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calibration resume 1 Half Hollow Turn. Essay! Monroe, NY, 10950. To share my 25+ years of instrumentation and supervisor experience with a company that shares my dedication to excellence. To help pharmaceutical companies develop and maintain a calibration program that exceeds cGMP expectations. Central Net Enterprises, LLC | Monroe, NY. Central Net Enterprises is a consulting/contracting service company specializing in pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment controls, instrumentation calibration and installation services. Provide calibration services and consulting to the pharmaceutical industry. Calibration of various instruments and control systems. Troubleshooting and repair of equipment and instruments. Review and sba write SOP’s and Calibration Procedures.
Maintain calibration database (utilizing Blue Mountain Calibration Manager). Memoirs Revere Essay! Execute validation protocols on various manufacturing equipment and systems. Installation of fluid bed granulation equipment control systems. Qualification documentation development for many different pieces of cover equipment in the pharma industry. Of Paul Essay Contest! Qualification executions on macaulay's on southey's edition pilgrim's various equipment in the pharma industry. Develop calibration and preventive maintenance program including setup and validation of CMMS/CCMS systems. Revere Essay! Write and edit Standard Operating Procedures related to equipment calibration and maintenance. Software validation. Over the years in this business, I have set up and maintained calibration programs for various companies, such as Bayer Consumer Care, Bristol Myers Squibb, Fuisz Technologies, Ohm Laboratories (Ranbaxy), Pfizer and a few smaller companies throughout the U.S. Assisted in more than a dozen installation projects, mostly fluid beds and coating pans.
Instrumentation and solve decay problems controls technician, Supervisor of instrument shop, Able troubleshooter, Organizational Leadership, Customer Service, Strong computer skills in many applications, and a good multitasker. Firm understanding of the importance of cGMP in the pharmaceutical environment. MikeFilsaime.com, Inc. | Ronkonkoma, NY. Project Manager for new products and project updates. MikeFilsaime.com, Inc. is a leading internet product development and quality training company focused on marketing. In business since 2004, it is one of the fastest growing companies of this type on the internet today. Manage the development and progress of new and existing products and services.
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Instrumentation Planner/Supervisor. Plan and schedule all work relating to instrument calibration and preventive maintenance. Responsible for four (4) factory areas. Ensure all work is letter assigned to of paul contest Instrument Technicians and completed by the required completion date to business sba ensure minimal down time. Write and contest review IQ and OQ documents for how to exponential, all new instrument installations as well as retrospective validations and qualifications. Write and of paul review instrument calibration SOP’s. Work extensively with Maximo. Instrument/Field Service Technician. Glatt Air Techniques, Inc. | Ramsey, NJ.
Responsible for Field Services to troubleshoot, repair and calibration of customer equipment around the country. Schedule and perform preventive maintenance tasks. Research and write standard operating procedures for the calibration of retention dissertation instruments. Responsible for ensuring the S.O.P.’s are current. Assist various Facilities groups to complete all tasks involved in Manufacturing and RD Equipment, Calibration, Maintenance, Validation and Repairs. Memoirs Of Paul Revere Essay Contest! Responsible for interface with Engineering Departments and Customers Returns for, repairs/rebuilds to Fluid Bed Dryers, Pan Coaters, High Shear Granulators and good introduction for a and contrast related Pharmaceutical Processing Equipment. Perform calibrations, preventive maintenance and validation on OEM equipment. Draft Standard Operating Procedures and maintenance tracking documents for Calibration, Maintenance and Validation Programs. Maintain equipment upgrade files and database(s) pertaining to retrofits modifications and repairs. Principle calibration and repair technician on pneumatic and electronic instrumentation and related components. Of Paul Revere Essay! Technical writing of Standard Operating Procedures for the calibration of how to solve decay instruments.
United Parcel Service | Paramus, NJ. Supervise day crew of 7 maintenance mechanics and helpers, and a night cleaning crew of memoirs of paul essay 15. Responsible for general building maintenance and repairs. Installation of basic electrical and and contrast communication wiring. Coordinator of all service vendors for facilities maintenance. United States Navy | Various Locations.
Responsibilities include testing, troubleshooting and repair of aircraft electrical and electronic systems. Quality Assurance inspector. Technical Publications Library specialist. High School or equivalent – Bergen County Vocational Technical High School Hackensack, NJ. Some college classes.
Technical training in the United States Navy. Various “continuing education” classes to enhance my technical skills. Multitude of life/work experience. Here#8217;s a few things I do for memoirs revere essay contest, enjoyment and personal satisfaction: Family time Work on websites of mine and some others. Reading (all kinds of books and magazines) Drumming Racquetball Running (regularly run in 5 Ks to half marathons) Kick Boxing Working out Cooking.
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Resumen de la sentencia caso Manuel Cepeda Vargas vs. Memoirs Of Paul Essay Contest. Colombia. Miercoles 23 de junio de 2010, por Prensa - Colectivo. Por considerarlo de vital importancia anexamos un resumen sobre la sentencia del caso Manuel Cepeda Vargas Vs Colombia. • Derecho a la vida. Para la Corte, el Estado colombiano tenia un “deber especial de proteccion” respecto del senador Cepeda Vargas; “es evidente para el Tribunal que las autoridades se abstuvieron injustificadamente de protegerlo, o que las pocas medidas adoptadas fueron claramente insuficientes, en un contexto de violencia contra miembros y dirigentes de la UP lo que imponia al Estado una obligacion especial de prevencion y proteccion“(parr.
100). “La ejecucion del Senador Cepeda fue propiciada, o al menos permitida, por el conjunto de abstenciones de varias instituciones y autoridades publicas de adoptar las medidas necesarias para proteger su vida, entre las cuales destaca la falta de investigacion adecuada de las amenazas en el marco de un alegado plan de exterminio de dirigentes de la UP. Good Compare Essay. Es claro que, en este caso, la ejecucion de un senador de la Republica no podria haberse llevado a cabo sin la planificacion y coordinacion necesarias (parr. Revere Contest. 102)”. La Corte estima que la responsabilidad del Estado por la violacion del derecho a la vida del Senador Cepeda Vargas no solo se encuentra comprometida por la accion de los dos suboficiales ya condenados por su ejecucion, sino tambien por la accion conjunta de grupos paramilitares y agentes estatales, lo que constituye un crimen de caracter complejo, que debio ser abordado como tal por las autoridades encargadas de las investigaciones, las que no han logrado establecer todos los vinculos entre los distintos perpetradores ni determinar a los autores intelectuales. How To Solve. La planeacion y ejecucion extrajudicial del Senador Cepeda Vargas, asi realizada, no habria podido perpetrarse sin el conocimiento u ordenes de mandos superiores y jefes de esos grupos, pues respondio a una accion organizada de esos grupos, dentro de un contexto general de violencia contra la UP (parr. Of Paul Revere Contest. 124) “Los agentes estatales no solo faltaron gravemente a sus deberes de prevencion y proteccion de los derechos del Senador Cepeda Vargas, (…) sino que utilizaron la investidura oficial y recursos otorgados por el Estado para cometer las violaciones. Plan Sba. En vez de que las instituciones, mecanismos y poderes del Estado funcionaran como garantia de prevencion y proteccion de la victima contra el accionar criminal de sus agentes, se verifico una instrumentalizacion del poder estatal como medio y recurso para cometer la violacion de los derechos que debieron respetar y garantizar, lo que se ha visto favorecido por situaciones de impunidad de esas graves violaciones, propiciada y tolerada por el conjunto de investigaciones que no han sido coherentes entre si ni suficientes para un debido esclarecimiento de los hechos y, en consecuencia, no han cumplido satisfactoriamente con el deber de investigar efectivamente la violacion del derecho a la vida (parr. Memoirs Essay Contest. 125)”. En el presente caso, la Corte advierte que habiendo transcurrido 16 anos de ocurridos los hechos, el proceso penal continua abierto, sin que se haya procesado y eventualmente sancionado a todos los responsables, lo cual ha sobrepasado excesivamente el plazo que puede considerarse razonable para estos efectos (parr.
128). En lo que tiene que ver con los procedimientos disciplinario y contencioso administrativo, aunque no sustituyen el proceso penal, se estima que son utiles como complemento para establecer la verdad, determinar los alcances y dimensiones de la responsabilidad estatal y reparar integralmente las violaciones (parr. Sba. 130) En este sentido, la Corte valoro que la sancion de “reprension severa” en el proceso disciplinario fue desproporcionada (parr. Of Paul Essay. 137) . Solve Decay. , en tanto el fallo contencioso administrativo, no contribuyo “de manera sustancial al cumplimiento del deber de investigar y esclarecer los hechos”, en este tipo de procesos “las autoridades encargadas (…) estaban llamadas no solo a verificar las omisiones estatales sino a determinar los alcances reales de la responsabilidad institucional del Estado. Revere Essay Contest. (parr. Effects On Employee Dissertation. 140)” 1. Revere Essay Contest. El deber de investigar frente a casos complejos. La debida diligencia en las investigaciones implicaba tomar en cuenta los patrones de actuacion de la compleja estructura de personas que cometio la ejecucion extrajudicial, ya que esta estructura permanece con posterioridad a la comision del crimen y, precisamente para procurar su impunidad, opera utilizando amenazas para causar temor en quienes investigan y en quienes podrian ser testigos o tener un interes en la busqueda de la verdad, como es el caso de los familiares de las victimas. Decay Problems. El Estado debia haber adoptado las medidas suficientes de proteccion e investigacion para prevenir ese tipo de intimidaciones y amenazas (parr. Of Paul Contest. 149).
En atencion a la regla de proporcionalidad, los Estados deben asegurar, en el ejercicio de su deber de persecucion de esas graves violaciones, que las penas impuestas y su ejecucion no se constituyan en factores de impunidad, tomando en cuenta varios aspectos como las caracteristicas del delito y la participacion y culpabilidad del acusado(parr. Effects On Employee Retention. 150). Revere Essay. La imposicion de una pena apropiada en funcion de la gravedad de los hechos, por la autoridad competente y con el debido fundamento, permite verificar que no sea arbitraria y controlar asi que no se erija en una forma de impunidad de facto(parr. Plan Sba. 153). Con relacion a los beneficios penales (rebaja de penas) obtenidos por los autores materiales, asi como su reclusion en establecimientos militares, la Corte senalo que el “el otorgamiento indebido de estos beneficios puede eventualmente conducir a una forma de impunidad, particularmente cuando se trate de la comision de violaciones graves de derechos humanos, como en el presente caso (parr. Of Paul Revere Contest. 152)”. 2. Thesis Bow Tie. El proceso de desmovilizacion paramilitar.
Con relacion a las diligencias adelantadas en el procedimiento de “Justicia y Paz”, la Corte constato que uno de los autores materiales de la ejecucion del senador Cepeda se desmovilizo colectivamente bajo el Decreto 3360 de 2003, sin ser vinculado a la investigacion penal por el crimen, aunque desde 1994 se tenia noticias de su participacion, por ello la Corte considera “que, tratandose de delitos graves y de una grave violacion de derechos humanos, constituia parte del deber de debida diligencia que las autoridades colaboraran entre si, a fin de identificar e individualizar plenamente a las personas sospechosas o imputadas de haber cometido estas violaciones graves (parr.. Essay. 163). Respecto a los beneficios derivados de la “ley de justicia y paz” la Corte senala que “un Estado no puede otorgar proteccion directa o indirecta a los procesados por crimenes que impliquen violaciones graves de derechos humanos mediante la aplicacion indebida de figuras legales que atenten contra las obligaciones internacionales pertinentes (parr. Thesis Bow Tie. 166)”. Ahora bien frente a la extradicion de paramilitares que se acogieron a la ley de justicia y paz, adopto la decision de la sala de casacion de la Corte Suprema de Justicia que niega la extradicion de un paramilitar para proteger los derechos de las victimas y evitar que esta figura se convierta en un mecanismo que favorezca la impunidad. Memoirs Of Paul Revere Contest. Por esta razon la Corte en su parte resolutiva declaro que el Estado de Colombia debe “asegurar que los paramilitares extraditados puedan estar a disposicion de las autoridades competentes y que continuen cooperando con los procedimientos que se desarrollen en Colombia.
Igualmente, el Estado debe asegurar que los procedimientos en el extranjero no entorpezcan ni interfieran con las investigaciones de las graves violaciones ocurridas en el presente caso ni disminuyan los derechos reconocidos en esta Sentencia a las victimas, mediante mecanismos que hagan posible la colaboracion de los extraditados en las investigaciones que se adelantan en Colombia y, en su caso, la participacion de las victimas en las diligencias que se lleven a cabo en el extranjero (parr. Of Training On Employee Retention Dissertation. 217 literal g)”. • Honra y dignidad, derechos politicos. La Corte constato que las declaraciones formuladas por funcionarios publicos sobre la supuesta vinculacion de la UP con las FARC, desconocieron el derecho del Senador a la honra y a la dignidad (parr. Revere Contest. 170). • Libertad de expresion. “La Corte ha establecido que es posible que la libertad de expresion se vea ilegitimamente restringida por condiciones de facto que coloquen, directa o indirectamente, en situacion de riesgo o mayor vulnerabilidad a quienes la ejerzan. Effects Retention Dissertation. Por ello, el Estado debe abstenerse de actuar de manera tal que propicie, estimule, favorezca o profundice esa vulnerabilidad (parr. Of Paul Essay. 172)”, tal como acontecio en el presente caso. • Derechos politicos, Libertad de Asociacion y Libertad de pensamiento y expresion. En el presente caso la Corte Interamericana valoro de manera conjunta estos derechos considerando “que estos derechos son de importancia fundamental dentro del Sistema Interamericano por estar estrechamente interrelacionados para posibilitar, en conjunto, el juego democratico.
Ademas, el Senador Cepeda Vargas era, a la vez, dirigente de la UP y del PCC, comunicador social y parlamentario, por lo que no es necesario escindir sus actividades para determinar cual de ellas fue origen o causa de cada una de estas violaciones alegadas, pues ejercia esos derechos en un mismo periodo, contexto y situacion de desproteccion ya senalada (parr. To Study. 171)”. En relacion con la libertad de expresion la Corte establece que “es posible que la libertad de expresion se vea ilegitimamente restringida por condiciones de facto que coloquen, directa o indirectamente, en situacion de riesgo o mayor vulnerabilidad a quienes la ejerzan. Memoirs Contest. Por ello, el Estado debe abstenerse de actuar de manera tal que propicie, estimule, favorezca o profundice esa vulnerabilidad y ha de adoptar, cuando sea pertinente, medidas necesarias y razonables para prevenir violaciones o proteger los derechos de quienes se encuentren en tal situacion. Plan. Igualmente, la libertad de expresion, particularmente en asuntos de interes publico, garantiza la difusion de informacion o ideas, incluso las que resultan ingratas para el Estado o cualquier sector de la poblacion […] una afectacion al derecho a la vida o a la integridad personal atribuible al Estado podria generar, a su vez, una violacion del articulo 16.1 de la Convencion, cuando la misma haya sido motivada en el ejercicio legitimo del derecho a la libertad de asociacion de la victima (parr.172)”. Valorando la afectacion a los derechos politicos establece la importancia de la participacion politica de partidos de oposicion senalando que sus voces “resultan imprescindibles para una sociedad democratica, sin las cuales no es posible el logro de acuerdos que atiendan a las diferentes visiones que prevalecen en una sociedad. Revere Essay Contest. Por ello, la participacion efectiva de personas, grupos y organizaciones y partidos politicos de oposicion en una sociedad democratica debe ser garantizada por los Estados, mediante normativas y practicas adecuadas que posibiliten su acceso real y efectivo a los diferentes espacios deliberativos en terminos igualitarios, pero tambien mediante la adopcion de medidas necesarias para garantizar su pleno ejercicio, atendiendo la situacion de vulnerabilidad en que se encuentran los integrantes de ciertos sectores o grupos sociales (parr. Of Training Retention. 173)”. En este sentido la Corte considera que la violacion a estos derechos se deriva de la continuidad en su ejercicio con un pensamiento critico y de oposicion, y que fue lo que genero su ejecucion extrajudicial, “precisamente porque el objetivo de esta era impedir su militancia politica, para lo cual el ejercicio de esos derechos era fundamental. Memoirs Revere Essay. Por ende, el Estado no genero condiciones ni las debidas garantias para que, como miembro de la UP en el contexto referido, el Senador Cepeda tuviera una oportunidad real de ejercer el cargo para el que fue democraticamente electo, en particular mediante el impulso de la vision ideologica que representaba a traves de su participacion libre en el debate publico, en ejercicio de su libertad de expresion. Macaulay's Of The Progress. En ultima instancia, su actividad fue obstaculizada por la violencia ejercida en contra del movimiento politico al que el Senador Cepeda Vargas pertenecia y, en este sentido, su libertad de asociacion tambien se vio afectada (parr.
176)”. Senala que la ejecucion extrajudicial “de un oponente por razones politicas no solo implica la violacion de diversos derechos humanos, sino que atenta contra los principios en que se fundamenta el Estado de Derecho y vulnera directamente el regimen democratico, en la medida que conlleva la falta de sujecion de distintas autoridades a las obligaciones de proteccion de derechos humanos reconocidos nacional e internacionalmente y a los organos internos que controlan su observancia (parr. Memoirs Essay. 177)”. Business Plan Sba. Sino que ademas establece que el asesinato tenia tambien como fin amedrantar e intimidar a las personas que “militaban en el partido politico o que simpatizaban con su ideario (parr.178)”. • Violaciones a los Derechos a la integridad personal, honra y dignidad y circulacion y residencia de los familiares. En este apartado, la Corte valora las amenazas realizadas en contra de Ivan Cepeda Castro y su familia con ocasion a las actividades que adelantaron despues de la muerte del Senador Manuel Cepeda, en busca de la verdad y la justicia como victimas. Memoirs Of Paul Revere Essay Contest. Asimismo, establece la relacion existente entre las amenazas recibidas por ellos y su salida del pais. Thesis Bow Tie. Senalado por lo anterior que “el derecho de circulacion y de residencia puede resultar afectado cuando una persona es victima de amenazas u hostigamientos y el Estado no provee las garantias necesarias para que pueda transitar y residir libremente en el territorio de que se trate, incluso cuando las amenazas y hostigamientos provienen de actores no estatales (parr. Of Paul Revere Essay Contest. 197)”.
Ahora bien con relacion a la violacion del derecho a la honra y dignidad de los familiares del Senador Manuel Cepeda Vargas, en especial de su hijo Ivan Cepeda, la Corte valora los pronunciamientos emitidos durante la campana de reeleccion presidencial de Alvaro Uribe Velez en el ano 2006 y trae a colacion el pronunciamiento de la Corte Constitucional Colombiana (T-959) “la que reconocio que la difusion de ciertos mensajes a traves de medios masivos de comunicacion menoscabo el buen nombre y la honra del senor Ivan Cepeda Castro, en cuanto hijo de una de las victimas de la violencia politica del pais y que los mencionados derechos tambien se han violado a sus familiares (parr. Macaulay's Essay On Southey's Edition Pilgrim's. 206)”. Of Paul Essay Contest. La Corte realiza la valoracion de la sentencia referida y establece la responsabilidad del Estado por la violacion de este derecho (parr.210), senalando que: “Este Tribunal ha analizado la referida sentencia de la Corte Constitucional, en el sentido que declaro la violacion del derecho a la honra y la dignidad del senor Ivan Cepeda Castro y sus familiares por el mencionado mensaje publicitario, y que ademas dispuso reparaciones pertinentes a nivel interno (parr. Sba. 208)”. Essay Contest. De igual manera la Corte condeno este tipo de estigmatizaciones ya que expone a los familiares del Senador Cepeda, a nuevos actos de amenazas y hostigamientos.
La Corte Interamericana ordeno al Estado Colombiano a adoptar varias medidas con el fin de reparar integralmente al Senador Cepeda y a sus familiares, entre las cuales se encuentran: 1. Plan Sba. Investigacion completa, determinacion, enjuiciamiento y eventual sancion de todos los responsables materiales e intelectuales. “El Estado debera utilizar los medios que sean necesarios, de acuerdo con su legislacion interna, para continuar eficazmente y con la mayor diligencia las investigaciones abiertas, asi como abrir las que sean necesarias con el fin de individualizar, juzgar y eventualmente sancionar a todos los responsables de la ejecucion extrajudicial del Senador Cepeda Vargas, y remover todos los obstaculos, de facto y de jure, que puedan mantener la impunidad este caso.” (parr. Revere Contest. 216) Adicionalmente, la Corte ordeno al Estado colombiano que frente a la expedicion de la presente sentencia, este debe “garantizar la seguridad de los familiares del Senador Cepeda Vargas, y prevenir que deban desplazarse o salir del pais nuevamente como consecuencia de actos de amenazas, hostigamientos o de persecucion en su contra,…”. On Employee. (parr. Memoirs Of Paul Essay. 218) 2. Cover Letter. Reconocimiento publico de responsabilidad internacional. La Corte senalo la importancia de actos que recuperen la memoria y dignidad de las victimas, como una medida de satisfaccion y garantia de no repeticion. Memoirs Of Paul Revere Contest. Por esta razon le ordeno al Estado de Colombia la realizacion de un acto publico de reconocimiento de responsabilidad, el cual “debera ser realizado en el Congreso de la Republica de Colombia o en un recinto publico prominente, con la presencia de miembros de las dos camaras, asi como de las mas altas autoridades del Estado” (parr. On Southey's Of The Pilgrim's Progress. 224) En dicha ceremonia, se debera hacer referencia a “a) los hechos propios de la ejecucion del Senador Manuel Cepeda Vargas, cometida en el contexto de la violencia generalizada contra miembros de la UP, por accion y omision de funcionarios publicos; y b) a las violaciones de derechos humanos declaradas en la presente Sentencia.” (parr.
223) 3. Memoirs Of Paul Essay Contest. Medidas de conmemoracion y homenaje a la victima. Por la importancia que tiene la recuperacion de la memoria historica en una sociedad democratica, la Corte ordeno “que el Estado realice una publicacion y un documental audiovisual sobre la vida politica, periodistica y rol politico del Senador Cepeda, en coordinacion con los familiares” (parr. How To Decay. 228) 4. Memoirs Of Paul Essay Contest. Creacion de la beca “Manuel Cepeda Vargas” para periodistas del semanario la Voz. Como una medida de satisfaccion, rehabilitacion y garantia de no repeticion, la Corte “dispone que el Estado debera otorgar, por una sola vez, una beca con el nombre de Manuel Cepeda Vargas, la que sera administrada por la Fundacion Manuel Cepeda Vargas, para cubrir el costo integral, incluidos los gastos de manutencion, de una carrera profesional en ciencias de la comunicacion o periodismo en una universidad publica de Colombia elegida por el beneficiario, durante el periodo de tales estudios.” (parr. Cover Letter. 233). Más artículos sobre Defensores de derechos humanos. Más artículos sobre Genocidio de la UP.
Estatus Consultivo en la OEA. Nace en Medellin el 1 de julio de 1913 en el seno de una familia de profundas convicciones religiosas y bajo los parametros de la ideologia del partido conservador. Memoirs Of Paul Essay. Realiza sus estudios en la Facultad de Derecho de la Universidad de Antioquia, donde se gradua de Abogado con una brillante tesis titulada: Conflictos del trabajo: la huelga Ed. Macaulay's Essay Pilgrim's. Avianca: Calle 16 No.
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Good Shepherd students write in the voice of Paul Revere for essay
Analysis of speeches by Sadat and Bandler. Extracts from this document. ?Sadat and Pearson Extended Response By: Lauren For a speech to be effective it must address the context and audience carefully, to overall successfully sustain a strong argument and purpose. Sadat?s?Statement to the Knesset? spoken in 1977 clearly shows a deep understanding to his politically intellectual audience through a thorough exordium to explain his purposes of bringing peace based on justice to Israel and Egypt, as well as additionally touching on the themes of of paul revere, political and religious unity as well as presenting the exponential problems injustices of the past that have hindered this need for peace and reconciliation. Similarly, Faith Bandler?s speech, ?Faith, Hope and Reconciliation? spoken in 1999 at the Reconciliation Convention in Wollongong, shares similar values of unity, equality and peace, where an appeal to pathos is memoirs of paul, utilized to appeal to her audience and to overall present her argument that activism should be maintained in the future and the need to reconcile Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples in order to revive hope. Bandler uses her personal and historical context to familiarize with her audience, overall addressing her context and audience carefully. Ultimately, both speeches successfully address their similar type of audience in differing contexts, giving an good introduction essay, effective speech with meaning and purpose. In both speeches, the reference of context is of major significance in creating a successful and effective address to the audience with meaning and purpose. Memoirs Of Paul Revere Essay? Sadat?s ?Statement to the Knesset? was spoken in response to an invitation from the Jewish parliament which juxtaposes to letter the extraordinary context of the speech and Sadat?s own personal situation with the country of Israel. . read more. An appeal to pathos and revere essay contest familiarity is also presented to his audience as within the speech?s context, Sadat is enabling his audience to sympathize with him as he feels it is ?incumbent? of him to have come ?to the farthest corner of the world? despite all the facts ?surging on him? by the Knesset.
Here the context is reflected as Sadat risked life and death within Israel and his homeland to decay come and speak to the Israeli government about essay contest ?peace based upon justice?. Sadat also conveys the theme of cover to study in germany, unity within his address when he references ?Abraham ? great grandfather of the Arabs and Jews?. Abraham to the Arabs and Jews is seen as a patriarchal symbol in both countries, which represents the inclusiveness of each country, overall allowing Sadat to establish himself once again as a peaceful and political envoy to the Knesset through his clever use of revere essay contest, pathos and unity among his audience within the specific context of the speech. Through this notion of unity within Sadat?s speech he is able to reiterate his purpose of coming to to study in germany Israel and to justify his reasoning to speak to the Knesset, which overall was to establish ?peace based on justice? between the two countries. Similarly, Bandler presents a sense of unity among her audience through her acknowledgement of her diverse and multicultural audience that when she states that they ?may have different cultures, different political beliefs? but all share one view of supporting reconciliation. . read more. For example, Bandler juxtaposes reconciliation activists as ?decent people? who have ?lived, breathed, struggled and climbed? to those who do not support the need to reconcile and of paul essay contest who ?close their eyes to and contrast essay the past?ignorance and blind?? and through this fluctuation in positive and negative diction between the two groups, the injustices of the of paul contest past and present is shown. Of Training On Employee Retention Dissertation? The theme of reconciliation is also shown in the speech through Bandler?s use of dichotomy when she discusses the impact of the media and describes them as ?talk-back jockeys? ?who are deliberately blinkered? and are ?chained in their stubbornness? due to their views against peace and memoirs of paul essay contest reconciliation today. This metaphor of horses shows the bias and one-sided nature some people have against the need to reconcile and through the animalistic imagery she uses, her argument is strengthened. Overall, Bandler urges her audience for the need to revive hope and to introduction paragraph for a compare and contrast essay find a common ground to overcome differences, and through an appeal to pathos by the end of her address she challenges her audience of this by memoirs revere essay contest, stating ?If not now, when? If not us, who.
This employment of retention, rhetorical questions and of paul contest hyperphora such as ?What is reconciliation about? It is about promoting discussion? used at the end of her address emphasizes her argument and includes her audience intending that the modern generations are responsible for reconciliation for today and in the future. Through this challenge to her audience, the macaulay's essay on southey's edition of the pilgrim's textual integrity of the of paul contest speech is shown as the themes of peace; reconciliation and unity are still relevant today despite the context bound nature of the topic and time. Cover? . read more. This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Language: Context, Genre Frameworks section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. Related AS and A Level Language: Context, Genre Frameworks essays. Investigation into memoirs, Gender Differences in the Language of Personal Profiles on Dating Websites. to have the company of a male, similar age to share the good things in sba, life. I have many interests including genealogy, computer, theatre and memoirs of paul revere music.I like visiting museums, places of effects of training, interest, dining out holidays home and memoirs essay abroad. all of which are more enjoyable when accompanied. This notion is juxtaposed in While time ran ahead suggesting that time is suddenly moving too quickly on this journey.
The rhythm of the cover letter to study poem immediately accelerates reinforcing the image of the train leaving. Language Investigation: Barack Obama Inaugural Address. Memoirs Of Paul Essay? His most common pronouns were we and our, which only complements the theory that he sees the task ahead as a team effort. It also makes the cover to study in germany American people feel valued, and that they have as important a task as the President during these hard times. Essay? Secondly, Raleigh's character clashes with Hibbert's.
Raleigh views participating in letter to study in germany, the raid to be frightfully exciting unlike Hibbert who complains of neuralgia in the eye to escape from the harshness of war. Moreover, unlike Hibbert who tries to wriggle home to revere contest escape from war's realities, Raleigh feels rotten when he gets hurt. of student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work. Effects Of Training? Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the rest?
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essay semiotics Cultural Criticism: Semiotics and Cultural Criticism. In this chapter I address some of the basic concepts in semiotics, to show how it enables us to memoirs revere contest find meaning in texts and other phenomena. I try to explain each concept as simply as possible, and I quote extensively from important passages written by various authorities, to give the reader some idea of how these writers express themselves. There is, however, a certain amount of technical language involved with semiotic analysis that cannot be avoided. There are many advanced books on semiotics available or those who wish to pursue the study of how to solve exponential, semiotic theory and applied semiotic analysis; interested readers will find several such titles in the list of suggested further reading that follows the final chapter in this volume.
Semiotics can be seen as a form of applied linguistics; semiotic malysis has been applied to memoirs of paul everything from fashion to advertis- ing, from James Bond stories to Star Wars. The most fundamental concept in semiotics is the sign; semiotic theorists posit human beings as sign-making and sign-interpreting animals. It is letter with signs that this discussion of of paul revere essay contest, semiotics and cultural criticism begins. Signs in thesis bow tie Semiotics and Semiology. Semiotics is, literally speaking, the science of signs. The word semiotics comes from the Greek root semeion, or sign, and is used to describe a systematic attempt to understand what signs are and how they function. Semiotics is probably the more commonly used term, but some students of signs use the term semiology, literally words (togas) about signs . Semiotics is associated with the work of the memoirs essay contest Americon philosopher, C S Peirce (although its roots are in medieval philosophy) and semiology with the work of the business plan sba Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure. Memoirs Of Paul Revere Essay Contest! Both are concerned with how meaning is genereated and and communicated. In his posthumousty published book A Course in letter to study in germany General Linguistics, Saussure (1966) states. Language is a system of signs that express ideas, and memoirs revere is therefore comparable to how to solve decay problems a system of writing, the alphabet of deaf-mutes, military signals, etc.
But it is the most important of all these systems. A science that studies the life of signs within society is conceivable it would be part of social psychology and consequently of general psychology; I shall call it semiology (from Greek, semeion sign) Semiology would show what constitutes signs, what laws govern them. (p. 16) This may be looked upon as one of the charter statements about memoirs revere essay contest semiotics / semiology. Saussure suggests that signs are made of two parts: a signifier (sound, object, image, or the like) and a signified (concept). The relation that exists between the signifier and the signified is arbitrary, based on compare and contrast essay, convention, or, to use the technical term, unmotivated.
Because of this fact, we develop and use codes to help us learn what some signs mean. In addition, Saussure asserts that concepts do not mean anything in themselves; they gain their meanings only relationally or differentially: Concepts are purely differential and defined not by their positive characteristics but negatively by their relations with the memoirs of paul other terms of the system (p.ll7). For all practical purposes, the exponential decay most important relationship among terms is binary opposition. One difference between semiotics and semiology is that semiotics draws its basic ideas from a trichotomy elaborated by memoirs revere, C. How To Solve Decay! S Peirce (1931-1935,1958). According to Peirce, there are three kinds of signs-icons, indexes, and symbols: Every sign is memoirs of paul contest determined by its object, either first, by partaking ir the characters of the object, when I call a sign an Icon; secondly, b) being really and in business plan its individual existence connected with the in- dividual object, when I call the sign an Index; thirdly, by rnon! or les! approximate certainty that it will be interpreted as denoting the object, in consequence of a habit (which term I use as including 2 natural disposition), when I call the sign a Symbol. (quoted in Zeyman 1977,p.36) Because semiotics is concerned with everything that can be seen as a sign, and memoirs revere given that just about of the pilgrim's progress everything can be seen as a sign (that is, substituting for something else), semiotics emerges as a kind of master science that has utility in all areas of knowledge, especially in the humanities, arts, and social sciences. It has been used, as noted above, in criticism of the fine arts, literature, film, and popular fiction as well as in interpreting architecture, in studying fashion, in memoirs of paul revere essay analyzing facial expression, in letter to study in germany interpreting magazine advertisements and radio and television commercials, in medicine, and in many other areas.
Let us consider signs now in a bit more detail, with a focus on memoirs, how they function. How Signs Function. A sign can also be defined as anything that can be used to stand for something else, but understanding how signs function is some-what complicated, because, for Peirce and cover letter to study in germany semioticians, there are always others involved. According to Peirce, a sign is something which stands to somebody for something in some respect or capacity (1977, p. 27). He adds a philosophical point: It seems a strange thing, when one comes to ponder over it, that a sign should leave its interpreter to supply part of its meaning; but the explanation of the memoirs of paul revere essay phenomenon lies in how to decay the fact that the entire universe-not merely the universe of existents, but all that wider universe, embracing the universe of existents as a part, the universe which we are all accustomed to refer to memoirs of paul as the truth-that all this universe is perfused with signs, if it is not composed exclusively of signs. (Peirce; epigraph in thesis bow tie Sebeok, 1977, p. vi) If the universe is perfused with, if not composed exclusively of, signs, then humans are, of memoirs essay contest, necessity, semiotic animals-whatever else they may be (rational creatures, tool makers, featherless bipeds, and so on).
Umberto Eco (1976) has added an insight worth considering. If signs can be used to in germany tell the truth, they can also be used to lie: Semiotics is concerned with everything that can be taken as a sign. A sign is everything which can be taken as significantly substituting for essay something else. This something else does not necessarily have to exist or to actually be somewhere at good introduction and contrast essay the moment in which a sign stands for it. Thus semiotics is in principle the discipline studying everything which can be used in order to lie. If something cannot be used to tell a lie, conversely it cannot be used to tell the truth; it cannot be used to tell at all. (p. 7) Phenomena such as wigs, dyed hair, elevator shoes, imitation foods, impersonators, and impostors all involve lying with signs. Memoirs Of Paul Revere! Saussure (1966) first describes signs as being made of a concept and decay a sound-image: The linguistic sign unites, not a thing and a name, but a concept and memoirs essay a sound-image (p. 66).
He later modifies his definition: I propose to retain the word sign [signe] to thesis bow tie designate the whole and to replace concept and sound-image respectively by memoirs of paul revere essay, signified [singifie] and signifier [signifiant]; the last two terms have the to study in germany advantage of in- dicating the opposition that separates them from the whole of which they are parts. (p. 67) He uses the term semiology to describe the revere essay contest science that would study the life of signs within society, originally placing semiol- ogy within social psychology. He suggests that a sign is like a piece of paper: One side is the signifier and good introduction for a and contrast essay the other is the signified, and together they make the sign/ sheet of paper. Symbols, however, are a different matter. Symbols in Saussure's System. A symbol is a subcategory of a sign.
It is a sign whose mean- ing is memoirs contest not completely arbitrary or conventional. Saussure (1966) explains: The word symbol has been used to designate the linguistic sign, or more specifically, what is here called the business plan signifier. . One charac- teristic of the symbol is that it is never wholly arbitrary; it is not empty, for there is the rudiment of a natural bond between the signifier and the signified. The symbol of justice, a pair of essay, scales, could not be replaced by just any other symbol, such as a chariot. (p. 68) Peirce sees the symbol as conventional, unlike the icon and index, which are not conventional in his view of essay on southey's edition, things. What is important about symbols is that they stand for something, they convey meanings. Memoirs Of Paul Revere Contest! These meanings are often connected to essay of the progress historical events, traditions, and so on. The symbol, generally an object or an image, because it can represent historical events, because it contains all kinds of memoirs essay contest, extraneous matters connected to how to exponential problems it, because it can be a repository of meanings, because it can have so many connotations, can become very important to of paul essay people. Think of religious icons, for plan example.
Carl Jung (1968) explains this matter in some detail in his book Man and memoirs of paul contest His Symbols: Thus a word or an business image is symbolic when it implies something more than its obvious and immediate meaning. It has a wider unconscious aspect that is never precisely defined or fully explained. Nor can one hope to define or explain it. As the mind explores the symbol, it is led to ideas that lie beyond the grasp of memoirs revere essay contest, reason. (p.
4) We are profoundly affected by symbolic phenomena, Jung suggests, all the time-when we are awake and when we dream. As Freud has pointed out, in our dreams we use the processes of symbolic condensation and displacement to disguise our real thoughts and desires and evade the dream censor. It would wake us up if it recognized the thesis bow tie sexual content of of paul, our dreams, as mani- fested, for example, in phallic symbols and symbols of the female genitals. In our visual and literary arts we also use symbolization in an attempt to generate certain responses-assuming there is common understanding of what specific symbols mean (which is not always the case, of course). In literary criticism, for example, we often find that the study of symbolism in texts is connected with an investigation of their mythic elements-what might be called a myth and symbol school of analysis. Heroes and heroines in novels and plays and films often have symbolic dimensions: What they say and what they do often are symbolic and allegorical as well as connected, indirectly, to the actions of ancient mythic heroes and heroines. That is why some critics argue that all texts are intertextually related to other texts, even though audiences may not be aware of the fact or the creators of texts aware of what they have done.
It is effects retention dissertation because texts of all kinds-fi1ms, television programs, novels, plays, works of visual art-are full of symbolic phenomena (objects, actions of essay contest, characters, geographic locations, and so on) that they resist easy interpretation. Good Introduction Paragraph For A Essay! Their symbolic (and mythic) aspects make them extremely complex, and so they are seldom easily understood. Icon, Index, Symbol: Peirce's System. In Peirce's theory of semiotics there are three kinds of signs: icons, which communicate by resemblance; indexes, which com- municate by logical connection; and symbols, which are purely conventional and whose meanings have to be learned. Peirce developed an extremely involved theory of memoirs revere contest, signs, but it rests on of training on employee retention dissertation, the cornerstone of his trichotomy-icon, index, and symbol. He differs from Saussure, who argues that the relationship between a signifier (sound, object) and its signified (concept) is arbitrary and based on convention (except in the case of the memoirs of paul revere essay contest symbol, where the relationship is quasi-motivated or quasi-natural). In Peirce's theory, both icons and indexes have natural relation- ships with what they stand for: for example, a portrait of plan, someone and the person being portrayed (an icon) and smoke indicating fire (an index). The meanings of symbols, on of paul contest, the other hand, have to be learned. Table 4.1 presents Peirce's trichotomy in graphic form. How To Decay! Semiotics is important, Peirce argues, because the universe is in essence a system of signs. Everything, that is, can be seen as standing, in one respect or another, for something else and thus functioning as a sign.
Let us now look at one aspect of Peirce's trichotomy in a little more detail. Table 4.1 Pierce's Trichotomy. An image is conventionally understood to be a visible repre- sentation of something, though it can also be a mental picture of something (such as the image of the businessman as found in early-20th-century American literature). We live in a world of photoelectronic images, and with the memoirs essay development of introduction compare essay, television, all kinds of images that we never would have seen in real life are now brought to us, in mediated form, on the video tube. As the result of essay, developments in printing, photography, and video, im- ages play an increasingly important role in our lives. Indeed, some scholars suggest that we have moved from a logocentric (word-centered) to of training on employee dissertation an occulocentric (image-centered) world, with sight exercising hegemony or domination over revere, our other senses. From a semiotic perspective, a visual image is a collection of what Peirce would call signs, which means that, for example, in a print advertisement we have icons, indexical phenomena, and symbols.
Icons are relatively easy to how to decay problems interpret because they communicate by resemblance, but understanding indexical signs in- volves finding some kind of of paul, a relationship between signs and their meanings, and symbols are purely conventional, which means we must learn their meanings. In considering images with which we are not familiar, such as paintings from macaulay's edition pilgrim's earlier periods, we may not recognize the symbology, so our understanding of the messages conveyed in such images may be relatively primitive. Let me offer an of paul essay contest example. In the painting by Ian Van Eyck titled Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride , painted in 1434, we find a number of symbols whose meanings are not evident to most people in the late 20th century. Cover Letter In Germany! The painting shows a man holding hands with his wife (who looks pregnant and has her hand on her stomach) in an ornate room. Behind the two figures we see a convex mirror, lighted candles in a chandelier, and a small table with fruit on it. In front of the couple we see a dog. Table 4.21ists the symbolic objects or representations in the painting and their meanings for people of the period. bride's hand on her stomach.
willingness to bear children. Today, most would not know the of paul contest meanings of many of these symbols (or even recognize that candles and dogs could have symbolic meaning), but the symbology would have been evident to many people living in 1434. Effects On Employee! Just as we may not recognize the significance of symbolic phenomena from earlier times, we may be blind to of paul the symbolic significance of phenomena from different cultures. When we look at an image (a painting, an advertisement, a work of sculpture, an object) we can look at it in two opposing ways, according to art historian Alois Riegl. Claude Gandelman (1991) discusses Riegl's theories: Riegl stated that one type of artistic procedure, which corresponds to a certain way of looking, is based on the scanning of objects according to their outlines. This trajectory Riegl called the optical. The opposite how to solve exponential decay, type of vision, which focuses on surfaces and emphasizes the value of the superficies of objects, Riegl called the haptical (from the memoirs of paul revere essay Greek haptein, to thesis bow tie seize, grasp or haptikos, capable of touching:).
On the level of memoirs revere, artistic creation, the optical look-if the eye belongs to the painter-produces linearity and angularity, whereas haptic creativity focuses on surfaces. Using Riegl's formula, all forms of art may be grouped under the business plan heading Outline and/or color in plane and volume. . The optical eye merely brushes the surface of things. The haptic, or tactile, eye penetrates in depth, finding its pleasure in textile and grain. Memoirs Revere Essay Contest! (p. 5) From the haptic perspective, vision becomes a form of business plan, touching. Riegl was not the first person to deal with this notion (it is found in the work of Descartes and Berkeley, also, Gandelman points out), but his calling our attention to memoirs of paul essay these two opposing ways of perception is important. Essay Edition Of The Pilgrim's! It is of paul essay also possible, of solve, course, to combine these two perspectives. If seeing haptically is essay contest a form of plan sba, touching, it would suggest that our relation to images is much more complicated than we might suppose. We do not simply glance at images and put them out of our minds; our experience of looking is contest much more powerful than that. This might explain, in part, the phenomenon of effects of training on employee retention dissertation, scopophilia, literally looking (scopo) loving (philia), a psychological phenomenon involving people who derive sexual pleasure from looking at others or, in the case of autoscopophilia, from looking at themselves.
Images, then, play a significant role in our lives, whether we recognize this to be the of paul essay case or not. They have to be interpreted, and this takes a good deal of work, for it is not always easy to understand how images function. Cultural critics have, in recent years, expanded upon their interest in images and now talk about the phenomenon of representation. This concept (addressed previously, in Chapter 3) deals with images of all kinds in the context of the retention social and political order in which these images are found, and memoirs of paul revere essay considers such matters as who creates images, who controls the decay image making in a society (especially images generated and spread by the mass media), and the functions these images have for the sociopolitical order and for revere essay contest individuals. At the simplest level, codes are systems for interpreting the paragraph for a essay meanings of various kinds of communication in which the meanings are not obvious or evident. Consider the two apparently meaningless words below; As soon as I tell you that the codes for of paul revere interpreting these series of letters are, respectively, plus 1 and minus 1, you can easily find that both are coded ways of saying codes:
In the world of espionage, messages are often coded (so that if they are somehow intercepted they will not be understood). The same applies to business plan the world of culture. Much of what we see and hear around us in our culture carries messages, but because we do not know the codes that enable us to find the meanings in these messages, we do not pay any attention to them, or, if we do, we tend to memoirs revere contest interpret them incorrectly. We also tend to be blind to the codes that we have learned because they seem natural to us; we do not realize that when we find meaning in things, we are actually decoding signs. Cover To Study In Germany! We are like Moliere's character who had not realized he was speaking prose all the time. There are in every society, semioticians suggest, culture codes- hidden structures (in the sense that we are not aware of memoirs of paul essay contest, them or pay no attention to them) that shape our behaviour. These codes deal with aesthetic judgments, moral beliefs, cuisine, and many other things. Introduction For A! They are directive and generally are highly articulated and specific, even though those who use them tend to memoirs contest be unaware of them. We need codes because we need consistency in of training dissertation our lives.
Codes vary in scope from the universal to the local. If the relationship between a word and the object it stands for, or a signifier and a signified, is contest arbitrary and based on convention, as Saussure suggests, and symbols are purely conventional, as Peirce suggests, then we need codes to tell us how to know what words mean and what signifiers and symbols mean. Letter! The meaning is arbitrary, based on convention, not natural. Thus, by extension, what we call culture can be looked upon as a collection or system of codes, analogous in many respects to language. Terence Hawkes (1977) addresses this relationship; in discuss- ing the memoirs of paul essay contest work of the French cultural anthropologist Claude Levi- Strauss, he writes: He attempts to thesis bow tie perceive the constituents of cultural behaviour, ceremonies, rites, kinship relations, marriage laws, methods of revere essay, cooking, totemic systems, not as intrinsic or discrete entities, but in terms of the contrastive relationships they have with each other that makes their structures analogous to the phonemic structure of thesis bow tie, language. (p.34) Thus the work of cultural critics involves the process of decoding texts of of paul revere essay contest, various kinds in many different realms: words, images, objects, literary and subliterary works, social rituals, food prepa- ration, socialization of children, and numerous other areas. Creators of texts that are distributed through mass media have a problem of difference between their own codes and the codes of the audiences for these texts, who may (and probably often do) decode them differently from the way the creators intended.
In such cases, it is difficult to effects of training on employee dissertation avoid what Umberto Eco calls , aberrant decoding. This problem exists in oilier areas as well-for instance, when individuals who have been socialized (that is, have learned codes for behaviour) in subcultures become members of mainstream institutions and revere essay have difficulty in macaulay's essay of the progress behaving properly (e.g., when a member 0f a motorcycle gang becomes a student at a university). We now move on to discussion of two concepts that affect cultural meaning in rather specific ways: connotation and denotation. Connotation is a term used to describe the cultural meanings attached to a term-and, by extension, an memoirs of paul revere essay image, a figure in a text, or even a text. In contrast, denotation refers to the literal meaning of a term, figure, text, or so on. Connotation comes from the Latin connotare, to plan mark along with. Thus connotation deals with the historic, symbolic, and emotional matters suggested by or that go along with a term. Take the revere essay contest figure of James Bond as an example. Effects Of Training Retention! From a denotative point of view, he is the hero of memoirs of paul revere contest, a number of popular spy novels and films. Plan! But the connotations of James Bond extend to memoirs of paul contest such matters as sexism, racism, absurd images of the British held by others, Bond's personal idiosyncrasies, the nature of the British intelligence establishment, the Cold War, images of edition of the pilgrim's progress, Americans, and Russians, and so on. In his Mythologies (1972), Roland Barthes deals with the mythic significance or what could be called the cultural connotations of a number of phenomena of everyday. life in memoirs of paul essay France, such as wres- tling, steak and chips, toys, Garbo's face, and the striptease.
His purpose is to take the world of what-goes-without-saying and show connotations (which reveal themselves generally to be ideo- logical matters) connected with them. For example, he notes in a discussion of toys in France: French toys always mean something, and this something is effects of training retention always entirely socialized, constituted by the myths or the techniques of modern adult life: the Army, Broadcasting, the Post Office, Medicine. ..School, Hair-Styling. Revere Contest! . the Air Force (parachutists), Transport (trains, Citroens, Vedettes, Vespas, petrol-stations), Science (Martian toys). (p. 53) These somethings are the connotations of these objects, which Barthes explores in some detail, with brilliant stylistic flourishes and imaginative reaches. Sba! He does the same thing for Japanese culture in Empire of Signs (1977, 1982). We can make an analogy with Saussurean semiological theory here. In a sense, we can suggest that denotation is the signifier and connotation is the signified, recognizing, however, that one signifier can have many signifieds. From Peirce's perspective, connotation would involve the realm of the symbolic, in which conventions are crucial. The meaning of the symbol has to be learned, and a given symbol can have many different meanings.
The process of condensation is also relevant here. An image in memoirs of paul essay a dream can be made of many different images or parts of images, and the connection of these different images to one image is similar in business plan nature to the process of connotation. Denotation involves taking terms literally (including images, sounds, objects, or other forms of communication), in contrast to connotation, which involves looking at the various meanings a term carries with it or has given to it. Denotation deals with the literal meaning a sign conveys. Thus a Barbie Doll denotes a toy doll, first marketed in 1959, that was 11.5 inches high, had measurements of revere contest, 5.25 inches at the bust, 3.0 inches at the waist, and 4.25 inches at the hips (these measurements have changed in recent years).
What we have here is a literal description of a Barbie Doll and no more. What Barbie Dolls connote is another matter, about which there are many different views. Business! For example, some scholars have suggested that the introduction and subsequent great popularity of the doll (and others like it) mark the end of motherhood as a dominant role for little girls in the United States, because Barbie spends her time as a courtesan, buying clothes and revere contest having relationships with Ken and other dolls. She does not prepare little girls to be mothers, as earlier dolls did, dolls the girls could treat as babies, imitating their mothers' roles. Edition Of The Pilgrim's Progress! A great deal of criticism involves examining the connotations of objects, characters, and images and tying these meanings to historical, cultural, ideological, and other concerns. We turn now to a discussion of metaphor and metonymy, which noted linguist Roman Jakobson suggests are fundamental ways of generating meaning. (I list Jakobson as an American in Table 1.1 because he spent many years teaching in the United States, but his origins are European.) Metaphors are figures of memoirs of paul essay contest, speech that communicate meaning by ana1o. Most people think they can get along perfectly well without metaphor. We have found, on introduction compare and contrast essay, the contrary, that metaphor is pervasive in everyday life, not just in language but in thought and action. Our ordinary conceptual system, in of paul terms of which we both think and act, is fundamentally metaphoric in thesis bow tie nature.
The concepts that govern our thought are not just matters of the memoirs of paul revere intellect. They also govern our everyday functioning down to the most mundane details. Our concepts structure what we perceive, how we get around in the world, and how we relate to other people. Our conceptual system thus plays a central role in thesis bow tie defining our everyday realities. (p. 3) Metaphor, then, plays an important role in the way we think and pervades our thinking. It is not just a literary device used by poets and memoirs essay contest other writers to generate certain kinds of emotional responses; it is a fundamental part of the way humans think and introduction for a essay communicate. Lakoff and Johnson discuss a number of essay, different kinds of metaphors. Among them are the following: • structural metaphors, which shape how we think, perceive, and act. • orientational metaphors, which deal with spatial orientation, as reflected in polar oppositions.
• ontological metaphors, which interpret life in terms of thesis bow tie, common objects and substances. We often use verbs metaphorically, as in the following: The ship sliced (the ship is a knife or is like a knife) through the waves. We could substitute other verbs-raced, cut, tore, or something else-and in each case a different meaning would be conveyed. Metaphor, then, is not limited to of paul essay the figurative language one finds in poetry; rather, it is a fundamental means of generating meaning. Effects! The same applies to of paul essay metonymy, which is discussed in the next section. Metonymy is good introduction paragraph for a and contrast a figure of speech in which meaning is communicated by association, in contrast to metaphor, where meaning is communicated by analogy. The term metonymy is composed of of paul essay contest, two parts: meta, or transfer, and problems onoma, or name. Thus, literally speaking, metonymy is substitute naming. In an essay of considerable theoretical importance (and difficulty) on aphasia-a disease associated with brain damage that prevents people from expressing ideas-Roman Jakobson (1988) discusses the difference between metaphor and metonymy: Every form of aphasic disturbance consists in memoirs of paul essay contest some impairment, more or less severe, either of the faculty for selection and substitution or for combination and contexture. The former affliction involves a deterioration of metalinguistic operations, while the latter damages the capacity for maintaining the hierarchy of linguistic units.
The relation of similarity is introduction paragraph for a compare and contrast essay suppressed in of paul essay contest the former, the relation of macaulay's of the progress, contiguity in the latter type of aphasia. Metaphor is alien to the similarity disorder, and metonymy to the contiguity disorder. The development of a discourse may take place along two different semantic lines: one topic may lead to another either through their similarity or through their contiguity. The metaphoric way would be the most appropriate for the first case and the metonymic way for the second, since they find their most condensed expression in metaphor and memoirs revere essay contest metonymy respectively. (pp. Edition Of The Progress! 57-58) We have, then, two polarities: metaphor and metonymy. Revere Essay! Metaphor communicates by selection (a focus on the similarity between things) and metonymy by combination (a focus on the association in time and space between things). Simile is a weaker form of sba, metaphor (using like or as) and synecdoche is a weaker form of metonymy (in which a part stands for the whole, or vice versa).
These differences (and a number of others, drawn from other sections of Jakobson's article) are shown in Table 4.4. According to contest Jakobson, one can determine a writer's style based on how he or she uses these two rhetorical devices and which of these poles prevails. The distinction has relevance for any symbolic process, as Jakobson (1988) explains: A competition between both devices, metonymic and thesis bow tie metaphoric, is of paul revere manifest in any symbolic process, be it interpersonal or social. Thus in an inquiry into the structure of dreams, the decisive question is whether the plan sba symbols and the temporal sequences are based on contiguity (Freud's metonymic displacement and synecdochic condensation) or on similarity (Freud's identification and symbolism). (p. 60) It is relatively easy to analyze metaphors, Jakobson adds, but dealing with metonymy is memoirs much more difficult, and the process, which he says easily defies interpretation, has been relatively neglected. What makes things even more complicated is that we frequently find the two processes mixed up together. Effects Of Training Retention! Thus, an image of revere essay contest, a snake in a painting or advertisement can function metaphorically as a phallic symbol and metonymically as suggesting the snake in cover letter to study the Garden of memoirs, Eden.
This reference to Eden has a historic aspect to thesis bow tie it, which leads us to our next set of concepts, synchronic analysis and diachronic analysis. Synchronic Analysis and Diachronic Analysis. Ferdmand de Saussure (1966) makes a distinction between static (synchronic) and evolutionary (diachronic) linguistics, a distinction that we now apply to modes of analyzing texts and cultural phenomena: All sciences would profit by indicating more precisely the co- ordinates along which their subject matter is aligned. Memoirs Revere Essay Contest! Everywhere distinctions should be made. ..between (1) the axis of simultaneities . which stands for the relations of decay, coexisting things and from which the intervention of time is excluded; and (2) the memoirs of paul revere axis of successions . on which only one thing can be considered at a time but upon which are located all the things on the first axis together with their changes. (pp. 79-80) Saussure further explains the difference between these two perspectives by suggesting that we imagine a plant.
If we make a longitudinal cut in the stem of the plant, we see the fibers that constitute the cover letter to study plant (p. 87), but if we make a transverse cut (that is, a cross-sectional cut), we see the fibers in a certain relationship to one another-which we do not see when we look at the longitudinal cut. Thus the perspective one takes, synchronic or diachronic, affects what one sees. The differences between synchronic analysis and diachronic analysis are shown in Table 4.5. A person cannot deal with something from both synchronic and diachronic perspectives at the same time, Saussure adds, but both perspectives are necessary; Saussure makes this distinction as part of an argument for studying linguistics from a synchronic as well as a diachronic perspective. Instant in Time.
relations in a system. analysis is the focus. relations in time. development the memoirs of paul revere focus. Let us consider how the distinction between synchronic analysis and diachronic analysis applies to the study of media and popular culture. A person can focus on business plan sba, the way a given phenomenon, such as MTV or rap music, has evolved, or he or she can focus on the phenomenon at a given point in time, or he or she can use one perspective and of paul contest then the other-bul one person cannot take both perspectives at the same time. This notion that the good for a compare two approaches are mutually exclusive is similar to the figure and of paul revere essay contest ground phenomenon involved in an often-seen optical illusion: a picture of two silhouetted profiles that can be seen instead as the silhouette of a vase.
One can look either at the figure and see the effects of training retention vase or at the ground and see the faces, but one cannot see both at memoirs of paul the same time. The approach a person takes, synchronic or diachronic, depends on what he or she is trying to discover-in this example, about MTV or rap music. If taking the synchronic view, the person would look at MTV or rap at a given point in macaulay's on southey's of the pilgrim's time and try to relate it to cultural, social, and political matters. If taking the diachronic perspective, he or she would examine the way MTV or rap has evolved over revere essay, the years, important figures in in germany MTV or rap, and that kind of thing. Memoirs Revere Essay! Another way an investigator might look at rap music involves its relation to other forms of African American expression, such as the macaulay's essay on southey's edition progress doubles, in which case he or she would be looking at it in memoirs of paul revere essay contest terms of thesis bow tie, its historical connections. Semiotics and semiology focus our attention on how people generate meanings--in their use of language, in their behaviour (body language, dress, facial expression, and so on), and in creative texts of all kinds. Everyone tries to make sense of revere essay, human behaviour, in our everyday lives, in the novels we read, in the films and business sba television shows we see, in the concerts we attend, in sports events we watch or participate in--humans are meaning-generating and meaning-interpreting animals, whatever else we are. We are always sending messages and always receiving and interpreting the memoirs of paul messages others send us. What semiotics and semiology do is provide us with more refined and sophisticated ways of interpreting these messages-and of sending them.
In particular, they provide us with methods of analyzing texts in cultures and cultures as texts.