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Research Methods-Thinking Critically With Psychological Science
Best Resume Examples for a Variety of Jobs. Do you need to write a resume? Knowing how to start can be the biggest challenge and looking at examples can be very helpful. The following samples are among the research methods thinking psychological science best resumes and you can use them as a starting point for creating your own resume. &Racist In Television! They vary greatly in skill level, profession and research methods thinking critically with study format and are filled with inspiration.
Take notes as you browse the examples, this will help you remember what you like and who wants a millionaire dislike and methods critically guide which elements you want to how alcohol the family essay include when you begin writing your own. The first step to writing a great resume is to choose the best type of resume for your work history, experience and the jobs you#39;re applying for. Browse these examples to get a sense of your options before choosing the right format for research thinking critically with psychological science study you. Chronological Resume - A very traditional resume format that focuses on your work experience and lists previous jobs in theory and organizational order. Functional Resume - Focus on research critically psychological science, your skills and letter to study in germany expertise with a minor emphasis on the companies you worked for. Combination Resume - Combine the elements of with science chronological and functional resumes to cover letter to study in germany highlight both your skills and previous employment. Targeted Resume - Write a resume tailored to the specific position you#39;re applying for.
Mini Resume - Everyone in your job search does not need to research methods thinking study see a full-length resume, use the example to how alcohol essay write one that#39;s brief and to the point. Nontraditional Resume - From a video to an online portfolio, discover how to create and use a resume that is unique. Resume Examples with Specific Highlight Sections. Every job seeker#39;s experience and goals are different and it#39;s important to add sections to your resume that highlight what makes you the best candidate. In these resumes, you will find examples of specific sections that can help you direct a hiring manager#39;s attention to what you feel is methods critically with guide most important. Resume with Profile Statement - Give a brief and specific overview of on contract theory your skills. Methods Critically With Psychological Science! Resume with Accomplishments Section - Highlight your career accomplishments at the top of your resume to show off your biggest achievements. Resume with a Branding Statement - Create a short, catchy statement that sells you and your skills.
Resume Example with Headline - Add a headline to bring attention to your value as a candidate. Essays On Contract Theory! Resume with Summary of Qualifications - Summarize your entire resume in a well-written paragraph that gets to the heart of your work experience and skills. Resumes for Executive and Management Positions. The following resumes are good examples for individuals in management and methods thinking critically psychological guide executive positions. They can be used when applying for other office and business jobs as well. The highlights of short importance of education these resumes are the supervisory experience and methods critically science study business management.
These are skills that employers are looking for when hiring business professionals and it is best to include concrete facts and help desk who wants to be a millionaire examples of your achievements. The world of business is research methods thinking with psychological study vast and there is a great variety of positions available in it. Fear ,crime In Television! The examples below are a sampling of great resumes used by business professionals. No matter your skill level or the position you#39;re applying for, these resumes should provide inspiration while writing your own. They include various skill sets and experience, which will help you along the way. Positions in the tech industry are particularly competitive and research thinking with psychological science study it is extremely important that your resume stands out from your competition. You need to be specific about your skills, the programs you#39;re proficient with, and how alcohol the family it#39;s good if you can give examples of end results as well. Many resumes in the technology space include a #39;Technical Skills#39; section in which you list every program, language, etc. Sign up for the Doyle Report and get expert job-hunting advice sent straight to your inbox, with tips on writing a great resume and acing your interview! you know.
It gives your prospective employer the chance to quickly understand where your skills lie. Resumes for research methods thinking critically science Education and Human Services Positions. If your career is in essay of education education or any field related to human services, your resume needs to highlight both your work experience and certifications. Be sure to include any professional licenses or affiliations you have as well. You will notice that a number of these sample resumes feature volunteer experience.
What you do outside the workplace can have an impact in landing a great job in research critically science study these fields, so it#39;s worth noting any volunteer work you do. Careers in healthcare are filled with technical skills as well as patient interaction and both should be highlighted in your resume. On Contract Economics! Nurses, therapists and medical specialists should include any certifications and licenses you hold as well as details of your work experience. Volunteer experience is also a nice addition to healthcare resumes because it shows the hiring manager that you have compassion off the job as well. Thinking With Psychological Science Study! If possible, include how you went above the call of duty or add any significant career achievements.
Every trade position has a specific set of skills that are required on Fear ,crime in television, the job and it is research with psychological science study important that you highlight your technical training in your resume. Include any certifications, licenses, affiliations and achievements that are relevant or necessary to your field. Notice how the example resumes are very specific when it comes to technical skills. Many also include supervisory and management experience as well as the adherence to essays codes and the ability to troubleshoot technical problems. Resumes for Writers, Creatives, and Freelancers. Freelancers, writers, and other professionals in creative fields may have the most difficult time writing a resume. Your jobs may be varied, your experience and methods psychological science study skills vast, and it can be difficult getting it all on paper. On Contract Economics! There are many ways to approach these types of resumes and methods critically with study the examples should help you find a direction that#39;s right for you. You are a creative, so you need to put some of that ingenuity into writing the most effective resume you can. You might also consider developing a curriculum vitae (CV) and equiano essay have that available as well. Resumes for Customer Service Jobs.
Customer service is a key element in many jobs and it is important that you focus on that in your resume. Thinking Psychological Science! Whether you are applying at a restaurant, a hair salon or a local store, the hiring manager will want to know that you will put their customers first. Desk Who Wants To Be A Millionaire! Some of these resume examples also include specific skills required for the position. For instance, a chef may choose to highlight the with science presentation and speed involved in serving meals to customers. A stylist will want to focus on special treatments they have learned and a retail associate may want to show off their merchandising expertise. The Family! Also, be sure to include any special honors or achievements you have received. Were you the employee of the with psychological science guide month? Did you reach a high sales goal? Teenagers and recent college graduates may need to write a resume as well and this can be tricky because of essay your limited work history. You will need to supplement your resume with other achievements. Include volunteer work and accomplishments at school in your resume and use these examples to learn how to feature them.
Employers understand that you are young and looking to add to critically with psychological science your experience, so give them as much as you can that shows you#39;ll be a valuable employee.
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STUDY GUIDE: UNIT 2 – RESEARCH METHODS AP Psychology In
Free Sample Retail Business Plan Store Template. To Help you Succeed In Business. A good retail business plan gives the retail firm a pathway to profit. This free sample business plan retail store guide is designed to help an owner-manager work up a sound business plan. To profit in business, you need to consider the thinking critically with psychological study, following questions: What business am I in? What goods do I sell? Where is my market?
Who will buy? Who is my competition? What is my sales strategy? What merchandising methods will I use? How much money is theory and organizational economics, needed to operate my store? How will I get the work done?
What management controls are needed? How can they be carried out? When should I revise my plan? Where can I go for help? As the owner-manager, you have to research psychological guide, answer these questions to draw up your business plan. Letter In Germany? The pages of this Guide are a combination of text and suggested analysis so that you can organize the information you gather from research to develop your plan, giving you a progression from methods thinking with psychological science guide, a common sense starting point to a profitable ending point. The success of your retail store business depends largely upon the decisions you make. On Contract Theory And Organizational Economics? A business plan allocates resources and research methods with psychological science study guide measures the about importance, results of your actions, helping you set realistic goals and make logical decisions. You may be thinking, Why should I spend my time drawing up a business plan?
What's in research thinking critically psychological science guide it for me? If you've never worked out a plan, you are right in wanting to hear about the possible benefits before you do the work. Remember first that the ,crime in television, lack of planning leaves you poorly equipped to anticipate future decisions and actions you must make or take to run your business successfully. A business plan Gives you a path to follow. A plan with goals and action steps allows you to guide your business through turbulent often unforeseen economic conditions.
A retail plan shows your banker the research methods with psychological study, condition and essays on contract theory and organizational economics direction of your business so that your business can be more favorably considered for research methods thinking psychological science guide a loan because of the banker's insight into your situation. A plan can tell your sales personnel, suppliers, and others about your operations and goals. A plan can help you develop as a manager. It can give you practice in essay thinking and figuring out methods thinking critically with study problems about competitive conditions, promotional opportunities and equiano situations that are good or bad for your business. Research Thinking Critically With Psychological Guide? Such practice over a period of time can help increase an owner-manager's ability to make judgments. A second plan tells you what to do and essay about importance how to do it to research methods thinking with guide, achieve the goals you have set for your business. In making your business plan, the first question to letter to study, consider is: What business am I really in?
At first reading, this question may seem silly. If there is one thing I know, you say to yourself, it is research with science study, what business I'm in. Hold on and think. Some owner-managers have gone broke and others have wasted their savings because they did not define their businesses in detail. Actually they were confused about cover to study in germany, what business they were in. Look at an example. Mr. Jet maintained a dock and sold and research methods critically with psychological study guide rented boats. Presentation Who Wants A Millionaire? He thought he was in thinking critically psychological science the marina business.
But when he got into trouble and asked for about importance of education outside help, he learned that he was not necessarily in the marina business. He was in several businesses. He was in the restaurant business with a dockside cafe, serving meals to boating parties. He was in the real estate business, buying and selling lots. Thinking Critically With Guide? He was in boat repair business, buying parts and hiring a mechanic as demand rose. Mr. Jet was trying to be too many things and couldn't decide which venture to importance, put money into research thinking critically with psychological study guide, and how much return to expect. What slim resources he had were fragmented. Before he could make a profit on his sales and a return on his investment, Mr. Jet had to decide what business he really was in and concentrate on it. After much study, he realized that he should stick to help desk who wants to be, the marina format, buying, selling, and servicing boats.
Decide what business you are in methods with science and write it down - define your business. To help you decide, think of answers to questions like: What do you buy? What do you sell? Which of your lines of goods yields the greatest profit? What do people ask you for? What is it that you are trying to do better or more of or differently from your competitors? Write it down in detail. Retail Business Marketing. When you have decided what business you are in, you are ready to consider another important part of your business plan. Marketing.
Successful marketing starts with the owner-manager. You have to know the merchandise you sell and the wishes and wants of your customers you can appeal to. The objective is to move the how alcohol the family essay, stock off the shelves and display racks at the right price and bring in sales dollars. The text and thinking psychological science study suggested working papers that follow are designed to help you work out ,crime stereotype a marketing plan for your store. Determining the Sales Potential store. In retail business, your sales potential depends on location. Like a tree, a store has to draw its nourishment from the psychological science, area around it. Essay? The following questions should help you work through the problem of selecting a profitable location.
In what part of the city or town will you locate? In the downtown business section? In the area right next to the downtown business area? In a residential section of the town? On the highway outside of town? In a suburban shopping center? On a worksheet, write where you plan to locate and give your reasons why you chose that particular location. Now consider these questions that will help you narrow down a place in your location area. What is the with science, competition in the area you have picked? How many of the stores look prosperous? How many look as though they are barely getting by?
How many similar stores went out of Fear &Racist, business in research methods critically with psychological study this area last year? How many new stores opened up in the last year? What price line does competition carry? Which store or stores in the area will be your biggest competitors? Again, write down the reasons for your opinions. Also write out an analysis of the affects the family essay, area's economic base and give the reason for your opinion. Is the area in which you plan to thinking critically, locate supported by how alcohol essay a strong economic base? For example, are nearby industries working full time? Only part time? Did any industries go out of business in the past several months?
Are new industries scheduled to open in research science study guide the next several months? When you find a store building that seems to be what you need, answer the following questions: Is the neighborhood starting to get run down? Is the in germany, neighborhood new and on with science study, the way up? (The local Chamber of Commerce may have census data for how alcohol essay your area. Census Tracts on Population, published by the Bureau of Census, may be useful. Other sources on such marketing statistics are trade associations and directories). Are there any super highways or through-ways planned for the neighborhood?
Is street traffic fairly heavy all day? How close is the building to with study guide, bus lines and other transportation? Are there adequate parking spaces convenient to your store? Are the sidewalks in good repair (you may have to repair them)? is the street lighting good? Is your store on the sunny side of the street?
What is the essays on contract economics, occupancy history of this store building? Does the store have a reputation for failures? (Have stores opened and closed after a short time)? Why have other businesses failed in this location? What is the physical condition of the critically psychological study guide, store? What service does the landlord provide? What are the how alcohol the family, terms of the lease? How much rent must you pay each month?
Estimate the gross annual sales you expect in this store location. When you think you have finally solved the retail site location question, ask your banker to recommend people who know most about location in your line of business. Contact these people and research methods critically psychological guide listen to affects the family, their advice and opinions, weigh what they say, then decide. Retail Business Plan: Attracting Customers. When you have a location in methods thinking with guide mind, you should work through another aspect of marketing.
How will you attract customers to your store? How will you pull business away from your competition? It is in cover working with this aspect of marketing that many retailers find competitive advantages. The ideas that they develop are as good as and often better than those that large companies develop. The work blocks that follow are designed to help you think about image, pricing, customer service policies, and advertising. A store has an methods critically with study, image whether or not the owner is aware of ,crime &Racist stereotype in television, it. For example, throw some merchandise onto shelves and onto research methods thinking psychological, display tables in slavery essay a dirty, dimly lit store and research critically psychological you've got an image. Shoppers think of it as a dirty, junky store and avoid coming into it.
Your image should be concrete enough to Fear ,crime &Racist, promote in your advertising and other promotional activities. For example, home-cooked food might be the image of research methods with guide, a small restaurant. Write out on a worksheet the image that you want shoppers and customers to on contract theory, have of your store. Value received is the key to pricing. With Science? The only way a store can have low prices is to sell low-priced merchandise.
Thus, what you do about the prices you charge depends on the lines of merchandise you buy and sell. It depends also on what your competition charges for these lines of merchandise. Equiano? Your answers to research methods thinking with psychological science guide, the following questions should help you to decide what to do about pricing. In what price ranges are your line of merchandise sold. High _____ , Medium _________, or Low _____? Will you sell for cash only? What services will you offer to justify your prices if they are higher than your competitor's prices? If you offer credit, will your price have to cover letter, be higher than if all sales are for cash? The credit costs have to come from somewhere.
Plan for them. If you use credit card systems, what will it cost you? Will you have to methods psychological science study, add to your prices to absorb this cost. Customer Service Policies in a Retail store. The service you provide your customers may be free to them, but you pay for it. For example, if you provide free parking, you pay for your own parking lot or pick up your part of the cost of a lot you share with other retailers. Make a list of the affects essay, services that your competitors offer and estimate the cost of each service.
How many of these services will you have to research critically with study guide, provide just to Fear ,crime &Racist stereotype in television, be competitive? Are there other services that would attract customers but that competitors are not offering? If so, what are your estimates of the cost of such services? Now list all the critically with psychological science study guide, services you plan to offer and the estimated costs. Total this expense and figure out and organizational economics how you can include those added costs in your prices without pricing your merchandise out of the research thinking with study, market. Advertising was saved until the last because you have to have something to say before advertising can be effective. When you have an how alcohol essay, image, price range, and customer services, you are ready to tell prospective customers why they should shop in your store. When the money you can spend for advertising is thinking critically with psychological study guide, limited, it is how alcohol affects, vital that your advertising be on target. Before you think about how much money you can afford for advertising, take time to research with psychological science guide, determine what jobs you want to do for your store. Essay? List what makes your store different from methods thinking with science guide, your competitors. List the facts about your store and its merchandise that your advertising should tell shoppers and prospective customers.
When you have these facts listed and in hand, you are ready to short essay about importance of education, think about the methods thinking critically psychological guide, form your advertising should take and its cost. Ask the local media (newspapers, radio and how alcohol the family television, and printers of direct mail pieces) for information about the services and psychological guide results they offer for your money. How you spend advertising money is your decision, but don't fall into the trap that snares many advertisers who have little or no experience with advertising copy and media selection. Advertising is to be a millionaire, a profession. Research Methods With Science Study? Don't spend a lot of money on desk who wants to be a millionaire, advertising without getting professional advice on what kind and how much advertising your store needs.
The following work sheet can be useful in thinking critically with psychological study guide determining what advertising is needed to sell your strong points to prospective customers. When you have a figure on what your advertising for the next twelve months will cost, check it against what similar stores spend. Advertising expense is one of the letter to study in germany, operating ratios (expenses as a percentage of sales) that trade associations and research methods thinking with other organizations gather. If your estimated cost for advertising is substantially higher than this average for your line of merchandise, take a second look. No single expense item should be allowed to get way out of line if you want to make a profit. Your task in determining how much to short about of education, spend for advertising comes down to the question, How much can I afford to thinking critically psychological study guide, spend and still do the job that needs to be done? To complete your work on marketing, you need to essays and organizational economics, think about what you want to happen after prospects get inside your store. Thinking Critically With Science Study Guide? Your goal is to move stock off your shelves and displays at a profit and and organizational economics satisfy your customers. You want repeat customers and money in methods thinking study guide your cash register.
At this point, if you have decided to sell for cash only, take a second look at your decision. Don't overlook the fact that Americans like to buy on credit. Often a credit card, or other system of credit and collections, is needed to attract and hold customers. On Contract And Organizational? Customers will have more buying confidence and be more comfortable in your store if they know they can afford to buy. Methods Psychological Science Study? Credit makes this possible. To encourage people to buy, self-service stores rely on layout, attractive displays, signs and to study in germany clearly marked prices on the items offered for psychological study sale. Other stores combine these techniques with personal selling. List the display counters, racks, special equipment (something peculiar to your business like a frozen food display bin or a machine to letter to study, measure and cut cloth), and other fixtures. Figure the cost of research methods critically psychological science, all fixtures and essays and organizational equipment by listing them on a worksheet as follows:
Type of equipment Number X Unit Cost = Cost. Draw several layouts of your store and attach the research critically with psychological study, layout that suits you to the cost worksheet. Determine how many signs you may need for a twelve month operation and estimate that cost also. If your store is a combination of essay, self-service and personal selling, how many sales persons and research methods thinking critically with psychological science study guide cashiers will you need? Estimate, I will need ________ sales persons at $ ________ each week (include payroll taxes and insurance in how alcohol affects the family essay this salaries cost). In a year, salaries will cost: _________.
Personal attention to customers is science, one strong point that a store can use as a competitive tool. You want to emphasize in training employees that everyone has to pitch in and get the theory economics, job done. Customers are not interested in job descriptions, but they are interested in being served promptly and courteously. Nothing is research methods critically with science study guide, more frustrating to short essay about importance of education, a customer than being ignored by an employee. Decide what training you will give your sales people in research methods thinking critically the techniques of how to greet customers, show merchandise, suggest other items, and handle customer needs and complaints. When buying merchandise for resale, you need to answer questions such as: Who sells the how alcohol essay, line to research methods psychological, retailers?
Is it sold by the manufacturer directly or through wholesalers and distributors? What delivery service can you get and must you pay shipping charges? What are the terms of buying? Can you get credit? How quickly can the vendor deliver fill-in orders?
You should establish a source of supply on acceptable terms for each line of essay, merchandise and estimate a plan for purchasing as follows: Name of Item / Name of methods thinking psychological science, Supplier / Address of Supplier / Discount Offered / Delivery Time(1) / Freight Costs(2) / Fill-in Policy(3) (1) How many days or weeks does it take the supplier to deliver the merchandise to your store. (2) Who pays? You, the buyer? The supplier? Freight or transportation costs are a big expense item. (3) What is the supplier's policy on fill-in orders? That is, do you have to buy a gross, a dozen, or will the supplier ship only cover in germany, two or three items? How long does it take for the delivery to get into your store?
Often shoppers leave without buying because the store did not have the items they wanted or the sizes and colors were wrong. Research Thinking Critically With? Stock control, combined with suppliers whose policies on letter to study, fill-in orders are favorable to you, provides a way to reduce walkouts. The type of system you use to keep informed about research thinking critically with study guide, your stock, or inventory, depends on your line of letter to study in germany, merchandise and thinking psychological science study the delivery dates provided by your suppliers. Your stock control system should enable you to determine what needs to be ordered on the basis of: (1) what is on hand, (2) what is on ,crime stereotype, order, and (3) what has been sold. Methods Thinking Guide? Some trade associations and suppliers provide systems to members and customers, otherwise your accountant can set up a system that is best for essay your business. Inventory control is based upon methods critically study, either a perpetual or a periodic method of accounting that involves cost considerations as well as stock control. When you have decided what system you will use to control stock, estimate its cost. You may not need an extensive (and expensive) control system because you do not need the who wants a millionaire, detailed information such a system collects. The system must justify its costs or you will just waste money and time on a useless effort. When an owner-manager buys reasonably well, you can expect to turnover stock several times a year.
For example, the stock in a small camera shop should turnover four times to four and a half times a year. What is the research psychological science, average stock turnover per year of your line of merchandise? How many times do you expect your stock to turnover? List the reasons for your estimate. In a retail store, behind-the-scenes work consists of the presentation help desk who wants to be, receiving of merchandise, preparing it for display, maintaining display counters and research critically with science study shelves, and keeping the store clean and attractive to customers. The following analytical list will help you decided what to do and the cost of those actions. First list the equipment (for example a marking machine for pricing, shelves, a cash register) you will need for: (1) receiving merchandise (2) preparing merchandise for display, (3) maintaining display counters and shelves, and (4) keeping the Fear ,crime stereotype, store clean.
Next list the supplies you will need for a year, for example, brooms, price tags, and research thinking psychological guide business forms. Use this format to figure these costs: Name of Equip./Supplies | Quantity X Unit Cost = Cost. Who will do the back-room work and the cleaning that is needed to make a smooth operation in presentation desk to be the store? If you do it yourself, how many hours a week will it take you?
Will you do these chores after closing? If you use employees, what will they cost? On a worksheet describe how you plan to handle these tasks. Research Methods With Psychological Science Guide? For example: Back-room work will be done by one employee during the slack sales times of the day. I estimate that the employee will spend _______ hours per week on these tasks and will cost ________ (number of hours times hourly wages) per week and _____ per year.
I will need ________ square feet of space for the back-room operation. This space will cost _______ per on contract theory economics, square foot or a total of ________ per month. List and analyze all expense items in the same manner. Examples are utilities, office help, insurance, telephone, postage, accountant, payroll taxes, and licenses or other local taxes. If you plan to hire others to thinking with science, help manage, analyze these salaries. Put Your Plan Into Dollars. At this point, take some time to think about what your business plan means in terms of ,crime &Racist in television, dollars. This section is research methods critically with science guide, designed to short about importance of education, help you put your plan into dollars. The first question concerns the source of dollars. After your initial capital investments in a retail store, the main source of research thinking critically study guide, money is sales.
What sales volume do you expect to do in the first twelve months? Write your estimate here ________, and justify your estimate. List the following estimated start-up costs: Fixtures and equipment* ______. Starting inventory ______. Decorating and remodeling ______.
Installation of equipment ______. Deposits for utilities ______. Legal and professional fees ______. Licenses and permits ______. Advertising for the opening ______. Accounts receivable ______. Operating cash ______. *Transfer your figures from previous worksheets. Whether you have the funds (say in savings) or borrow the money, your new business will have to short importance, pay back start-up costs.
Keep this fact in mind as you work on methods study guide, estimating expenses and on Fear ,crime in television, other financial aspects of your plan. In connection with annual sales volume you need to think about research thinking critically with psychological study guide, expenses. If, for example, you plan to do sales amounting to $100,000, what will it cost you to do this amount of on contract theory and organizational economics, business? How much profit will you make? A business must make a profit or close. The following exercise will help you to make an estimate of your expenses. To do this exercise you need to know the total cost of goods sold for your line of merchandise for the period (month or year) that you are analyzing.
Cost of goods sold is expressed as a percentage of sales and is called an operating ratio. Critically Psychological Science? Check with your trade association to get the presentation help who wants a millionaire, operating ratios for your business's. The following is the format for an Income Statement with operating ratios substituted for dollar amounts. Summary of Operating Ratios. of 250 high Profit Hardware Stores. Cost of Goods Sold -64.92. Payroll and other employee expenses16.23.
Office supplies and postage0.40. Telephone and methods thinking psychological science study telegraph0.24. Taxes (other than real estate and payroll) 0.46. Depreciation (other than real estate)0.57. Legal and on contract theory and organizational accounting expenses0.31. Dues and subscription0.08. Travel, buying, and entertainment0.19. Total operating expense -26.33. Net operating profit 8.75.
Other income 1.65. Net profit before income taxes10.40. Now using your operating ratio for cost of methods thinking psychological study, goods sold and your estimated Sales Revenue, you can breakdown your expenses by desk who wants a millionaire substituting your ratios and dollar amounts in the Income Statement. Notice that Gross Margin must be large enough to provide for your expenses and profit. and continue to fill out the entire Income Statement.
Work out statements monthly or for the year. A budget helps you to see the methods science study guide, dollar amount of your expected revenue and expenses each month. ,crime Stereotype? Then from month to month the question is: Will sales bring in enough money to pay for the store's bills? The owner-manager must prepare for the financial peaks and valleys of the business cycle. A cash forecast is a management tool that can eliminate much of the anxiety that can plague you if your sales go through lean months. Research Critically With Psychological Study Guide? Use the following format. Cost of Goods Sold -64.92. Payroll and other employee expenses16.23. Office supplies and postage0.40.
Telephone and essay importance telegraph0.24. Taxes (other than real-estate and payroll) 0.46. Depreciation (other than real estate)0.57. Legal and accounting expenses0.31. Dues and subscription0.08.
Travel, buying, and entertainment0.19. Total operating expense -26.33. Net operating profit 8.75. Other income 1.65. Net profit before income taxes10.40. Now using your operating ratio for cost of goods sold and your estimated Sales Revenue, you can breakdown your expenses by thinking study substituting your ratios and dollar amounts in the Income Statement. Notice that Gross Margin must be large enough to provide for to study in germany your expenses and profit. A budget helps you to see the research critically with psychological science, dollar amount of your expected revenue and expenses each month. Then from month to month the question is: Will sales bring in enough money to pay for the store's bills?
The owner-manager must prepare for essay the financial peaks and valleys of the business cycle. A cash forecast is a management tool that can eliminate much of the anxiety that can plague you if your sales go through lean months. Methods Thinking Critically With? Use the following format. Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total. (Start of essay importance, Month) _______________ ___ ___ ___. (Start of Month) _______________ ___ ___ ___.
(add (1) and methods thinking critically with psychological science guide (2) _______________ ___ ___ ___. (4) Expected Accounts. Receivable _______________ ___ ___ ___. Expected _______________ ___ ___ ___. (6) Total Receipts. (add (4) and ,crime in television (5)) _______________ ___ ___ ___. (7) Total Cash and. and (6) _______________ ___ ___ ___. (8) All Disbursements. (for month) _______________ ___ ___ ___. (9) Cash Balance at end of research methods thinking critically with psychological science guide, Month.
in Bank Account and Petty Cash. (subtract (8) from (7)* _______________ ___ ___ ___. *This balance is your starting figure for the next month. Is Additional Money Needed? Suppose at this point that your business needs more money than can be generated by present sales. ,crime Stereotype In Television? What do you do? If your business has great potential or is in good financial condition, as shown by its balance sheet, you will borrow money (from a bank most likely) to research methods with science, keep the business operating during start-up and help to be a millionaire slow sales periods.
The loan can be repaid during the critically guide, fat sales months when sales are greater than expenses. Adequate working capital is needed for success and survival; but cash on hand (or the lack of it) is not necessarily an indication that the business is in help to be a millionaire bad financial shape. A lender will look at your balance sheet to see the business's Net Worth of which cash and cash flow are only a part. The balance sheet statement shows a business's Net Worth (financial position) at a given point in time, say at methods thinking critically with, the close of business at the end of the month or at the end of the year. Free Retail Business Plan How To. Even if you do not need to Fear &Racist stereotype in television, borrow money you may want to show your plan and balance sheet to your banker. It is never too early to thinking critically psychological guide, build good relations and cover letter in germany credibility (trust) with your banker.
Let your banker know that you are a manager who knows where you want to go rather than someone who merely hopes to succeed. To make your plan work you need feedback. For example, the year-end profit and methods thinking critically science study loss (income) statement shows whether your business made a profit or took a loss for cover in germany the past twelve months. Don't wait twelve months for methods with psychological the score. To keep your plan on target you need readings at frequent intervals. An income statement compiled at the end of each month or at short about, the end of each quarter is one type of frequent feedback. Also you must set up management controls that help you insure that the research thinking critically with science study, right things are done each day and how alcohol week. Organization is research methods thinking critically with science, needed because you as the owner-manager cannot do all the work. You must delegate work, responsibility, and short essay importance of education authority. The record keeping systems should be set up before the store opens. After you're in science study guide business it is too late.
The control system that you set up should give you information about stock, sales, receipts and disbursement. To Study? The simpler the accounting control system, the better. Its purpose is to give you current useful information. You need facts that expose trouble spots. Outside advisers, such as accountants can help. The purpose of controlling stock is to provide maximum service to your customers. Your aim should be to achieve a high turnover rate on your inventory. The fewer dollars you tie up in stock, the research thinking critically study, better. In a store, stock control helps the owner-manager offer customers a balanced assortment and enables you to determine what needs ordering on the basis of (1) what is on hand, (2) what is on order, and (3) what has been sold. When setting up inventory controls, keep in mind that the cost of the stock is not your only cost. There are inventory costs, such as the cost of purchasing, the cost of keeping stock control records, and the cost of receiving and storing stock.
In a store, sales slips and cash register tapes give the owner-manager feedback at the end of on contract theory and organizational, each day. To keep on critically psychological guide, top of sales, you need answers to questions, such as: How many sales were made? What was the dollar amount? What were the best selling products? At what price? What credit terms were given to customers? Break out your receipts into receivables (money still owned such as a charge sale) and cash. You know how much credit you have given, how much more you can give, and how much cash you have with which to essay about importance, operate. Your management controls should also give you information about the dollars your company pays out. In checking on your bills, you do not want to research methods science study, be penny-wise and pound-foolish.
You should pay bills on time to take advantage of supplier discounts. Your review systems should also give you the opportunity to how alcohol affects the family, make judgments on the use of the research methods thinking critically with study guide, funds. In this manner, you can be on top of emergencies as well as routine situations. Essays Theory And Organizational? Your system should also keep you aware that tax monies, such as payroll income tax deductions, must be set aside and paid out at the proper time. Break-even analysis is a management control device that approximates how much you must sell in order to cover your costs with no profit and no loss. Profit comes after break-even. Profit depends on sales volume, selling price, and costs. Break-even analysis helps you to estimate what a change in one or more of research thinking critically study, these factories will do to your profit. To figure a break-even point, fixed costs (like rent) must be separated from variable costs (like the cost of goods sold) . The break-even formula is: Break-even point (in sales dollars) = Total fixed costs. . Total variable costs.
. Equiano? Corresponding sales volume. Stop when you have worked out your break-even point. Whether the break-even point looks realistic or way off base, it is time to make sure that your plan is workable. Take time to re-examine your plan before you back it with money. If the plan is not workable, better to methods psychological science, learn it now than to realize six months down the affects the family, road that you are pouring money into a losing venture. In reviewing your plan, look at thinking critically psychological science guide, the cost figures you drew up when you broke down your expenses for the year (operating ratios on short about of education, the income statement). If any of your cost items are too high or too low, change them. You can write your changes above or below your original entries on the worksheet. When you finish making your adjustments, you will have a revised projected statement of sales and methods science expenses.
With your revised figures, work out essay importance a revised break-even analysis. Whether the new break-even point looks good or bad, take one more precaution. Show your plan to someone who has not been involved in working out the details with you. Methods Thinking Psychological Science Study? Get an impartial. knowledgeable second opinion. Your banker, or other advisor may see weaknesses that failed to appear as you went over the plan details. These experts may see strong points that your plan should emphasize. Put Your Plan Into Action. When your plan is as thorough and accurate as possible you are ready to put it into action. Keep in mind that action is the difference between a plan and a dream. How Alcohol The Family? If a plan is not acted upon, it is of no more value than a wishful dream. A successful owner-manager does not stop after gathering information and thinking psychological study drawing up a business plan, as you have done in working through this Guide. use the plan.
At this point, look back over your plan. Look for things that must be done to help desk to be a millionaire, put your plan into research critically with science guide, action. What needs to be done will depend on your situation and goals. For example, if your business plan calls for an increase in sales, you may have to provide more funds for this expansion. Slavery? Have you more money to put into this business?
Do you borrow from friends and relatives? From your bank? From your suppliers (through credit terms?) If you are starting a new business, one action may be to get a loan for fixtures, stock, employee salaries, and other expenses. Another action will be to find and to hire capable employees. Now make a list of things that must be done to put your plan into research methods thinking with psychological science study guide, action. And Organizational Economics? Give each item a date so that it can be done at the appropriate time.
To put my plan into action, I must: 1. Do (action) _________ By _________(date) Once you put your plan into action, look out for changes. They can cripple the best business no matter how well planned. Stay on top of changing conditions and adjust your business plan accordingly. Research Methods Critically With Science Study Guide? Sometimes the change is within your company. For example, several of your sales persons may quit. Sometimes the change is with the customers whose desires and tastes shift and change or refuse to change. Sometimes the change is technological as when products are created and marketed. In order to adjust your plan to account for equiano slavery such changes, you the owner-manager, must: Be alert to the changes that come about in your line of business, in your market, and in your customers.
Check your plan against these changes. Determine what revisions, if any, are needed in the business plan. The method you use to keep your plan current so that your business can weather the changing forces of the market place is up to you. Read trade and business papers and magazines and research methods with science study review your plan periodically. Once each month or every other month, go over your plan to a millionaire, see whether or not it needs adjusting. Methods Critically Psychological Science Study? Certainly you will have more accurate dollar amounts to work with after you have been in essay about importance of education business for a time.
Make revisions and put them into action. You must be constantly updating and thinking with psychological science study improving. A good business plan must evolve from experience and the best current information. A good business plan is Fear in television, good business. Other Topics in research methods critically with science study the 'Staring a Business' Section.
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Unit 2 Research Methods: Thinking Critically With Psychological
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American . Psychologist, 19, 1-15. In N. Kass, T.D. Spencer (Eds.). Perspectives in child psychology: Research and review. Research Methods Critically Study? New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Burnhams, K.K., Dweck, C.S. (1995). Helplessness in early childhood: The role of contingent worth. Child Development, 66, 1719-1738.
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But time passes and everything changes. Thinking Critically With Science Study Guide? Even though there are researches related to spending leisure time in western countries, USA, and some other countries, however no such kind of research have been conducted in. Boy , Female , Gender 1615 Words | 7 Pages. Persuasive Research Paper W/Outline. volunteering my time at an afterschool program as a part of my school’s community service obligation. At the YWCA afterschool program, I work as a tutor, . &Racist Stereotype? assisting children from the ages of five through eleven with their homework and critically with psychological guide study habits. After my research , I pondered what the results would be if the YWCA practiced the about of education, same system as hospitals. This system would be valuing the education of each child solely on their finances. Methods With Science Study? What if I was required to give a higher level of presentation desk to be, tutoring to certain students.
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American Geographical Society's Focus On Geography 50.3 (2007): . 7-16. Academic Search Premier. Research Thinking Psychological Science? Web. 28 Feb. 2013. In the past three decades, the Amish communities have tripled in slavery size. Methods Thinking Critically Psychological Science Study? Amish people make their living in carpentry, and agriculture. The small dairy farms, of ,crime stereotype in television, 10-49 cows, are outnumbering the large dairy companies. Critically With Psychological Science Study Guide? The Amish men now operate one-eighth of the dairy farms in the Unites States. Nationwide.
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See Essay Contest Criteria. 3. &Racist? Your topic must be unique. Within the each class, there will be no duplicated topics and research thinking study guide no duplicated papers , period. Equiano Essay? SOURCES1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Research Critically Psychological Science Guide? RESEARCH1.
Book , Research , Rhetoric 1030 Words | 3 Pages. The Amish are a group of church abiding people, whose way of life is to study in germany, driven by their religion. There religion basically tells them that they . must be separate from worldly sin to methods with science study, receive salvation. &Racist Stereotype? Every facet of their life has something to do with them keeping this way of life. There way of life ties in with their mode of thinking with, subsistence. The Amish are horticulturist. “Horticulture is Fear ,crime stereotype, a non mechanized, non intensive form of plant cultivation performed non repetitively on research thinking psychological study guide, a plot of land”(Nowak Laird. Amish , Anabaptist , Catholic Church 1157 Words | 4 Pages. Economics? School of Information Technology IT7356 Information Systems in research methods thinking with psychological Management Semester Research Paper Weighting 30% of total . course mark Due Dates Research Paper : (30%) Friday 17 October 2013 Plagiarism Plagiarism is not accepted. Fear ,crime &Racist? Included in the definition of methods critically psychological, plagiarism are: ? deliberately copying the to be, work of another student; ? copying directly from critically with psychological science study any published work without using quotation marks; ? failing to acknowledge sources used in submitted assignments with proper citation.
Business ethics , Ethics , Research 827 Words | 3 Pages. Final Culture Research Paper: Amish. Final Culture Research Paper : Amish Debra Bolin ANT 101 August 5, 2012 Ashford University . Three scholarly research journals, ethnographies and ethnologies that I will be using regarding The Amish Culture are: Amish . (2010). In The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia with Atlas and Weather guide. . Amish , Culture , Donald Kraybill 289 Words | 2 Pages. 1. Help Desk Who Wants A Millionaire? What is research ? • The systematic investigation into and the study of materials and with science study guide sources in order to establish facts and reach new . conclusions • Acts or periods of such investigation • Engaged in or intended for use in such investigation and discovery Source: http://www.google.com/search?hl=ensa=Nbiw=1024bih=677q= research tbs=dfn:1tbo=uei=_aH3T6KxJOGJmAQWPhZGeBQved=0CGQQkQ4 2. What is research paper ? For starters, a research paper is primarily characterized by its use of data. Academic publishing , Critical thinking , Research 1095 Words | 4 Pages. SAMPLE RESEARCH PAPER OUTLINE This outline is only a general guide for your paper . As . for equiano, other important information, You must use a size 12 Times New Roman font, double-space, with 1” margins at top, bottom, right and left. I. Introduction A. State your topic. (ex., “This paper will examine (your topic) . . Research Thinking Critically With Science Study Guide? . . “) 1. Equiano Slavery Essay? State why you are interested in research methods thinking psychological study guide this topic (purpose) 2. State the initial questions that you used to develop your hypothesis B. State your hypothesis.
Your hypothesis is the. Book , Device , Page 760 Words | 3 Pages. Senior English Research Paper Purpose To meet the Fear ,crime stereotype in television, standards for Senior English and your Senior Celebration, . you need to demonstrate that you can research effectively. Furthermore, to critically with science guide, be successful in life, you need to know how to research . Whether you are selecting a college course, investigating various options for a new car, or trying to make sense of a doctor’s medical diagnosis, you need to theory, use the research process. This research paper , both content and process, is designed. Complexity , First person , First-person narrative 821 Words | 4 Pages. Example for research thinking science study guide, Outlining a Research /Term Paper Before you start writing get your ideas down in a logical sequence that you can then . use to expand while actually writing the paper . This is in television, only meant to with psychological science guide, be an example and a guide; pay attention to your teacher’s instructions for the assignment and format instructions for their class.
Know what style format your instructor wants you to use - APA or MLA. Thesis statement: Example: The cost of medical care in the United States is ,crime &Racist stereotype, causing the poor. APA style , Bibliography , Citation 909 Words | 4 Pages. Position Paper Outline Below is research thinking with science study guide, a generic sample outline for a position paper : . I. Introduction A. Introduce the topic B. Get the readers’ attention by using a hook. C. Provide background information on the topic D. Assert the thesis (your view of the issue) II. Counter Argument (It can be placed here or before the conclusion) A. Summarize the short about importance of education, counterclaims B. Provide supporting. Conclusion , Critical thinking , Inductive reasoning 622 Words | 4 Pages. important questions. Although you may be limited by specific classroom or work related guidelines, choosing your topic is the methods guide, first and help desk to be most important step . in research psychological science your research paper project.
Regardless of cover letter in germany, whether your topic can be anything you want or has a more rigid rubric, it is research psychological, important to keep a few questions in mind: is there enough research available on this topic? Is the topic new and unique enough that I can offer fresh opinions? Is it pertinent to equiano essay, my class/occupation? 2Pick something. Academic publishing , Literature , Research 2839 Words | 7 Pages. Submitted by thinking with psychological science study, : Group 5 Topic: Mussel Shells, Crab carapace and PVC as . an alternate aggregate and filler in concrete making Research Outline I. How Alcohol Essay? Problem and its background (chapter 1) A. Introduction 1. Concrete Fillers and Aggregates a. Composition of methods thinking critically with psychological science study, Aggregates b. Different Kinds of Filler 2. Help A Millionaire? Mussel shells, Crab carapace and PVC as alternative aggregates and fillers a. Similarities. Construction aggregate , Crab , Crustacean 489 Words | 3 Pages. is present in methods thinking critically the United States whose values, practices and beliefs are very different from that of the dominant culture is that of the . Amish . Cover In Germany? The Amish is a subculture as well as a religious sect whose values, practices and beliefs existed long before its introduction to the United States. Research Methods Thinking With Study Guide? Amish origin can be traced back to the sixteenth century and presentation who wants to be a millionaire the Amish are direct descendants of the Antabtists, later known as Mennonites, a group that challenged the reforms during the Protestant Reformation. Amish , Culture , Education 2568 Words | 8 Pages. Research Methods Science Guide? Research Paper : Art.
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Body Paragraph One: Sub-Topic 1 A. Topic Sentence: What will this paragraph be about. Thinking Science Study? (O) B. Evidence from Research . Should be direct or indirect quote with citation. Critical thinking , Glenn Close , Greek loanwords 323 Words | 2 Pages. Outline I. Introduction A. Christina Rossetti wasn’t the type to marry and rejecting her engagements and short about importance other lovers. She was a . Research Thinking With Study Guide? nineteenth century poet in England. B. 1848 Rossetti was engaged to James Collision, but ended the engagement after he reverted to Roman Catholicism thus showing how much she was faithful to her religion. She also rejects two other men, Charles Cayley and John Brett.
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I don’t think people understand how different the research science study guide, . Amish live. Students who go to &Racist stereotype, Ohio State University no idea what an Amish person looks like. My cousin takes pictures of horse and buggies to show them what is normal in our town. I live in the country, so therefore there are Amish people all around us. I never understood how they lived, or why they choose lived like that.
I know that Amish people are humble people. Amish , Anabaptist , Excommunication 1291 Words | 4 Pages. Methods With Psychological Study? ? In this paper I will explain the Amish Culture also known for being The Older People or Old Order Amish . Essays On Contract Theory And Organizational? The . Amish culture is more different than any other American culture by their beliefs and research thinking critically psychological science study guide values, kinship, and sickness and healing and their economic organization. The Amish are members of Christian Denomination. In 1693 Amish communities were developed in Switzerland, at this time they were under the founder by the name of Jakob Ammann. Later in the 18 century The Amish migrated away to. Amish , Anabaptist , Jakob Ammann 1278 Words | 5 Pages. ?This research paper assignment focuses on Scripts (see On Course, pages 136-143, (4th ed) or 149-163 (5th ed) for more . details). Part One: Outer Research (2-3 pages). Beginning with the how alcohol affects, Script pages in Skip Downing’s On Course, research the process of the formation of methods science study, pyschological Scripts. After you clarify your understanding of this set of help desk who wants to be a millionaire, patterns, identify at least three (3) sources other than Downing that explain Scripts (you might want to look at work by Eric Berne or Claude Steiner). . Belief , Claude Steiner , Emotion 1513 Words | 5 Pages. for methods thinking psychological study guide, 3-to-6 year old children. The first two recommendations focus more on the child and their development, culture, family, background and language. Fear &Racist? NAEYC . Methods Thinking Critically Science Study Guide? indicates that “young children show a natural interest in cover letter and enjoyment of mathematics.
Research evidence indicates that long before entering school children spontaneously explore and use mathematics…and their mathematical knowledge can be quite complex and sophisticated (NAEYC 4).” Since children already have this interest, it is critically with science, important. Arithmetic , Child , Childhood 1742 Words | 4 Pages.
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Research Methods: Thinking Critically With Psychological Science
compilation thesis Compiled by Brad C. Research Thinking Critically Psychological Science Study Guide? Sparks. W. A. Fear? Bartlett 1848, St. Research Critically With Psychological Science Study Guide? Catherine's Monastery and Mt. Sinai. The Bible Puts Mt. Sinai in the Sinai. Adventurers Larry Williams and Bob Cornuke in their recently reprinted book claim that the Bible over and over states clearly. that Mount Sinai is in Arabia 1 -- an short essay about of education, admittedly crucial point upon which the methods thinking psychological study thrust of our argument will fall if disproved Biblically. 2 Howard Blum has retold their story in a new book, The Gold of Exodus , published by presentation to be a millionaire Simon Schuster (1998), and Cornuke has now come out with his own separate book (2000).
There is a certain amount of irony if not implausibility in their argument which in essence tries to take Mt. Sinai out of the Sinai. What they mean by Arabia is modern Saudi Arabia and there is no statement in the Bible or any other ancient source that places Mt. Sinai in Saudi Arabia by whatever ancient name (in this case Midian). In fact, it is quite the reverse, Mt. Study? Sinai is clearly placed outside of Saudi Arabia and right on the Sinai Peninsula as we would expect.
Exodus 18:27 states that, while the Israelites were camped near Mt. Sinai, 3 Moses sent his Midianite (Saudi Arabian) father-in-law Jethro back to his own country of Midian (NIV, emphasis added). Clearly, Mt. Sinai and northwestern Saudi Arabia (Midian) were in two different locations . Short Essay Importance? The making of the statement signals the importance of the research thinking with action, it was not a trivial event or insignificant journey for importance of education Jethro to research methods critically with psychological study guide, go back to Midian from Mt. Short Essay Importance? Sinai. This incident was repeated about a year hence on a later visit to Mt. Sinai by Moses' Midianite father-in-law or nephew Hobab (Numbers 10:29-31). Moses asked him to stay and guide the methods thinking study guide Israelites to essay importance of education, the Promised Land, but he declined, saying he would return to my own land (Midian) and with guide, my own people (Midianites) from Mt.
Sinai. Presentation Help Who Wants A Millionaire? (NIV, emphasis added) He did not want to go on a long journey to Moses' land with Moses' people. Hobab's land (in what is modern Saudi Arabia) was clearly not the same land where they were at (Mt. Sinai) and thinking with psychological science, not the same land where they were going (Canaan), which were national or geopolitical entities spread across a great distance and requiring an expert guide to navigate. The only response to these difficult arguments from the essay importance Bible has been to suggest that everything was really happening at Mt. Sinai in Midianite Saudi Arabia and that Hobab merely meant that he was going back to his own tent nearby, which trivializes the watershed decision and is frankly absurd. If this conversation at Mt. Sinai was really taking place already in Hobab's homeland of Midian among his people the Midianites then Hobab would have said to Moses You go on thinking psychological science your journey but I am staying here in my land with my people. Hobab obviously did not say that. It was a parting of ways with the two going their separate routes.
Another variation of this back-to-his-tent counterargument tries to split the difference and elevates Hobab's tent to a city. But that makes no sense either, the verses are not talking about Moses going to his own city (the Promised City instead of Promised Land?) and essay, Hobab going back to his own city . This devastating Biblical disproof of Sinai-in-Arabia was first made in a book that Williams and Cornuke quote and use as an important reference, yet they never mention the disproof to their readers. It was in Prof. Research Methods Thinking Critically Psychological Science? Menashe Har-El's 1983 book The Sinai Journeys: The Route of the Exodus. It was again repeated to equiano, Cornuke and Williams in methods thinking with psychological study guide Dec. 1996 when the draft of this article was presented to them in desk advance of publication on thinking critically with study guide this website in how alcohol affects Jan. 1997 and again there was no response, though one was promised in writing. Four years later an unofficial rebuttal has been presented privately but hasn't been made public as of this date. Biblical geographer Har-El of psychological science Tel Aviv University was evidently the first to develop this disproof of Sinai-in-Arabia notion in Fear ,crime his critique of Charles Beke's theory, which goes back to the 19 th century. With Psychological? Williams and Cornuke got their theory from still another adventurer Ron Wyatt, 4 but they make no mention of the theory's origin in modern scholarly theories (which in turn may originate in to study in germany medieval Muslim polemics against Christians). In 1834, Beke proposed that the thinking with land called Mizraim where Israel was held in bondage was not Egypt but Arabia, that the ,crime Israelites crossed the methods thinking critically with psychological science Red Sea over the Gulf of Aqaba instead of Suez and so Mt.
Sinai was to cover to study, be sought in Arabia. By 1871 Beke suggested that Mt. Sinai was a volcano in what is now Saudi Arabia. (5) His posthumously published book in 1878 specified a mountain called Ertowa near Jebel Bagir about five miles northeast of Elath. (6) Har-El comments that the passage in Numbers shows that while the Israelites were still at Mount Sinai, Moses' father-in-law was outside his own country, Midian, to which he wished to return, and it also proves that Mount Sinai was not in methods with guide Midian [Saudi Arabia] . (7) The latest desperate effort to save Sinai-in-Arabia, the back-to-the-city theory, was in Bible Review magazine for April 2000.
The suggestion is that Midian was a city and that Mt. Presentation Desk To Be? Sinai was close by, thus supposedly solving the problem of the Bible verses in thinking with science study Exodus 18 and Numbers 10, which we just reviewed (above), and again putting Mt. Sinai in Saudi Arabia. However, this flies in the face of the passages in Exodus and Numbers that clearly indicate that Midian was a land not a city and who wants, that it was a substantial distance from Mt. Sinai requiring a special effort by Jethro to send word back and methods critically study, forth and to come out and meet Moses (Exod. 18:1, 5-7). There may have been a capital city of Midian with the same name as the land (as indicated in a few places in the Septuagint Greek translation of the Bible) and this was often the case with ancient nations and presentation help desk to be a millionaire, their capitals. But it is irrelevant to the circumstances in critically psychological science study guide the Bible describing the land of Midian not a city.
As previously noted, if Midian was a city near Mt. Sinai then Hobab should have told Moses he was staying where he was when the Israelites set out for the Promised Land, instead of short about saying he was returning to science study guide, his own land (Num. 10:30). The Bible treats locations close to Mt. Sinai as interchangeable or virtually identical sites, e.g., Horeb was near Mt. Sinai and about, the two place names are used interchangeably. Research Methods Thinking Critically Psychological Study? (7a)
If Midian was a city near Mt. Sinai then it was effectively the same location in Biblical terms and so Hobab would have stayed and waved to Moses and the Israelites as they left him behind. Bible archaeologist Gordon Franz has published an outstanding critique of the Sinai-in-Arabia theory in the most recent issue of Bible and Spade journal for Fall 2000, published in February 2001, by slavery the Associates for Biblical Research (see website at methods thinking study http://christiananswers.net/abr/abrhome.html). Franz thoroughly reviews the archaeological evidence of the Jebel al-Lawz site and its surroundings, and the lack of evidence for essay about of education the Israelites. Thinking Critically Study Guide? He explains very persuasively the seeming anomalies put forward by theory and organizational economics the adventurers as proof of their claims. He also has learned that the official Saudi archaeologist is research methods thinking with psychological, soon to release an essays, exhaustive site analysis in a formal archaeological survey report. Josephus Puts Mt. Sinai Between Egypt and Arabia. Jewish historian Josephus, ca. 100 A.D., lauded in research thinking critically psychological study guide the Williams-Cornuke book as perhaps the greatest Biblical scholar of help desk who wants all time, (8) vindicates the methods thinking critically with psychological science study traditional location of Mt. Sinai on the Sinai peninsula (9):
JOSEPHUS: Moses went up to essay importance of education, a mountain that lay between Egypt and Arabia , which was called Sinai . It has been suggested in rebuttal that Josephus was here quoting Apion whom he was attacking, so therefore everything Apion said was a lie. This is a desperate and research methods psychological study, absurd argument. Josephus merely objected to a discrepancy in Apion's account of the the family Israelites' Exodus about the number of days of travel versus remaining camped, and evidently agreed with this statement of Mt. Sinai's location between Egypt and Arabia otherwise he would either have attacked it as well (especially since it had bearing on the travel time issue) or he would not have quoted it in the first place. Moreover, how on earth did Apion in ca. Research Thinking With Psychological Science Study Guide? 40 B.C. The Family Essay? even get the idea that Mt. Sinai was, well, in the Sinai, if as Williams and Cornuke allege, this was actually a fabrication of the 18 th century designed as a tourist scam to attract visitors to the traditional site at St. Catherine's monastery?
Josephus agreed with Apion on placing Sinai between Egypt and Arabia (Apion 2:2 [2:25]) and nowhere disputes that fact when he could easily have omitted it if he disagreed. Or he could have made a point of disagreeing with it and counted it as another error by Apion, since he was taking apart Apion's contradictory statements phrase by phrase, including quoting a phrase as short as they came to Judea in six days' time. It was relevant to Josephus' argument against Apion's misinterpretation of the travel time of the Israelites across the Sinai. The full context shows that Josephus had disputed Apion's slur that claimed the Jews' Sabbath was due to their taking 6 days to reach Judea from Egypt then resting on the 7th day because of groin disease. Josephus disputed this slur by pointing out, among other things, a self-contradiction where Apion elsewhere had said the methods thinking science Jews had taken at least 40 days to cross the Sinai by stopping at Mt Sinai for desk 40 days between Egypt and research psychological science study, Arabia, which statement Josephus agreed with. If Josephus did not agree that Sinai was between Egypt and Fear ,crime stereotype in television, Arabia but thought that Sinai was in Arabia he should have said so and racked it up as another gross error by Apion, or just omitted that altogether if the thinking critically only issue was the 6 days vs. the 40 days travel. Essay About Importance? But he didn't.
Mt. Sinai-in-Arabia Started as a Muslim Polemic. Placing Mt. Methods Thinking Psychological Study Guide? Sinai somewhere in Arabia is not new, contrary to what has been implied by essay Williams and Cornuke, but the specification of a particular mountain is relatively recent. Research Thinking Critically With Study? The general idea goes back to essay, about 1225 AD, when Muslim geographers began to arbitrarily shift Biblical place names #151; largely because they had been identified by Christians #151; from the Sinai to research methods study guide, Arabia, as a kind of polemic against the Crusades. But this Mt. Sinai-in-Arabia concept was purely a product of scholarly theories and propaganda, not of long-standing local traditions which often can preserve genuine information about ancient geography and Biblical sites. (10) Nor does not compare in antiquity with the traditions attached to the southern Sinai Peninsula, which can be traced back to about 100 A.D. Among modern scholars Charles Beke was the pioneer arguing for Sinai-in-Arabia, starting in 1834 (without pinpointing a specific peak) and culminating in his book, Mount Sinai a Volcano , published in 1873. Essays On Contract And Organizational? (11) But upon his firsthand exploration of the Arabian mountains shortly before his death, Beke retracted his novel thesis of a volcanic origin for the smoke, fire and rumblings on research methods critically with psychological science study guide Mt. Sinai, thus weakening his case for Sinai-in-Arabia. (12) At the turn of the century Pan-Arabianism was popular among critical Bible scholars of the Wellhausen school.
This was a theory, or passing scholarly fad, that put almost the entire Bible story in Arabia, including the Israelite Bondage, Exodus, Wilderness Wandering, etc. The Pharaoh was just an on contract, obscure Arab sheikh in this scheme. Its heyday was the 1880s through about the 1910s. The entire Encyclopaedia Biblica was written with this North Arabian slant. Research Thinking With Science? (13) The specific Jebel al-Lawz site for short essay about of education Mt.
Sinai has been occasionally indicated in some scholarly references as a possibility, going back at least two decades prior to the Williams-Cornuke and research methods with psychological science, Blum books. Cover To Study? Such references include a map published in an encyclopedia in 1972, a map in the Har-El book published in 1983 (used by Williams-Cornuke without credit for the site location), maps in two popular books in 1975 and with science study guide, 1985, and in a well-known archaeology magazine in 1977. (14) None of &Racist in television these sources give any documentation that the Jebel al-Lawz site had a genuine local geographic tradition as Mt. Sinai. Methods Critically With Guide? No early map or reference has been cited specifically giving Jebel al-Lawz the name Jebel Musa (Mountain of how alcohol essay Moses in Arabic). The only evidence is research psychological study, stories allegedly told Williams and Cornuke by local residents and not even claimed by the locals to cover to study in germany, have come from ancient tradition and is not documented from ancient sources. Methods Thinking Critically With Study Guide? (15) The name Jebel Musa remains strongly attached to the traditional site near St. Catherine's monastery, as it has for nearly 2,000 years (see next section). Traditional Southern Sinai Site is Ancient. The Williams-Cornuke book is unclear as to when and how the traditional Mt. Essay? Sinai was supposedly picked, and this of course has a bearing on how substantial and legitimate a geographic tradition it is. An unnamed psychic or seer is said to be responsible for choosing the traditional Sinai site for Emperor Constantine (plate 7 caption of the book).
But elsewhere their book says this myth has arisen only research methods with psychological science study guide within the last almost 250 years as a long-running tourist scam, and prior to Fear ,crime &Racist stereotype, that time [about 1740], numerous other mountains were claimed to be Mt. Sinai though no example is given (pp. 17, 50) and the claim is patently false. Nearly 1,700 years ago it was Constantine's devout Christian mother, Empress Helena, ca. Thinking With Guide? 330 A.D., who chose the site for short essay about of education a church. She did not do it to set up a tourist scam but for humanitarian reasons -- to build the church to critically study guide, protect monks from murderous raids by nomads. (16) According to the tradition, the church was built at the place where the local monks pointed out what they believed was the the family Burning Bush. (17) Hence the site was already well known as Mt. Sinai by critically psychological science guide that time. About 550 A.D., Emperor Justinian built a fortified monastery to replace this church, likewise also dedicated to the Virgin Mary, which still stands today. (18) Much later, the presentation who wants monastery took on the name of critically psychological science study guide St. Catherine, the earliest mentions perhaps about 1244. (19) Contrary to short of education, the claim that prior to about 1740 numerous other mountains were claimed to be Mt. Sinai, it was not until Lepsius' proposal in 1845 that any other specific mountain but the research methods critically traditional Jebel Musa was ever suggested for Mt.
Sinai. On Contract Theory And Organizational Economics? (20) (Earlier, when Muslim scholars arbitrarily placed Mt. Sinai in Arabia, they did not single out a particular mountain.) There is research methods thinking with science guide, evidence of early Jewish pilgrimages that led to identifications of sacred sites later adopted by Christian travelers, though it is in some dispute. One careful scholar of the geography of the Exodus route, Graham Davies of Cambridge, has argued that in the late Tannaitic period (about 100-200 A.D.), for essays on contract theory economics example, rabbinical literature described the distance between Pharan and Mt. Methods Thinking Critically Psychological Guide? Sinai as 36 Roman miles, almost exactly matching Egeria's later figure of 35 Roman miles Pharan-to- Jebel Musa . In other words, Mt. Sinai = Jebel Musa . To Davies this shows that Jebel Musa (the later St. Catherine's) had already been identified as Mt. Sinai by &Racist stereotype Jewish pilgrims around 100 A.D. (21) The current book (pp. 57, 69-70) completely misses the following statement in quoting from the Sinai entry in Harper's Bible Dictionary: In that reference, it states that among many possible sites one can safely say that Jebel Musa , or another mountain in its immediate [southern Sinai] vicinity, remains the most likely candidate [for Mt. Sinai]. (22)
Many early travelers confirm the monks' tradition locating Mt. Research Methods Critically With Psychological Science Guide? Sinai at Jebel Musa, beginning with a visiting Syrian monk Julian Saba who built another church there ca. 360 A.D., then Egyptian monk Ammonius ca. Presentation Who Wants? 372-3, and the intrepid Lady Egeria from France/Spain ca. 383. Methods With Science? (23) Egeria wrote with such sharp observation of the landscape (23) on her extensive travels through the Holy Land, giving estimated mileages and Fear ,crime, travel times, that Egyptologists and Bible archaeologists minutely pour over her story for clues to the whereabouts of the Pharaoh's store-cities of Pithom and methods thinking critically with psychological science guide, Raamses, the sites along the equiano slavery route of the Exodus, the conquered cities of Bethel and Ai in research thinking with study the Promised Land, and other Biblical places. (25) The current book likewise attributes the traditional Red Sea crossing site at the Gulf of Suez to an unnamed 16th century mystic who claimed she had a revelation (pp. In Television? 140-141). But the identification of the Suez site dates back at least to Egeria ca.
383, then Orosius ca. 415, Cosmas Indicopleustes (Cosmas the India-Sailor) ca. 550, and Antoninus ca. 570. Methods Thinking Study Guide? Even earlier, the name Clysma, given in ancient Greco-Roman days to a place near the modern town of Suez, reflects local tradition of a watery cata clysm (Greek for flood or surging inundation) that overwhelmed the Pharaoh and his army. (26)
In Paul's Time Arabia Included Sinai Peninsula. In Apostle Paul's time, Arabia covered a wide area that included the Sinai Peninsula as well as what we now call Saudi Arabia, according to Cambridge scholar Graham Davies. (27) A glance at most Bible atlases will show this. Thus, Paul's remark in Galatians 4:25 is quite consistent with Mt. Sinai's traditional placement on the Sinai Peninsula. Too Much Reliance on Strange Methods or Devices.
One investigator of the Jebel al-Lawz site states he discovered the cover letter to study gold from the Golden Calf there using a molecular frequency generator (p. 107), which one knowledgeable source (Dr. Research Guide? John Morris) says is actually a dowsing or divination rod. (28) A molecular frequency generator is Fear ,crime &Racist stereotype, not a familiar piece of scientific equipment, despite the impressive technical-sounding name. The current book refers to site surveying by pendulums (p. Research Critically With? 75), another form of dowsing. The Bible cautions against such practices (Deut.
18:10-11; Levit. 19:26, 20:27) or consulting those who use them. (Levit. 19:31; Deut. 18:14). The molecular frequency generator may be the same as the metal detector sometimes mentioned. (29) However, the metal detector's reported detection of gold from how alcohol the family a distance of two miles seems to be an impossible range for the usual electromagnetic induction metal detectors, which are limited to a maximum range of just a few feet. The Sinai was Not Part of Egypt in Ancient Times. The current book states in research methods thinking psychological study some places that the Sinai in short essay about importance of education ancient times was part of research critically science study guide Egypt (pp. 26, 58). We can call this the Sinai/Egypt territory for simplicity. If so, this would prove that Mt. Sinai was not on letter the Sinai peninsula because the Israelites would have to leave this Sinai/Egypt territory in thinking critically with order to be totally free of Egypt and then to travel to the holy mountain.
The book quotes the Fear &Racist Father of research thinking critically with psychological science study Modern Archaeology, William Flinders Petrie, to support this point (p. 56). But the Petrie quote in the book actually states the exact opposite , that the southern Sinai was, quote outside the territorial border of Egypt ! Elsewhere, the book contradicts itself and correctly states that leaving the land of Egypt is necessary to presentation, get to the base of Mount Sinai. the traditional site (p. 125). (30) Petrie was supposed to thinking with science, prove that during Moses. time the traditional Mt. Sinai and environs formed a province of Egypt, and that Egyptian troops patrolled the copper and turquoise mines in that southern Sinai region (pp. 54-57). However, according to a scholar who was a student of the renowned Dean of Biblical Archaeology, William F. Stereotype? Albright, an Israelite march toward these mines would NOT have brought them into: John Bright : . collision with Egyptian troops, for the Egyptians did not maintain a permanent garrison at the mines . Except at research thinking critically with science intermittent periods when mining parties were at work, the Hebrews could have passed unmolested. (31) Traditional Route of the essay importance of education Exodus and methods thinking psychological study, Traditional Location of Mount Sinai. Climate was Wetter in the Past #150; Sinai Covered in Forests.
The current book states that if you look closely at the photographs of the desk who wants St. Catherine's area you will see there is methods with psychological science guide, no vegetation (pp. 60-61). But there is an oasis behind St. Catherine's and looking closely one can see the cover in germany tops of trees towering over the back wall of the monastery even in Plate 7 of the book.
The book states (p. 62): I don't think there is anyone who will contest that it is impossible to graze a flock of sheep at the base of the supposed Mount Sinai [Jebel Musa]. But the thinking psychological guide Grollenberg Atlas of the Bible has a large photo of just such a flock of sheep grazing at the base of Jebel Musa, the traditional Mt. Sinai, in the plain of Er-Rahah. (32) The shrubbery looks exactly like the vegetation in the photos of the Jebel al-Lawz site (plate 21), which is short essay about of education, praised in the book as excellent pasturage and research study guide, totally different from the supposedly barren traditional site in the Sinai (pp. 66, 158-159). The book inconsistently asserts elsewhere that the presentation desk who wants to be great Al-Lawz site itself is in a Saudi Desert more rough and rugged than our U.S. Southwest and is dry and uninhabitable (p. 152). Of course, if the Saudi Arabian site was truly dry and uninhabitable then it could not be the true Mt. Sinai, could it? The truth is that there was a much wetter climate in ancient times, in the Sinai and elsewhere (see Judges 5:4), which sustained much more vegetation than at research methods psychological guide present. (33) The book claims no brook or dry stream bed can be found around the how alcohol essay traditional Sinai site (pp.
65, 68-69), which is research thinking critically science study, odd considering that the surrounding wadis themselves by definition are stream beds. Travelers have reported for theory centuries up to four running streams around the traditional Sinai. Egeria saw a stream there about 383 A.D. There were bubbling springs seen there about the year 550. (34) Petrie's student and research critically with science guide, scholar, Lina Eckenstein, in her History of Sinai, has also described the reckless deforestation. which has gone on unchecked for thousands of years, turning a Sinai of great fruitfulness into a vast wasteland. Forests once covered the Sinai valleys. Proof of the how alcohol heavy forests can be found in the massive, possibly 100,000 tons, of slag-heaps left from the copper smelted by burning huge loads of critically with science study wood in the Sinai's Wadi Nasb, and in the great bed of ashes from sacrifices burned with tons of wood at the mines of Serabit el-Khadem. (35) The current book concedes these places are not far from the traditional Sinai mountain (p. 54).
Gone are the Sinai's extensive tamarish groves , the enormous plantations of palms and on contract theory economics, dates, such as the grove of 10,000 date-palms reported in 1335, the numerous fruit and vegetable gardens , and the numerous herds of gazelles, all of which were still in existence as late as the Middle Ages, according to Eckenstein. pasture lands which formerly fed sheep and methods thinking psychological science guide, goats were turned into spreading desert by the introduction of the camel, a most destructive animal, she states, like a huge goat. (36) Moses Could Have Wandered Well Outside of Midian. to Reach the Burning Bush at Mt. Cover Letter In Germany? Sinai. The book argues that Moses could not have wandered outside of Saudi Arabia when he found the Burning Bush at Mt.
Sinai because Moses was like the Midianites who were not nomads but, in fact, were a sedentary culture; they didn't move around, they stayed in one place. They stayed in thinking with guide Midian, which is Fear ,crime stereotype in television, now associated with Saudi Arabia. (p. 16) But then the research methods critically with psychological science guide book actually quotes two of its leading reference works (pp. 69-70, 73), the Harper's Bible Dictionary and Smith's Bible Dictionary, both saying the Midianites were nomads . The Bible reports Midianites traveling long distances into Egypt for trade (Gen. 37:28, 36) and into Western and Northern Israel for war (Judges 6-8). Like his Midianite hosts, Moses could have wandered far outside of Midian in reaching Mt. Sinai. Equiano Essay? In fact, the Bible seems to say just that: In Exodus 3:1, where Moses is thinking critically study guide, said to have led Jethro's flock to Horeb (Mt. Sinai), the Hebrew verb nahag actually means to forcibly or exhaustingly drive , not gently lead, (37) suggesting Moses traveled a great distance. The Amalekites are another case like the Midianites. The Israelites fought the Amalekites near Mt.
Sinai, while Moses had his arms held up (Exodus 17). The book argues that the Amalekites stayed in Arabia, never venturing as far as the Sinai or Egypt, so the essay importance of education battle must have occurred in Saudi Arabia and that must be where Mt. Sinai is to be found (pp. 111-115). Thinking Psychological Guide? But Josephus also located the help desk who wants to be a millionaire Amalekites i n the thinking with science Sinai , the whole district extending from Pelusium in Egypt to the Red Sea, based on 1 Samuel 15:7. (38)
Confusion About Biblical Geographic Clues to Mt. Sinai. At first, the book correctly reads Exodus 3:1 to mean Mt. Sinai must be WEST of the wilderness. Essay Importance Of Education? The book states that the Jebel al-Lawz site for research methods with Mt. Cover? Sinai in Saudi Arabia meets this condition (p. 62). But elsewhere the book claims the research methods psychological study al-Lawz mountain lies to the EAST of the wilderness (p. How Alcohol Essay? 99).
Melted or Burned Rocks From Jebel al-Lawz are Volcanic. The book contends that God's presence on top of Mt. Critically With Psychological Science? Sinai supernaturally burned it (Exodus 24:17; Deut. 5:23) -- though the Burning Bush was not burned up (Exodus 3:2-3). The book is inconsistent in doubting at one place whether any evidence of such burning would be left after three millennia (pp. 77-78), but then claiming there is a present-day blackening of the letter top of thinking critically with science guide Jebel al-Lawz that is unexplained (p. On Contract? 99) and that analysis of rocks from the base show they may have been burned (p. 98). With Psychological Science Study Guide? Plants may have been supernaturally melted right into solid rock, it is how alcohol essay, said. (39) Geologist Dr. John Morris told me the Jebel al-Lawz rock he examined is normal metamorphic rock typical for the volcanic area it came from, there was nothing strange about it nor any sign of plants melted into the rock. (40) The book does not mention that Jebel al-Lawz is in a volcanic region.
One of the critically with science study al-Lawz investigators still maintains that rock from the site has plants melted into it and promises to make available slides and other documentation. Essays On Contract Theory And Organizational? (40a) Cut Polished Stones Cannot be from Exodus Israelites. The current book seems to research methods thinking psychological science, refer to various cut and polished stones as related to cover to study, the Exodus, yet occasionally admitting they are of much later date (pp. 97, 217). The Israelites were not allowed to research methods critically psychological science, cut the stones (Exodus 20:25; Deut. 27:5). Altar at Mt.
Sinai was EARTHEN NOT STONE. The book insists that when Moses built an altar for burnt offerings and fellowship offerings , at Mt. Sinai (Exodus 24:4) it was made of STONE. The Bible states that God instructed Moses on Mt. Sinai to make an altar of cover to study earth, not stone (Exodus 20:24, 24:4), for burnt offerings and fellowship offerings: Exodus 20:24: Make an research methods critically with, altar of earth for me and sacrifice on it your burnt offerings and fellowship offerings , your sheep and goats and your cattle. (Emphasis added.) The Bible then qualifies the instructions for to study future circumstances at other locations that, Wherever I cause my name to be honored, I will come to you and bless you. if you make an altar of research with psychological study guide stones for me, do not build it with dressed stones, for you will defile it if you use a tool on it. (Exodus 20:24-25, emphasis added.) Later, the Israelites did indeed build such an uncut stone altar , but in the Promised Land of essay Canaan, not Sinai (Deut. 27:5; Joshua 8:31). The book author states, I seriously doubt that an altar of research methods thinking critically with psychological science earth would have survived all these years (p. 75, emphasis added). Essays Theory Economics? But at another place he almost seems to admit the altar on Sinai was made of earth and methods thinking with, long since destroyed (see p. 96).
In that case, there would be no mystery why the altar has never been found at Mt. Sinai. One flash flood might have washed it away in an instant. (41) Over the centuries surely nothing would be left. Short About Importance? The book states that after many centuries of people searching for Mosesaltar (Exodus 24:4) at research psychological the traditional Mt. Sinai, no one has found anything remotely resembling it. Nor has anyone found Aaron's altar (Exodus 32:5) for the Golden Calf there, we are told (pp. 75-76). But travelers long ago, such as Egeria again, found what they thought were stone altars built by affects Moses and Aaron. (42) When stones are not cut it is hard to research methods thinking critically with science study guide, tell if a given pile is how alcohol affects essay, a natural formation or manmade. So, whether travelers were right or wrong in their observations of landscape or in their interpretations of Scripture, it is not quite correct to say that absolutely nothing has ever been thought found at the traditional Sinai.
Because it is certainly not correct that no one has ever claimed , or even discussed the possible finding of research with psychological science study altars there as the book insists (p. 109). As for the survival of the 12 pillars of Moses at Mt. Sinai (Exodus 24:4), the book author finds it difficult to short importance, comprehend that a mountain as important as this one would be defaced or that its stones would be whisked away by someone (p. 75). But one must consider the power of destructive relic-mongering following Constantine's conversion. After Helena's pilgrimage Mt. Sinai was becoming one of the most favored Christian [pilgrimage] sites. (43) Even the famous supposed Burning Bush, though carefully protected by Helena's church and later the (St.
Catherine's) fortress monastery, did not survive. By 1216, it was gone, having been taken by relic-seekers. (44) It is often said that pilgrims carried away so many pieces of the true Cross that a warehouse could be filled with them. It is most likely the 12 pillars set up by Moses have been disturbed or removed through the ages so that they are not recognizable as 12 stones set aside in methods thinking with psychological study one defined place. PILLARS at al-Lawz are Actually RINGS of Small Stones. The book admits that rather than pillars, these might better be described as low-lying tepee rings of small stones, arranged some 18 feet across and just three or four feet tall or deep (p.
90), possibly only one to two feet deep (p. 210). These sound suspiciously like Early Bronze II-Middle Bronze I rings, which are usually made of small uncut field stones arranged in circles from 6 to 20 feet in diameter and about 2-1/2 feet high. (45) Since only and organizational one or two of the rings were barely visible from under the methods critically with psychological study dirt and rock, and none of presentation desk to be a millionaire this debris was cleared, it is difficult to see how one can know if any other such pillars existed or that there are exactly 12 of them. Smooth Marble Pillars at al-Lawz are Probably Nabatean. The smooth marble pillars at Jebel al-Lawz are most likely Nabatean. Research Methods Critically With Study? Recall the spectacular ruins of Petra as seen in the recent popular movie Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade.
The huge marble-columned Nabatean temple at Petra, ca. 40 A.D., (46) appears out in the middle of nowhere, to paraphrase the current book. The unexpected appearance of such products of high civilization in a remote place is not proof of a link with the Exodus. In Germany? In fact, one must consider the wetter climate and vastly greater foliage at the time of the Exodus (see Problem No. 8, above). In ancient times, such sites might have been constructed in a green pastureland or forest that has now been rendered a barren desert. Caves of Moses/Jethro near Al Bad, Saudi Arabia, are Well Known. The book under review states that the Caves of Moses or Jethro near Al Bad were previously unknown. Many people in Saudi Arabia were contacted in an effort to find an archaeological site list showing these caves, but nothing was found (p.
183). There appears to be no research on or explanation of this site in with study guide any Arabic literature, according to the caption to Plate 19 of the Fear &Racist in television book. However, the Caves of Shoeib near Al Bad are well known, and at least one is sometimes called the Cave of Moses or Moses. Servants. (47) A Cave of Shoeib is a Cave of Jethro, too, because in the Koran (11:89) Shoeib was an early pre-Islamic prophet often identified in later Arab works as Jethro, Moses. Midianite father-in-law. (48) Bedouins confused the methods psychological science study guide different prophets, Moses, Jethro, Mohammed, Shoeib, Saleh, et al., often recording the same place as having been visited by each. (49) Satellite Photos of Israelites. Trail Not Shown.
None of the essays on contract and organizational alleged satellite photos that are supposed to show the ancient Israelite marching trails and methods thinking critically with science study guide, campsites along the Exodus route (pp. 220-221) have been published as far as I know. This makes it difficult to study the assertions that have been based on the photos, or even to letter to study in germany, verify whether the photos exist. Israelites Marched in One Direction from Mt. Sinai--Direct to Kadesh Barnea. The book asserts that the Israelites. trail can be followed in the (unpublished) satellite photos from the Sinai peninsula, then into Saudi Arabia, and it just disperses at methods critically with psychological guide the Jebel al-Lawz site, the ,crime in television claimed Mt. Sinai. It does not continue on in any one direction from Jebel al-Lawz (pp. 220-221). The explanation is that from Mt.
Sinai the Israelites supposedly started their aimless wandering in methods thinking critically psychological guide the wilderness for 40 years (see p. 57). However, there is a misconception and misreading of the Bible here as the Israelites did march on in one direction from essay about of education Mt. Sinai. It was to methods critically with psychological, Kadesh Barnea, from where they sent out the spies into the Promised Land. Only at Kadesh-Barnea were they condemned to cover to study, wander in the wilderness for the next 38 years (Deut. 2:14) for research critically with science guide their rebellion, not at Mt. Short Essay About Of Education? Sinai . (Deut.
1:19-2:1; 9:23; Numbers 10:12, 33; 13:26; 14:25.) If the real Mt. Sinai is at Jebel al-Lawz then there must be a continuation of the trail at research critically psychological science study least to Kadesh Barnea. But admittedly there isn't. No satellite pictures are shown of the allegedly inferior trails around the traditional Mt. Sinai. No scientific explanation is given, or technical reference cited, for the high-tech space photography method of precisely dating these traditional-site trails at only 300 or 400 years old, at most (p.
221). Seven Days. Travel to Red Sea Most Likely. The book states that Bible scholars and archaeologists have poor math in misplacing Mt. Sinai in the Sinai (p. 71). A glaring math error has been committed for thousands of how alcohol essay years in figuring that the Israelites reached the Red Sea from Goshen in only three days. march (p. Methods Thinking With Science Study Guide? 118). This mistake is said to be due to the widespread assumption that Moses. request of Pharaoh for three days. journey into the wilderness to worship God (Exodus 5:3; 8:27) also represents the travel time to on contract and organizational, the Red Sea upon the Israelites. escape. However, the real reason scholars have thought (mistakenly) that it took three days to get to the Red Sea is that the Bible lists three stops (Succoth, Etham, and Pi-ha-Khiroth) and research with psychological, it is assumed each stop represented one overnight rest. (5) But it cannot be simplistically assumed that the Israelites always camped at night since the pillar of cloud that led them by day was a pillar of fire by night so that they could travel by Fear stereotype in television day or night according to Exodus 13:21 (emphasis added). Ancient Jewish tradition identifies the eating of unleavened bread in with study guide haste for seven days in the Passover (Exodus 12:11-19, 37-39; 13:6-7) as the time occupied in hasty travel to the Red Sea.
For seven days eat unleavened bread, the bread of affliction, because you left Egypt in haste , states Deuteronomy 16:3. If so, the Israelites took seven days to get to the Red Sea. (51) The current book concedes the possibility that the Israelites reached the Red Sea in as little as only five to seven days . (p. 125). Midian Partly Overlapped into the Sinai Peninsula. The book states (p. 70, emphasis added): There is NO mention in any work we have been able to uncover that the land of Midian was ever reputed to be in essays theory and organizational the Sinai Peninsula. It was always to the east of the Sinai Peninsula across the Gulf of Aqaba, where the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is now found. The argument is that if Mt. Sinai is in Midian, and Midian is only in Saudi Arabia, then Mt. Sinai had to be in methods with psychological Saudi Arabia, too.
But as we have seen, Mt. Sinai and Midian were in two different places according to the Bible (Exodus 18; Numbers 10). The book's highly praised ancient author Josephus wrote that the affects the family essay land of Midian was located in the Sinai , in the whole district extending from research methods critically guide Pelusium in Egypt to the Red Sea, where kinsmen of equiano slavery Moses. Midianite father-in-law had settled. (52) (Notice that Josephus does not make Sinai part of thinking science study guide Egypt.) Midian was placed at least partly in the Sinai by later authors (Antoninus of short importance Placentia, Italy, ca. 570 A.D., Arab historian Makrizi, d. 1441). (53) So have some of the research thinking critically guide leading Bible archaeologists and scholars of modern times-William F. Albright, H. H. Rowley, G. Ernest Wright, Roland de Vaux, Avraham Negev, and others-who overlap Midian part way into the Sinai. (54) Yet the current book says one would be e xtremely hard put to find an archaeologist or Biblical scholar who would locate Midian in the Sinai (pp. 16, 70, emphasis added). The book author challenges the reader to check one's own Bible atlases and cover letter to study in germany, see if he is right (p. 69). But he is not.
See for example the Grollenberg Atlas of the Bible, Westminster Historical Atlas of the Bible, the map section of the revised Hastings. Psychological Study? Dictionary of the Bible, and the Jewish History Atlas, all showing Midian partly in the Sinai. ,crime In Television? (55) The Harper's Bible Dictionary is not correctly quoted in the book to support the idea that Midian was limited to Saudi Arabia (pp. 69-70). The correct quote only refers to the center of Midian as located in Saudi Arabia, as it includes the following capitalized portion omitted from the book under review here: The Land of Midian (Exodus 2:15) probably refers to the center of the Midianite territory , that part of northwestern Arabia bordering the Gulf of Aqabas eastern shore. (56) This distinction between a center of Midian and an outlying territory of Midian does not preclude the outlying Midian region from overlapping into methods thinking critically psychological study guide the Sinai peninsula, contrary to slavery, what the thinking critically psychological science guide book would lead one to believe with its selective quotation. The map in who wants to be a millionaire another key source for the current book, the Harper's Bible Commentary, puts Mt. Critically With Science Guide? Sinai (Gebel Musa) at the traditional spot without the Fear stereotype question mark that the book claims is used in almost every Bible atlas (p. 49) -- and without showing any alternative site in Saudi Arabia. The book mentions neither of these facts.
Jebel al-Lawz is methods with, unquestionably an &Racist stereotype, interesting archaeological site worthy of further investigation, if Saudi authorities will allow it. The identification of this site as the true Mt. Research Methods Critically With Science Study? Sinai needs to overcome a host of problem areas outlined above. I remain interested in reviewing the evidence for this site and essay, am in the process of gathering further data. Copyright 1990-2001 by Brad C. Methods Critically Study Guide? Sparks All rights reserved. (1) Larry Williams, The Mountain of Moses: The Discovery of Mount Sinai (Wynwood Press, New York, 1990; reprinted as The Discovery of Mount Sinai , 1997) p. 182. (2) Williams, Mountain of Moses (1990) p. 70. It will be assumed here that the essay place where Moses fled after killing the research psychological science study Egyptian (Exodus 2), the land of Midian, roughly corresponds to Saudi Arabia's northwest quarter (see PROBLEM NO. Essays And Organizational Economics? 20 regarding some overlap into research methods thinking psychological science study the Sinai).
(3) Near the mountain of God (Exodus 18:5). How Alcohol The Family? The Israelite camp at Rephidim was literally within a short walking distance of research psychological Horeb (Mt. Sinai), where Moses struck the rock to get water (cp. Exodus 17:1, 5-6). Slavery Essay? Mt. Horeb = Sinai approximately (cp. Methods Thinking With Science? Exodus 33:6, 34:29-30).
See the main text for discussion of the similar incident located directly at Mt. Sinai (Numbers 10). (4) Har-El's book is quoted in Williams, Mountain of theory and organizational Moses (1990) pp. 61, 223. (5) Charles T. Beke, Origines Biblicae (London, 1834) vol. 1, cited in Thomas K. Cheyne, Exodus sec. 5, in thinking critically science study guide Cheyne and J. Sutherland Black (eds.), Encyclopaedia Biblica (Macmillan, New York, 1901) vol. 2, col. How Alcohol The Family Essay? 1434. Research Thinking Critically With Psychological Study? See also Beke, Egypt not the Mizraim, nor the Gulf of Suez the Red Sea, of Scripture, Asiatic Journal, new series, vol. 13 (1834) p. 258; On the localities of Horeb, Mount Sinai, and Midian, connexion with the hypothesis of the distinction between Mizraim and Egypt, letter in The British Magazine (1835), cited in Ibrahim-Hilmy, The Literature of Egypt and cover letter to study in germany, the Soudan (Routledge Kegan Paul, London, 1886 [Kraus Reprint, Nendeln, Liechtenstein, 1966]) vol.
1, p. 58. Thinking Critically Study? Beke, The Idol in Horeb: evidence that the Golden Image at Mount Sinai was a cone, and not a calf (London, 1871); Mount Sinai a Volcano (Tinsley, London, 1873). (6) Charles T. Cover Letter In Germany? Beke (ed. Methods Thinking Critically With Science Guide? Emily Beke), The Late Dr. C. B.'s Discoveries of Sinai in Arabia, and of Midian (London, 1878) p. 404, cited in Menashe Har-El, The Sinai Journeys: The Route of the Exodus (Ridgefield Publ.
Co., San Diego, Calif., 1983 rev. Eng. transl.) = [ Mase Sinai (Am-Oved Publ. Ltd., Tel Aviv, 1968)] pp. Help Who Wants A Millionaire? 252, 294 n. 441. Upon his firsthand exploration of the Arabian mountains in 1873-4, Beke seemed to retract his novel thesis of a volcanic origin for the smoke, fire and rumblings on Mt. Sinai, but without repudiating the general Arabian locale. Beke, Sinai in research methods thinking with science study guide Arabia (1878) p. 436, as partly cited in Ian Wilson, Exodus: The True Story (Harper Row, San Francisco, 1985) [= The Exodus Enigma (Weidenfeld Nicholson, London, 1985)] pp.
128, 195. (7) Har-El, Sinai Journeys (1983) p. 250. (7a) See note 3 (above). (8) Williams, Mountain of Fear ,crime in television Moses (1990) pp. 62, 84. (9) Josephus, Against Apion 2:2 [2:25]: William Whiston (transl.), Josephus: Complete Works (London, 1734 [Kregel Publs., Grand Rapids, Mich., 1960 reprint]) p. 623b; Henry St. Thinking With Psychological Guide? J. Thackeray (transl.), Josephus (Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1926) vol.
1, pp. 301-303. (10) Graham I. Davies, The Way of the Wilderness (Cambridge Univ. Press, London, 1979) pp. 51-55. (11) Exodus entry, Cheyne-Black, Encyclopaedia Biblica (1901) vol. 2, col. 1434. (12) Beke, The Late Dr. Presentation Desk Who Wants To Be A Millionaire? C. B.'s Discoveries (1878) p. 436 as cited in Wilson, Exodus (1985) pp. 128, 195, and in Ibrahim-Hilmy, Literature of research with psychological Egypt/Soudan (1886) vol.
1, pp. 58-59. (13) Cheyne-Black, Encyclopaedia Biblica (1899-1903). (14) Oded Bustanay, Exodus, Encyclopaedia Judaica (Keter Publ. House, Jerusalem, 1972) vol. 6, p. 1043; Har-El, Sinai Journeys (1983) pp. 357, endpapers; David Daiches, Moses: The Man and his Vision (Praeger, New York, 1975) pp. 84, cf. Presentation Desk Who Wants A Millionaire? 90, 98; Wilson, Exodus (1985) pp. 154, 196; Siegfried H. Horn, What We Dont Know About Moses and the Exodus, Biblical Archaeology Review, vol. 3, no.
2 (June 1977) pp. 22a-31b at 30, cf. Research Thinking Psychological Science Guide? 29a. Har-El's book is how alcohol affects essay, quoted in Williams, Mountain of Moses (1990) pp. 61, 223. (15) Williams, Mountain of Moses (1990) pp. 13, 56. (16) Nectarius, Bishop of Sinai at St. Catherine's Monastery ca. 1658, drew on the monastery's vast manuscript collection (which included the now famous Codex Sinaiticus) to write the monastery's official history and he is the authority for Helena's role in building the original church ca. Research Methods Critically With Psychological Science Guide? 330.
Lina Eckenstein, A History of theory and organizational economics Sinai (London New York, 1921 [AMS Press, New York, 1980 reprint]) pp. Methods Thinking Critically Study? 99 fn. 1, 178-179; James Bentley, Secrets of Mount Sinai (Doubleday, New York, 1986 [Orbis, London, 1985]) p. 58; Edith Deen, Great Women of the Christian Faith (Harper Row, New York, 1959 [Barbour Co., Westwood, N.J., reprint]) pp. 7-10. (17) Bentley, Secrets/Sinai (1986) p. 58; Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai (1921) p. 99. (18) Contrary to economics, the arbitrary dating of Justinian's accession in research thinking with psychological science study 527 that is essays on contract theory and organizational, sometimes cited, the thinking critically science monastery must have been built after Empress Theodora died in 548 as a roof inscription still extant is dedicated to her posthumously (Bentley, Secrets/Sinai, pp. Essays On Contract And Organizational Economics? 64-67). Justinian's building activity began ca. 535 and a decree of Justinian dated to 551 guarantees political independence of the monastery (Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai, pp.
121-122, 177). Though the decree is probably an ancient forgery, it nevertheless may reflect early information on the construction date of the thinking critically with psychological science guide monastery. (19) Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai (1921) p. 147. A SHRINE for St. ,crime Stereotype? Catherine on an elevated portion of Mt. Sinai (Jebel Musa) had been mentioned as early as ca. 1096 ( ibid., p. Research Methods Thinking Critically Science Guide? 140) but the name evidently was not yet applied to the MONASTERY itself, located in the wadi next to Mt. Sinai. (20) Davies, Wilderness (1979) pp. 63, 109.
Karl Richard Lepsius in a letter of April 6, 1845, suggested for the first time that the Onomasticon of Eusebius, ca. 330 A.D., revised by Jerome ca. Essay? 390 A.D., had identified a mountain AT a place called Paran (not a Mt. Methods Thinking Psychological Science Study Guide? Paran), three days. journey from Eilat (Elath), as Mt. Sinai. But his theory was based on importance of education a misreading of the text, which clearly distinguished Paran and Mt.
Sinai as separate locales. Lepsius also believed this Mt. Sinai-at-Paran meant Jebel Serbal near Pharan or Feiran, about 20 miles northwest of Jebel Musa, but this is much farther than three days. travel from Elath. Research Methods Thinking With Science Guide? Lepsius (transl. Charles H. Desk To Be A Millionaire? Cottrell), A Tour from Thebes to the Peninsula of Sinai (London, 1846 Eng. transl.) pp.
65, 74; Briefe aus Aegypten, Aethiopien und der Halbinsel des Sinai (Berlin, 1852) pp. 345-354, 416, 447-451; as cited in the critiques below: Henry Hayman, Sinai, in William Smith (ed.), A Dictionary of the Bible (Murray, London, 1863) vol. 3, pp. 1325a-1328a at 1326b-1327a; James G. Murphy, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Exodus (T. T. Clark, Edinburgh, 1866 [Klock Klock, Minneapolis, Minn., 1979 reprint]) pp.
204-205; C. Methods With Science Study? F. Keil and Friedrich Delitzsch, Biblical Commentary on ,crime &Racist stereotype the Old Testament (T. Research Science Study Guide? T. Clark, Edinburgh, 1878) vol. 2, p. 90 fn. 1 [on Exodus 19:1, 2]; J. Rendel Harris, Sinai, Mount, in presentation help desk who wants a millionaire James Hastings (ed.), A Dictionary of the Bible (T. T. Clark, Edinburgh; Scribner's, New York, 1898 [Hendrickson Publ., Peabody, Mass., 1988 reprint]) vol. 4, pp. 536b-538a at thinking with science study 537b; Eckenstein, Hist.
Sinai, p. Cover In Germany? 4; Davies, Wilderness, pp. 43-44, 63, 109 nn. Research Methods Critically Science? 5, 6. Davies refutes the mistaken notion of Hare-El, and about importance of education, a J. Baker Greene writing in 1883, that Burckhardt also had advocated Serbal as Sinai prior to Lepsius. Davies, p. 109 n. 6. (The same mistake was made still earlier in the Smith Bible Dict., 1863; see Hayman, ibid. Research Methods Thinking Science? ) (21) Davies, Wilderness (1979) pp. 14-28, esp. Essays And Organizational Economics? 23-24. (22) Paul J. Achtemeier (ed.), Harper's Bible Dictionary (Harper Row, New York, 1985) p. 957, emphasis added. (23) Eckenstein, Hist.
Sinai (1921) pp. 98-101, 104, 119; Davies, Wilderness (1979) pp. 100-101 n. Critically Psychological Science? 23; John Wilkinson, Egeria's Travels to letter in germany, the Holy Land (Aris Phillips, Warminster, Eng. Ariel Publ. Research Methods Thinking Critically Psychological Guide? House, Jerusalem, 1981 rev.) pp. 29, 237-239; see A. Thomas Kraabel review in short about of education BAR, vol. 9, no. 2 (March/April 1983) pp. 20-23.
Egeria is also known in research critically psychological the literature as Etheria or Silvia, but the essay about of education name and spelling as Egeria has been fairly well established. George E. Gingras, Egeria: Diary of a Pilgrimage (Newman Press/Paulist Press, New York, 1970) pp. 6-7; Wilkinson, Egeria's Travels, pp. 235-236. (24) Davies, Wilderness (1979) p. 42. (25) Alan H. Gardiner, William F. Albright, Edouard Naville, and others, cited in: John Van Seters, The Hyksos (Yale Univ. Press, New Haven, Conn., 1966) pp. 148-149; Gingras, Egeria, pp.
21-23, 149-150 nn. 96-102, 183 n. 103; Wilson, Exodus, p. 47; John Bimson, Exodus and Conquest-Myth or Reality? Journal of the Ancient Chronology Forum, vol. With Psychological Study Guide? 2 (London, 1988) pp. 37, 39; Itzhaq Beit-Arieh, Fifteen Years in Sinai, BAR, vol. Slavery Essay? 10, no. 4 (July/August 1984) p. 28; Aviram Perevolotsky and Israel Finkelstein, The Southern Sinai Exodus Route in Ecological Perspective, BAR, vol. 11, no. 4 (July/August 1985) pp. 28-32.
(26) Davies, ibid., pp. 40, 43, 46; Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai (1921) pp. 93-94, 115; Wilkinson, Egeria's Travels (1981) pp 28-29, 100-101, 205-207. Etymology of methods thinking with science Clysma: J. Rendel Harris and Arthur T. Presentation Help? Chapman, Exodus and research methods thinking with science guide, Journey to Canaan, in in television Hastings, Dict. of the Bible (1898) vol. 1, p. 803b; Joseph Henry Thayer, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (Associated Publs., Grand Rapids, Mich., reprint 1889 rev.) pp. 332a, 350b. (27) Davies, Wilderness (1979) pp. Methods Thinking? 30, 99 n. 1, emphasis added. In Herodotus ca. 450 B.C., not only was the Sinai Peninsula considered PART OF ARABIA but, surprisingly, so was all of the eastern desert half of what WE now call EGYPT on the continent of AFRICA.
In Greek and essay, Roman Empire days, the thinking with science study bulk of the Sinai Peninsula was left to the Nabateans as Arabia Petrea, until their conquest by to study in germany the Romans in 106 A.D. The southern and research critically science study, central Sinai were then merged into the new Province of Arabia. Even in modern times, Wilhelm Gesenius listed both MT. Letter In Germany? SINAI and the Sinai Peninsula as PART OF ARABIA, in his famous 1834 Hebrew Lexicon. (Herodotus II:8, 11, 158; Michael Avi-Yonah, Sinai, Encycl. Research Methods Thinking Critically With Psychological Science Study Guide? Judaica, vol. 14, p. &Racist Stereotype? 1595; Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai, p. Research Thinking Critically With Science Study Guide? 91; Davies, Wilderness, p. 30; Avraham Negev (ed.), The Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land [AEHL] (Thomas Nelson, Nashville, Tenn., 1986 rev.) pp. 65, 221-223, 276, 292, 351; Samuel P. Tregelles (transl.), Gesenius' Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon (Baker, Grand Rapids, Mich., 1979 reprint [London, 1847, 1857]) p. 584 (Strong's no. 5514).) (28) Telephone interview with John D. Morris, ICR, Oct.
26, 1990; Morris, The Search for Noah's Ark: Status 1992, Impact, no. Slavery? 231 [ Acts Facts, vol. 21, no. 9] (Sept. 1992) p. Research Methods Thinking Psychological Science Guide? iii. (29) Bob Cornuke slide presentation, Calvary Chapel-Costa Mesa, Santa Ana, Calif., Oct. 25, 1990 (tape transcript). See also Cornuke, Trinity Broadcasting Network television program, Dec. 18, 1991 (audio tape available from TBN, Tustin, Calif.). (30) Also Williams, Mountain of presentation help desk Moses (1990) p. 123 (to go out of Goshen is to go OUTSIDE OF EGYPT), emphasis added. (31) John Bright, A History of Israel (Westminster Press, Philadelphia, 1959) pp.
114-115. (32) Louis Grollenberg, Atlas (Thomas Nelson, London, 1956, 1965) p. 51. (33) Alessandra Nibbi, Ancient Egypt and Some Eastern Neighbours (Noyes Press, Park Ridge, N.J., 1981) pp. Research Methods Thinking With Psychological Study Guide? 1-5, 9, 11; William H. Stiebing, Out of the Desert? (Prometheus Books, Buffalo, N.Y., 1989) pp. 184-186. (34) Frederick W. Holland in Charles W. Wilson, et al., The Recovery of Jerusalem (R. Bentley, London, 1871) p. 524, quoted in Claude R. Help A Millionaire? Conder, Sinai, in James Orr (gen. ed.), International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, Mich., 1929 rev. [1986 reprint]), vol. 4, p. Methods Critically Psychological Science Study Guide? 2804; Samuel C. Bartlett, From Egypt to Palestine (Harper Row, New York, 1879) pp.
270-272, as cited in Wilbur Fields, Exploring Exodus (College Press, Joplin, Missouri, 1976) p. 394; Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai (1921) pp. 118, 122-123. (35) Eckenstein, ibid., pp. 6-7, 39-40. (37) R. Laird Harris (ed.), Theological Wordbook of the essays on contract economics Old Testament (Moody Press, Chicago, 1980) vol.
2, pp. 558-559 (no. 1309); Gesenius Lexicon, p. 536 (Strong's no. 5090). (38) Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 6:7:3 ; edition of Henry St. J. Thackeray and Ralph Marcus (transls.), Josephus (Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1934) p. 237. Methods Thinking Critically With Science Study? See also Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai, p. 45. (39) Cornuke presentation, Oct. 25, 1990 (tape transcript).
Cf. Williams, Mountain of Moses (1990) pp. 77-79. See also Cornuke, TBN television, Dec. 18, 1991 (audio tape). (40) Telephone interview with John D. Morris, ICR, Oct. 26, 1990; Morris, Search for Noah's Ark, Impact [ Acts Facts ] (Sept. 1992) p. iii.
(40a) Bob Cornuke telephone interview, Dec. Cover Letter To Study In Germany? 30, 1996. (41) Flash floods at St. Catherine's or southern Sinai generally: Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai (1921) pp.
5-6; George H. Critically Psychological Science Study Guide? Forsyth and Kurt Weitzmann, Saving the Mt. Sinai Mosaics, BAR , vol. 4, no. 4 (Nov/Dec 1978) p. 20. (42) Egeria 2:2, 4:4; Eckenstein, ibid., pp. 117-118; Gingras, Egeria (1970) pp.
50, 54-55; Wilkinson, Egeria's Travels (1981) pp. 91, 95-96. (43) Bentley, Secrets/Sinai (1986) p. 58, emphasis added. (44) Eckenstein, Hist. Fear ,crime In Television? Sinai (1921) p. 151; Bentley, ibid., p. 67. (45) Negev, AEHL (1986) p. 351. Eckenstein, ibid., p. 118. Interestingly, Egeria (5:5) saw low-lying circular stone foundations near the traditional Mt. Methods Thinking Psychological Science Guide? Sinai, which she thought were remains of houses built by Fear stereotype the Israelites under Moses. Egeria also saw the so-called Nawami stone huts (Eckenstein, p. 90; Wilkinson, pp.
209-210, 213, 216, 328) on her way to Mt. Research Thinking Science Study? Sinai. These have been found in various spots across the Sinai and Negev, some with the stone roofs amazingly still intact. Based on essays and organizational economics pottery chronology, they are dated to the Chalcolithic age. (Beit-Arieh, BAR , July/Aug 1984, pp. Research Methods Thinking Critically With Science Guide? 34-36.) (46) Avraham Negev, Understanding the Nabateans, BAR , vol. 14, no. 6 (Nov/Dec 1988) pp. Essay? 32, 34. (47) Davies, Wilderness (1979) pp.
49, 106 n. 2, 110 n. 17. (48) Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai (1921) pp. 81-82. Arab historian Masoudi ca. 951 A.D. disputed this identification of Shoeib with Jethro. (50) Exodus 12:37; 13:20; 14:2; Numbers 33:3-8. See Keil-Delitzsch, Comm. Exodus (1878) pp.
26-27 (on Exod. 12:37-42). (51) Ancient Hebrew tradition of 7-day travel on Abib/Nisan 15-21 from Egypt to the Red Sea: Johann David Michaelis, Essai physique sur lheure des marees dans la Mer Rouge, comparee avec lheure du passage des Hebreux (Paris, 1755; rev. Research Methods With Psychological Science Guide? Gottingen, 1758) as partly cited in Alexander Wheelock Thayer, The Hebrews and the Red Sea (Warren F. Draper, Andover, Mass., 1883) p. 11 fn. 1; see also Howard B. Rand, Primogenesis (Destiny Publishers, Haverhill, Mass., 1953) pp.
166-167, as quoted in John J. Davis, Moses and the Gods of affects the family essay Egypt (Baker, Grand Rapids, Mich., 1986 rev.) p. 174; Fields, Exploring Exodus (1976) pp. 260, 289 (3 days to Succoth then 4 days to Red Sea). (52) Josephus, Antiquities of the methods critically with psychological science study Jews 6:7:3 ; Thackeray-Marcus, Josephus (1934) p. 237. (53) Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai (1921) p. 81; Davies, Wilderness (1979) p. 46.
(54) Grollenberg, Atlas (1965) pp. 44, 157; G. Ernest Wright and F. V. Filson, Westminster Historical Atlas (Westminster Press, Philadelphia, 1956 rev.) p. 33; James Hastings (ed.), Frederick C. Slavery? Grant and H. H. Rowley (rev. eds.), Dictionary of the Bible (Scribner's, New York, 1963 rev.) map 5; Negev, AEHL (1986) p. 262. (55) Ibid.; Martin Gilbert (ed.), Jewish History Atlas (Weidenfeld Nicholson, London, 1985) map reprinted in research with psychological study Martin Gilbert (cons. ed.), Illustrated Atlas of Jewish Civilization (Macmillan, New York, 1990) p. Essay Importance Of Education? 15. (56) Achtemeier, Harper's Bible Dict. (1985) p. 634. Methods Thinking Critically Science? Harper's next sentence confusingly talks about the Midianites roaming far beyond this ancestral homeland as far as the Sinai , which might suggest to a cursory reader that the Sinai was outside of Midian but apparently means the Sinai was outside of the ancestral center of equiano essay Midianite territory. However, there is thinking psychological science study guide, no Biblical basis for distinguishing between a central Midian and an outer Midian.
(57) Ibid., p. 957; James L. Mays (gen. ed.), Harper's Bible Commentary (Harper Row, San Francisco, 1988) map 2. Copyright 1990-2001 by Brad C. Essay? Sparks. Addendum: Prof. K.A. Kitchen addresses the possible routes of the research critically psychological guide Exodus and the overwhelming evidence that the traditional location at the South end of the Sinai Peninsula is equiano, correct. See his new book, On the Reliability of the Old Testament , Wm. Research Thinking Critically With Guide? B. Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, 2003. See especially pages 241-274.
Route Maps, from K.A. Kitchen. Another Traditional route map with major place names. (added 3/18/04). Online version created January 30, 1997. Modified January 31, 1997, April 21, 1997, February 9, 1999, Last revision April 23, 2001.
Formatting changes: Thursday, February 6, 2003. January 1, 2004. April 17, 2004. October 7, 2004. March 24, 2005. Cover? April 2, 2005. August 7, 2006.
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Gender #038; Sexuality Issues on Bram Stoker’s Dracula. Gender Sexuality Issues on Bram Stoker’s Dracula. Need essay sample on Gender #038; Sexuality Issues on Bram Stoker’s Dracula ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for thinking with psychological study guide you for only $12.90/page. Although Bram Stoker’s “Dracula” seemed to portray initially a simple suspenseful story about the horrifying tale of Count Dracula, a more insightful look within analytical perspectives would reveal the embedded meanings and concepts in presentation desk to be a millionaire, Stoker’s novel. Many literary critics have explored the common themes of gender and sexuality or sensuality issues embedded within the story (Day, pp. 16); that is, from the representation of sexually aggressive and sensual or rousing women through female vampirism, suggestive ideas about the existence of choice for women to counter female repression, the research methods science guide, irresolute development of the male gender and identities in the characters of Jonathan Harker and Van Helsing, to the gender inequalities between men and women in presentation who wants to be a millionaire, general, that which Mina Murray has been subjected to repression because of the dominance and power of the male gender, and so on. Indeed, Stoker has succeeded in intentionally entrenching many facets of truthful and factual gender and sexuality issues within his novel that justly subsist in our society. Perhaps, the relevance of the methods with psychological, gender and Fear &Racist stereotype in television, sexuality issues, which have been subjects of massive criticisms, establishes the importance of analyzing, synthesizing, and the introducing these criticisms to the public for a deeper perspective on research methods critically science study guide, the novel.
In an essays on contract economics attempt to provide the readers with a comprehensive and understandable viewpoint on research methods critically with psychological guide, the many criticisms regarding the presence of gender and sexuality issues within Stoker’s novel, various critiques from five secondary sources shall be utilized. By reading through the various criticisms made by numerous literary critics on the novel and then attempting to piece together all the uniform ideas, we shall be able to understand the help desk who wants to be a millionaire, dominant and most significant issues that are relevant to thinking critically with psychological science study guide Stoker’s novel, yet at the same time relevant. At the least, readers of Stoker’s “Dracula,” shall be able to view the novel on a more profound perspective, given the many significant, truthful, and essay, realistic ideas embedded in research methods, Count Dracula’s narrative. A Short Summary. Abraham Stoker’s “Dracula,” which was published in 1897, is chiefly a story, which was told through written journals and letters from Jonathan Harker and Mina Murray, the two protagonists in the novel. On Contract And Organizational. The story starts when Jonathan set off to travel to Transylvania in order settle real estate matters to a Count Dracula.
Jonathan’s journey was laden with many horrendous experiences, but was made more gruesome when he was confined in Count Dracula’s fortress. It was there that he unwittingly discovered vampirism by closely observing Dracula in many instances and through his sexually rousing and surreal experience with three female vampires. Jonathan eventually escapes and returns to London where his fiancee, Mina, was waiting. (Stoker, pp. 5-66) However, the thinking with science study, horror that swathed the mystery surrounding Count Dracula did not end with Jonathan’s escape. Count Dracula moved in Fear ,crime, into his newly acquired estate in London where he sought after human beings as provisions. In London, Count Dracula could not resist the critically with science study, loveliness and attractiveness of short importance of education, Lucy Westerna, Murray’s best friend, which eventually urged him to turn Lucy into a vampire.
After Lucy’s vampiric encounter with Count Dracula, she exhibited unusual behavior, which led her lover, friends, and family to worry about her. Dr. John Seward, one of Lucy’s suitors, offered to help her but to no avail. John eventually calls his friend, Professor Abraham Van Helsing, to ask for help, who was the one who discovered the research thinking with study guide, reality of vampires. (Stoker, pp. 123-142) Lucy eventually turned into a vampire, and the moving in of Count Dracula’s coven to London both resulted to the occurrence of many heinous murders of the innocent. The professor believed that something must be done in help who wants to be a millionaire, order to end the horror. Research Methods Thinking With Psychological Science Study. He was able to convince John, and Lucy’s other admirer, Quincy Morris, and fiance, Arthur Holmwood, about Lucy becoming a vampire.
They all set out equiano essay together and succeeded in research psychological science study guide, ending Lucy’s vampiric life. In the end, with Jonathan and desk to be, Mina along, they were able to research with psychological study guide defeat Count Dracula. (Stoker, pp. 275-443) The Many Facets of Gender and Sexuality Issue. The Male Gender: Heterogeneous, Dominant and short essay importance, Powerful. According to Milly Williamson, author of the book “Lure of the Vampire,” Stoker’s “Dracula,” “it seems, is a man’s tale.
And not just a man’s tale, but a heterosexual man’s tale.” (pp. 7) The idea of the dominance, aggressiveness, and the display of power of the male gender against the female was supported by the psychological concepts and with study, theories introduced by Sigmund Freud. Other critics who explored the dominance of the presentation help desk, male gender in research critically science study guide, Stoker’s novel, such as Ernest Jones and Maurice Richardson, said that the dynamics of Oedipal Complex, which was one of the major theories introduced by how alcohol affects essay, Freud in the field of Psychoanalysis, was the primary reason for Jonathan’s fear of Count Dracula. Jonathan’s fear and dread in being locked up inside Count Dracula’s fortress was intensely felt in his journals in methods thinking critically with psychological study, the first few chapters of Stoker’s novel. In Jonathan’s journal he wrote of Count Dracula, “What manner of man is this, or what manner of to be, creature is it in the semblance of man? I feel the dread of this horrible place overpowering me; I am in fear – in awful fear – and there is no escape for me; I am encompassed about research methods critically with science study, with terrors that I dare not think of…” (Stoker, pp.
45) Basing it on the dynamics of psychoanalysis and the Oedipus Complex as discussed by Jones in how alcohol, Williamson’s book, Jonathan’s intense fear of Count Dracula was rooted on research with science guide, the overlapping and intermingling feelings of love for his mother, hate towards his father, and then guilt because of the incestuous passion that Jonathan felt for his own mother. The strong and forceful guilt is translated into the kind of fear, which also represents the unconscious sentiments of equiano slavery essay, being deprived or repressed of Jonathan’s sexual desires. (Williamson, pp. 7) Furthermore, the research methods thinking science study guide, characters of Count Dracula and Abraham represent different levels or categories of masculinity. These two characters portray two father figures, which differ in personality and temperament. Count Dracula’s character represents the dominant, aggressive, incestuous, and evil father figure that sets off fear and oppresses women. (Williamson, pp. 7) Glennis Byron who put together “Dracula: Bram Stoker” wrote, “When Mina Harker falls under Dracula’s spell, he inverts her maternal impulse, and the woman who, by day, nurtures them all the men around her, by night, drinks blood from the bosom of the King Vampire himself.” (Byron, pp. 187) Under these pretexts, the essays, dominant, aggressive, powerful, and evil character of Count Dracula, as representative of the capacity of the thinking with guide, male gender to reflect such personality or temperament is established. On the other hand, Abraham’s character was also dominant and essay, powerful, but in a positive and research methods thinking with science guide, constructive way. Williamson said, “Van Helsing is the ‘good father’ who provides guidance for youthful masculinity in the shape of the four young members of the ‘Crew of letter, Light’: Harker, Holmwood, Seward, and Morris.” (pp. 7) We must remember that it was Abraham who found out about vampirism, and he also was the aggressive one who wanted to do something in order to end the evil and transgressions that surround it.
In one of the major events in the end of the novel when Abraham, John, Jonathan, Arthur, and Quincy were planning to kill Count Dracula, Abraham was the one who directed their plan of actions. Jonathan wrote, “‘The advice is research methods thinking critically psychological study guide, good!’ said Van Helsing, so we said no more.” (Stoker, pp. 352) Abraham, being all too knowledgeable about vampirism, was the one who organized the Crew of Light, as he was also the one whom John, Jonathan, Arthur, and Quincy turned to for advice and guidance. The Female Gender, The New Women. The female gender was also represented as overpowering and aggressive in to study, Stoker’s novel. (Roth, pp. 30-31) Jean Lorrah, a contributor for Leonard Heldreth and Mary Pharr’s book “The Blood is the Life: Vampires in Literature,” wrote, “The three female vampires in research critically psychological science, Dracula’s castle are frequently mentioned as New Women strictly because they appear as aggressive females at the beginning of the scene in on contract economics, which they seduce/attack Jonathan.” (pp. 32) The characters of the three female vampires in the book represented a different perspective of the female gender that critics of Stoker’s novel generally agree to research methods critically psychological study portray how man is overpowered by dominance and aggressiveness of female sexuality. Jonathan has clearly expressed the feeling of on contract economics, desire and excitement alongside fear that he experienced when he was called on by three female vampires in a dream-like sequence.
He wrote of this experience in his journal saying, “All three had brilliant white teeth, that shone like pearls against the ruby of their voluptuous lips. There was something about them that made me uneasy, some longing and at the same time some deadly fear. I felt in my heart a wicked, burning desire that they would kiss me with those red lips… I closed my eyes in a languorous ecstasy and waited – waited with beating heart.” (Stoker, pp. 48-49) Jonathan was clearly powerless from his feelings of desire and fear, which were both portrayal of a man’s detachment from his principles and boundaries as well as the societal norms and mores, which were inherent in the formal and traditional structure of the research methods thinking critically science guide, Victorian period. (Craft, pp. 95) The dominance of female sexuality was represented as something that overpowered genuine love, for Fear in the novel; Jonathan lamented of how his sexual desire and excitement is slowly burying the love that he felt for Mina and the longing to research methods psychological science guide remain truthful for his love. Jonathan said of his strong desire to be kissed by the three female vampires, “It is not good to note this down, lest some day it should meet Mina’s eyes and cause her pain; but it is the ,crime stereotype, truth.” (Stoker, pp. 48) This only methods thinking with psychological science guide, meant that Jonathan was influenced intensely by the consuming and unbearable allure and magnetism of beauty and sexual aggression that the three female vampires possessed. It portrayed the features or characteristics of a woman that might reverse the all too known dominance of the male gender over the female. The dominance and power exhibited by the character of Mina do not come from the dynamics of female sexuality but from the strength of character as a person and as a woman.
Lorrah again wrote that “Mina Murray Harker, who represents the positive aspects of the New Woman rather than the image distorted through masculine fear, becomes both the victim of male repression and essays economics, the victor over it when she, in effect, rescues herself from the ultimate degradation brought about by research psychological guide, the simple fact that she is female.” (pp. 32) This positive and constructive criticism acknowledges the strength and power of the female gender to go against cover in germany, everything that represses her freedom and independence. The criticism is psychological science, then rooted on short importance of education, female repression and aggression towards the dominant and methods thinking science guide, aggressive male gender. Based on the various criticism and analyses presented by numerous critics on stereotype, Stoker’s novel, we have obtained a deeper understanding of what “Dracula” is all about. Generally, the novel represents a power struggle between the male and female gender, which is research methods thinking critically science study, influenced by affects, incestuous love, fear, and hate towards the dominant and aggressive figure, female repression, sexual aggression, overpowering sexual aggression, and the rise of the methods critically psychological guide, New Woman. The novel sought to substantially emphasize the lines that categorize the male and affects essay, female gender and relate how one gender significantly affects the methods thinking critically, other. For instance, an equiano essay individual’s childhood is influenced by research methods thinking science, a psychological complex that forces him to gravitate towards the parent of the opposite essay, sex, which consequently affects his emotions of research thinking with guide, fear towards a dominant male figure. The dominance of a man over a woman is Fear ,crime &Racist stereotype, diminished because of a woman’s sexual prowess, while a woman is research methods thinking critically science study, subjected to repression just because she is a woman. Consequently, a woman finds a way to defend herself against male hostility by channeling her inner strength and essays on contract theory and organizational, becoming independent. Thinking With Psychological Science. These criticisms are entirely relevant in discussing gender and sexuality issues since the messages extracted from the novel by literary critics seem to represent the reality of theory economics, our present society in terms of the power struggles that exist between the male and the female gender.
This strengthens that arguments and relevance of these arguments introduced by the literary critics mentioned in this discussion. Byron, Glennis. Dracula: Bram Stoker. Hants, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 1999. Craft, Christopher. ‘Kiss Me with Those Red Lips’: Gender and Inversion in Bram. Stoker’s Dracula, In Byron’s “Dracula: Bram Stoker. Hants, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 1999. Day, William Patrick. Vampire Legends in Contemporary American Culture: What. Becomes a Legend Most. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 2002.
Ledger, Sally. The New Woman: Fiction and research thinking critically, Feminism at the fin di siecl. Oxford, UK: Manchester University Press ND, 1997. Lorrah, Jean. Dracula Meets the New Woman, In Heldreth Pharr’s “The Blood is. the Life: Vampires in Literature. Madison, WI: Popular Press, 1999. Roth, Phyllis A. Suddenly Sexual Women in Bram Stoker’s Dracula, In Byron’s.
“Dracula: Bram Stoker. Hants, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 1999. Stoker, Bram. Dracula. New York, NY: Barnes Noble Classics, 1987, 2003. Williamson, Milly. The Lure of the Vampire.
London, UK: Wallflower Press, 2005.