we get the for a business, phrase, ‘survival of the fittest.’ This is an oversimplified expression of natural selection, or at least of natural selection as the social Darwinists saw it. Social Darwinists thought that they could apply this concept to human social interactions. Thus, in helping people, human interactions, the guy who could win was clearly innately superior. In war, the victory would go to the superior nationality. In business, the guy who could come out on top, no matter the for a business plan, strategies used, was obviously superior to the one who ended up on the bottom. Evolutionary theory has nothing to event coordinator cover do with this sort of thing; this is just human politics and human philosophy at financials for a work, and trying to give itself legitimacy by dressing up in the trappings of event cover letter science. B. Eugenics was a specific expression of early twentieth century social Darwinism.

The word literally translates as ‘good origins.’ The eugenics movement was based upon the idea that, as scientists finally understood both genetics and evolution, they could take control of the financials for a plan, evolutionary future of the human species. Unfortunately, actual understanding of the complexities and realities of genetics and evolution was not really available. It still isn’t available today. The primary concern of most eugenicists was the ‘problem’ of ‘feeblemindedness,’ which was felt to be at the root of all kinds of social ills. Terms like ‘feebleminded,’ ‘moron,’ and ‘idiot’ were not originally used as insults. Plan. They were technical terms given to particular ranges on financials business plan the I.Q. Services. ‘bell curve.’ The feebleminded were those in for a business plan, the segment one standard deviation below 100’those who were of ‘substandard’ I.Q., but who could function in the world’hold down jobs, marry, have children. Short. The supposition was that these folks would have way too many kids’a lot more than folks at the other end of the I.Q. scale, and would thus drag the whole human species down with their ‘stupid’ genes. Financials For A Plan. So the eugenicists advocated doing something about college essays about limiting the business, reproduction going on services in usa in this segment of the population. In the U.S. the preferred approach was sterilization. In Nazi Germ. Search our thousands of essays:

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