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Evidence Based Practice Impact Of Nurses Nursing Essay - UK Essays
aspergers homework Disorder be exempted from doing homework? Dr. Tony Attwood. A major cause of anguish for children with an Autistic Spectrum Disorder, their families and research based essay, teachers is the thesis opentype, satisfactory completion of homework. Why should this group of children have such an and evidence based practice essay, emotional reaction to the mere thought of having to start their homework and such difficulty completing assigned tasks? There may be two explanations. The first is bad term papers, based on their degree of stress and mental exhaustion during their day at school and the second is research based essay, due to their profile of cognitive skills.
It is essential that we recognise the college admission essays prompts, degree of stress experienced by such children, as the research based practice, signs can become evident in their behaviour and mood. The signs include the child who is described as a Dr.Jekyl and Mr.Hyde in that the unions, indicators of stress are not conspicuous at school but the research, child is a very different character at home. Admission Prompts? They may be quiet and compliant in the classroom but intolerant and aggressive immediately they return home. Practice Essay? Some children become extremely anxious in the morning before going to school and school refusal or walking out of school can be a sign of unbearable stress. Other children can express the signs at school by episodes of extreme anxiety or anger, with incidents of panic or disruptive and explosive behaviour. Others suffer chronic stress, which contributes to thesis opentype a clinical depression. When I talk to children with autism and Asperger’s Syndrome who are having difficulty learning the social curriculum and coping with the stress of school, they often explain that they want a clear division between home and school. Their comment is “School is for learning, home is for fun or relaxation” Thus the prospect of interrupting their much needed and deserved fun and relaxation with homework is more than they can cope with.
The following range of essay strategies are designed to minimise the impaired Executive Function, accommodate their profile of cognitive skills and help the child complete their homework assignments with less stress for the child and family. Create a learning environment. The area where the how alcohol the family essay, child works must be conducive to concentration and learning. A useful model is the child’s classroom with appropriate seating, lighting and removal of any distractions. The distractions can be visual such as the presence of research and evidence based toys or television, which are a constant reminder of what the child would rather be doing or auditory distraction such as the prompts, noise from electrical appliances and the chatter of siblings. Ensure the and evidence practice, working surface only has equipment relevant to the task. Their working environment must also be safe from curious brothers and sisters. A daily homework timetable can be made by labor unions a parent with guidance from the teacher to define the expected duration and content of each homework activity or assignment. This can be extremely helpful if there are problems with the child’s allocation of time to each homework component.
Sometimes the homework can take hours when the teacher intended only several minutes on a specified task. A timer can be used to remind the child how much time is remaining to complete each section of homework. It is also important to ensure that time scheduled for homework does not coincide with the child’s favourite television program. If it does, they may have priority use of the video recorder and can watch the program after their homework. If regular breaks are necessary to promote concentration, the work can be divided into segments to practice indicate how much work the child has to complete before they can take a momentary break. The usual mistake is to expect too much prolonged concentration.
Teacher’s preparation of the homework. The teacher can highlight key aspects of the homework sheet, written material and questions so that the child knows which aspects are relevant to their preparation of the assignment. They can ask the child to formulate their plan before commencing the assignment to ensure their work is thesis labor unions, coherent and logical, especially if the homework is an essay. If the assignment takes several days to research essay complete, it is important that the teacher regularly reviews the child’s rough drafts and progress, which also increases the likelihood that it will be completed on time. Memory problems If the child has difficulty remembering exactly what was set for homework and remembering relevant information during homework, a characteristic of impaired executive function, a solution is to buy an executive toy. A small cassette recorder used for dictation can provide a record of the teacher’s spoken instructions and the child can add his or her own comments or personal memo to the recording to remind them of key information. The child and where online, their parent will then know exactly what was said and what is relevant to the task. Another strategy is to have the telephone number of another child in research based the class to ask them for the relevant information. A homework diary and planner can help the child remember which books to take home and the specific homework for each evening.
An executive diary or ‘filofax’ from a stationary store may make this strategy more appealing to the child. The techniques are explained as being appropriate for adult executives rather than for children with learning problems. Supervision The child may have difficulty getting started or knowing what to bad term papers do first. Procrastination can be an practice, issue and a parent may have to supervise the start of the homework. Once the child has started, this is not the bad term papers, end of the supervision. A parent will also need to be available if the research and evidence essay, child requires assistance when they are confused and to ensure that they have chosen the appropriate strategy. There can be a tendency for such children to where to find sanskrit essays have a closed mind to alternative strategies and a determination to pursue an approach when other children would have recognised the signs that it would be wise to consider another approach. A technique to show that there is and evidence practice, more than one line of thought is to provide the an essay on a separate, child with a list of alternative strategies to solve the and evidence essay, particular problem.
The child may need to know there is a plan ‘B’. Labor? Parents and teachers soon become aware of the degree of research based practice essay supervision required which can be a major problem for a parent with other family commitments when the child is doing their homework. Supervision is also necessary to help the child prioritise, plan, assist with word retrieval problems and maintain motivation. Motivation can be enhanced by specific rewards for concentration and bad term papers, effort Emotion Management Children with an and evidence essay, Autistic Spectrum Disorder are notorious for separate peace their difficulty coping with frustration and and evidence, criticism, and their inability to manage their emotions. They can become quite agitated when confused or having made a mistake. Bad Term Papers? An adult will need to research and evidence essay be available to help the child remain calm and logical. The adult will also need to model calmness, which can be difficult when both child and adult are confused as to what to do.
It can end in tears for thesis opentype both parties. Research And Evidence Based? Children with an on a peace, Autistic Spectrum Disorder often enjoy having access to a computer and may be more able to understand material if it is presented on research and evidence, a computer screen. Material presented by a person adds a social and linguistic dimension to the situation, which can increase the child’s confusion. Teachers should consider adapting the essays prompts, homework so that a considerable proportion of the work is conducted using a computer. Word processing facilities, especially graphics and grammar and spell check programs are invaluable in improving the legibility and quality of the finished product. If the parent is unable to research based help the child solve a particular problem, a solution is to come to an arrangement with the teacher where by the teacher is contacted by telephone without hesitation as to the time of day or night and they can talk directly to the child. Regular use of this approach can lead to a significant reduction in the type and amount of homework. Children with an Autistic Spectrum Disorder require special consideration when learning new material. Homework should primarily be designed to consolidate and practise known information rather than introducing new concepts. Another characteristic is a difficulty explaining their reasoning using speech.
The child may provide the correct solution to a mathematical problem but not be able to use words to explain how they achieved the answer. Their cognitive strategies may be unconventional and intuitive rather than deductive. One may need to accept their correct solution even if the logic is where sanskrit, unclear to the neurotypical mind. One problem with this characteristic is that it may be difficult for and evidence based practice the parent to correct the alternative reasoning when the child has a ‘mental block’. Teaching a child with an Autistic Spectrum Disorder requires special skills and a parent is thesis opentype, not expected to have those skills. As a parent, one is also more emotionally involved than a class teacher and it can be difficult for them to be objective and research based practice essay, emotionally detached. One option is to hire a homework tutor to provide the skilled guidance and supervision.
However, this may be beyond the financial resources of most families. Where To Find Essays Online? If all these strategies are unsuccessful, what is the alternative? ‘Should children with an Autistic Spectrum Disorder be exempted from doing homework?’ If the strategies outlined in this article are unsuccessful or unable to be implemented, then my reply is research and evidence practice essay, ‘yes’. Sometimes this advice is to the great relief of the child, their parent and unions, probably their teacher. You can quote me on this. And Evidence Based Practice Essay? [This paper was originally published in the Summer 2000 edition of The Morning News (volume 12, number 2) The Morning News is available from Jenison Public Schools, 2140 Bauer Road, Jenison. MI 49428.
Phone 616 457 8955. The Summer edition features several papers on homework.]
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Evidence Based Practice in Nursing Essay - UK Essays
my beliefs essay There are many aspects that differentiate humans from one another. Beauty, outward appearance, wealth, health, nationality, race, native language, and knowledge are all examples of characteristics that differentiate us from one another. And Evidence Based Practice Essay? These differences may even allow us to bad term papers lose or excessively develop our self-esteem, even though our characteristics may be out of our control. Despite these differences, what we have in common is that we are all humans who seek one purpose: to research and evidence based find success in our lives. Bad Term Papers? To reach success and and evidence, happiness in life is the common goal of all of us.
We each strive hard to become satisfied with our lives. College Essays Prompts? Reaching perfection and based, completion is the unquestionable desire of mankind. 1 However; this leads us to the question: What can be defined as success and how can one be considered successful? Certainly we each may have a different translation for the word success. But why should there be so many different translations for success? The concept of labor, success can be defined through our personal view towards life. It is this view that can show us our path to success.
We are probably tired of constantly hearing the phrases: “the view towards life”, “belief”, and “the telescope in research and evidence which we can see the world”. Thesis Opentype? From the first days of and evidence essay, our lives, in those days that we were merely a child our mother, father, and those around us would define our beliefs. We would have the same belief as our families and friends. Bad Term Papers? It was this environment that would determine our Christian view, Muslim view, materialistic view, or other views. And Evidence Practice? For some, even when years pass and the person begins to know him/herself better, they would still follow their previous beliefs without any research. Others feel no necessity for having faith in any belief, and therefore leave all beliefs. They spend their valuable time, which is in fact very important to them, on an essay, works that can earn them a comfortable and luxurious life. A third group however cannot feel indifferent about belief and would therefore spend part of their time and life on researching about based essay, faith and belief so they can choose the faith best for them.
In fact this is where the real question lies: When a person can spend his life investigating and discovering new secrets of admission prompts, technology to improve his and practice, other peoples’ comfort and satisfaction in life, why then should he spend time on affects the family essay, researching about faith and belief? What benefit does our belief hold for us? Other than dry debates on theories and certain limitations in and evidence based practice essay life, does it have any other reality? Truly out of the on a thousands of problems I face daily, which problem can my belief solve? What will I lose if I do not research about and evidence practice essay, my belief and faith? . These are the questions we freely and logically seek to discuss on. Let us begin with this question: In the days, weeks, months, and years that pass how frequently have we thought about ourselves in relation the path that we are striving for. In other words, during the years we have passed in an essay on a separate life, how many times have we thought about our true identity? At times when man thinks about himself on the works he has done throughout his life, or on an accomplishment he has just reached after working very hard to reach it, he may find himself running in a circle, constantly repeating only one cycle.
We too may be following his example and may have fell within the research and evidence based trap of a spinner, “we work, we eat, and we play so we can live; so the purpose of our daily lives is to college admission essays prompts work, eat, and enjoy. Sometimes when we review and see the scenery of our lives, it is like the same movie being played over and over for every single day of research based practice, our lives. Sometimes we even get tired and constantly ask ourselves, does life have any other result other than exhaustion and thesis opentype, repeat? Why do we constantly circulate one path? Why do our days and nights look old? Really, who am I? What do I do? Where am I headed to? If we pay close attention to and evidence based practice the different species around us, we will realize that their life has a predefined pattern. They live based on their instinct.
When a flower is how alcohol affects planted, it will continue its own natural growth process until it blooms and shows its beauty to the world around it. A wolf is a predator from birth, regardless of any possible training from the outside world. We, as humans, have a number of needs which are based on and evidence practice, our instincts. A baby is bad term papers acquainted to research based practice the mother’s breast instinctively and feels the need for food when hungry. The desire of college, coupling with opposite gender is research and evidence essay another example of peace, instinct. Such needs are not optional to have; we have them no matter what.
Our instincts drive us toward these needs. However, the question that lies here is research based practice essay ‘does living merely to satisfy our instinct desires suffice our entire needs?’ Are those who live a luxurious life necessarily happy? Do they not think of anything else in life? If we sit down with such people, we can realize that they feel something is missing in their lives. Could we too find ourselves in the same situation in that we do not recognize our true needs, and labor, have unknown needs just like these people? Perhaps recognition of research and evidence based essay, our true needs can solve and fill in the empty gaps in our lives. 1-2- A Free Knowledge and thesis unions, Unlimited Desire. Perhaps the desire to research and evidence practice seek knowledge and truth is one of our obvious characteristics.
This need is thesis labor not limited to based practice essay any time or place. When we think about how alcohol affects, our past, we ask ourselves: Where have I come from? Why am I here? Where am I going? Mankind is anxious to receive an answer to these questions. Moreover, in and evidence based practice essay addition to the natural needs of species we have additional needs that cannot be easily satisfied.
Our natural desires are not the only factors that determine who we are and how we should live, because our needs may vary depending on our position in life. For example, there are times when the doctor prescribes a daily diet for where to find us in and evidence based practice essay which we are required to limit certain foods we once were able to eat. Another example can be a reduction in our sexual desires over time; this and many other similar deficiencies can occur within us as we age. However, do such deficiencies diminish our chance of being a human being? No, for certainly behind the curtains of life, there are stable desires of life we long for. One unending desire for how alcohol affects essay man is to live forever, and therefore death for us is very unpleasant, though unavoidable.
We do not only care for research ourselves and families, but also the situation of other people around the world matter to us. Besides our natural needs, we are allured to love, deep emotions, beauty, moral values, justice, and eternal life. Therefore, our desires are not limited to our living environment. 1-3- Knowledge and Faith, a Major Difference. Therefore, there are two major needs within us that we cannot ignore. The first is the bad term papers need for seeking knowledge, which has no end; as a proof technology is improving and and evidence based practice, progressing daily. The second characteristic is the need for perfection. College Essays? Some professionals define this need as faith 2 . These two are the needs that differentiate us from animals. If we were to and evidence based live in great comfort and an essay separate peace, leisure, but lack factors like beauty, love, and justice, this would not be a satisfactory life for us. Similarly, if our life was going to and evidence based practice essay end forever after death then all the enjoyment of thesis opentype, this life would be worthless.
It would be impossible to and evidence practice satisfy all our needs because of its short-term existence. It would be just like a person who is thirsty but not hungry and has no water to drink, but instead is provided with variety of foods! Water is what he wants, not food, so it does not suffice. Nevertheless, do we really go after all of our needs? Let’s analyze our daily deeds and see if we can find any answer to thesis opentype the questions mentioned. Our daily actions are categorized into two groups based upon our needs: 1-4- Seeking enjoyment, an important issue. Enjoyment is research and evidence based practice essay indeed a part of our lives; eating a favorite food, wearing nice and college admission essays, proper clothing, sleeping well, having sexual activity, and etc are all in this category. To seek enjoyment is a natural instinct in our lives. Its purpose is to research and evidence based practice essay serve the unions primary needs, like hunger, and continuation of life. Performing such enjoyments is inevitable in our lives.
But, are we so limited that if we perform these simple and natural needs we would free of any further desire? Sometimes we can see that some people care for nothing but their own enjoyment and entertainment. They are willing to sacrifice anything or anyone to reach their fun. You may sometimes think that if such people keep living in research practice their own style, they become internally a monster, who cares for no one but himself. Such people may easily put all of their focus in life to get to their entertainment, hoping to enjoy it forever.
But we do know that, by experience, pleasure is reduced over time after a number of repetitions. Could we be in the same boat? If we sometimes feel unsatisfied of ourselves; or if we fail to please ourselves from our lives no matter what we do, perhaps we are unfamiliar with the purpose of our existence and our actual needs. Thesis Labor Unions? Isn’t there any other type of pleasure? Are all pleasures so short lasting with the arrival of death?
1-5- Objective, a critical matter. There is another type of activity, which we practice in our daily lives and that is based essay known as “planned tasks” 3 . Such activities mainly serve our long-term objectives. Bad Term Papers? In other words, someone would recognize an objective in future in the first place; then he vows to and evidence based practice reach that goal and begins his mission toward it. An Essay On A Separate Peace? The motivation to move forward is the and evidence based bound between the person and the goal despite all the difficulties of how alcohol essay, achieving the objective. He might not experience any pleasure at the beginning; however, when he fully succeeds through it, the pleasure he receives is inexpressible. We “plan” for our goal because we are humans.
In fact, it is the role of planned tasks, which give meaning to our lives. It is our “plans” that help us to essay get closer to perfection. Furthermore, other creatures are limited to follow their natural instinct and where to find essays, choose short-term objectives. They cannot choose what they are. Research And Evidence Practice Essay? This way of living is the reality of their existence and that is the college admission prompts way their lives go on.
But our life is based practice truly different than theirs. The Family? If we want to reach our real identity, there would be no way except “to choose a goal and a destination to and evidence practice essay follow”. It is we that determine who we are and what are we created for? The more we dig into this issue, the more we are going to find out about our real identity. How Alcohol Affects Essay? Our instinct and natural needs are definitely not all we need, but in the meantime we need to have them in order to continue with our lives. If we do not choose a real objective in life and merely seek short pleasures instead, then have we sustained our soul, which is looking for eternal existence? 1-6- Towards which target? Each person in this world has a goal and research essay, strives hard to where to find sanskrit online reach that goal.
How would I therefore, find out the best and most suitable goal through these various goals in order to find my reality? What criteria do others have in selecting a goal? Why do people choose different paths in the life? Looking precisely, we realize that the research and evidence based reason people have different motives and tendencies, is due to the different criteria they each hold. In fact one’s personal view towards him/herself, towards the where sanskrit world he/she is living in, and towards his/her faith are decisive factors that shape that person’s criteria and values. In other words, his goal in life is determined through the and evidence essay scope he is seeing the world. In order to follow the path we have set our goals on, it is necessary to an essay on a separate peace first recognize our capabilities and different aspects in research and evidence based practice essay our lives. This recognition will require us to research about existence and creation, so we can gain a better sense in our origin and destination. We should understand our position in the world. Is existence only that which we are able to see and feel, or is it broader than these senses? Could a reality exist that we are unaware of?
These are the labor fundamental questions that each school of thought has a different answer for. Most of the theories and and evidence based practice, answers in how alcohol essay the different schools of thoughts given to these fundamental questions have some sort of contradictions within themselves. Nevertheless, in order to strive to reach that level of human perfection and research and evidence based essay, completion, we must search about to find online, our goal. Obviously it is out of our ability to experience all these different paths to select the best one. Research Based Practice? Therefore, now that our possibilities for experiencing the different paths are limited, we should do a thorough research in labor unions discovering the true path, and set our goal in accordance to that path. Our thought and belief determines our goal and the path in life. Therefore firstly we need to research based practice select the best belief and to find online, thought. But how can we detect the best thought? Can anyone force me to think like him/her?
Does belief restrict me to follow a narrow and inflexible structure? 1-7- Belief: a Combination of Love and Wisdom. Each person must seek his/her own belief, and no school of thought can impose its thought on us. Based? Submitting to a belief and school of thought is from the inner heart, not through force or compulsion. The belief one submits to, must have two important characteristics: First it should satisfy one’s wisdom and where sanskrit online, heart by having a reasonable, logical, and firm and persistent view towards the universe and existence. Next, that view should attract us and give us the motivation for reaching our goals. This creates a wisdom-love relationship that we can program our lives upon. Having done this, we will begin to feel the pleasure and satisfaction of strong faith and belief. Therefore, what differentiate people from each other is their beliefs. And Evidence Based? It is my thought that creates my identity.
Am I truly human or am I just an admission prompts, alien with human face? This leads us to the next question. If I neglect all the benefits of research practice, freely choosing a belief, does that only prevent me from how alcohol the family, having a better life; or has it deprived me of my own authority on choosing my belief, so others would decide for me? Are we like a person who is and evidence based practice advised to bad term papers learn swimming, and though he knows the advantages of swimming, he makes sure he avoids any contact with the sea; or are we like the person who is in the middle of a deep ocean, who must swim otherwise, he will be drowned or thrown around by the huge waves? Which situation do we find ourselves in the life? Many situations have occurred in our lives in which we have regretted our actions and have asked ourselves: “Why have I done such an act?” Sometimes, we are able to find the answer, but many times the question remains unanswered and we cannot be certain. Considering the research and evidence based practice essay fact that none of our acts are done aimlessly, then why can we not mention a motive?
How can we not know the purpose of our acts? 2-1- Different acts, the same target. Each act we perform consists of a set of movements done one after another. For example, consider a simple act like eating. Essay? Such an act that seems so simple is actually a complex set of movements and interactions of our members. Namely hands, mouth, digestive system, and etc… all begin working in a specific order. 4. Looking more precisely, we see that although these movements are in relation with each other, they are independent. Research And Evidence Based Practice Essay? For instance, the an essay on a movement of hand and mouth are separate.
So, what connected these independent movements into one unit? Certainly, their goal, to satisfy hunger, has connected these movements into and evidence essay a complex system. In fact, all of our movements in performing an act are similar to that of an bad term papers, architect, a painter, an engineer and an electrician who work independently, but need to unite when a structure is to be built. Because they have the same goal, they need to work in a specific order to research and evidence based practice achieve their goal. It is obvious that without a common goal, they would never be able to organize their work. It is based on this understanding that all the acts we perform in our lives have specific target and goal, otherwise without a specific order, it would never be accomplished. Therefore, first a goal and target is thesis opentype set.
Then we determine the proper movements and acts. Research Practice Essay? Finally, we perform them in the suitable order and accomplish it through our will 5 . 2-2- Who decides for me? The important question is, ‘am I the one deciding what to thesis do and research and evidence, what not to do in reaching this goal?’ Perhaps the reason we cannot recognize our aim and purpose when we do something is that we have not decided our goal, rather someone else has exerted an how alcohol the family essay, aim and research and evidence based, goal for us. That outside force has attracted us towards the act, either consciously or unconsciously. However, the critical point is that all these small acts and aims are what specify the whole path and destiny of where to find online, our lives. Research And Evidence Based Practice? Now after 10 years, 20 years, and 50 years where are we really standing? What have we gained during this period? Are we satisfied with our lives or will we feel decremented and regretful?
The answers depend on the purpose of all these small activities we do. But what are the criteria? What should we do to rule our own lives and to find online, destiny? On what basis may we discover the best and most favorable path towards our goal through the thousands of available paths? There are times that when a person looks toward his/her surroundings, he/she will come across the different lifestyles and may encounter with people who seem completely bewildered. It is as if those bewildered persons have lost their path and and evidence, as a result do not follow any specific destination or purpose. Although each of their tasks may have its own aim, their lives as a whole however, do not have a definite aim or result. Sanskrit Essays Online? To be more precise, the aims of such a person are constantly changing and many times turn out opposite of one another. Research? Their aims change daily because they quickly become tired of one aim and decide to select another one. Life for them does not offer anything but exhaustion and distress.
What is more terrifying is that these people will begin to feel a sense of to find sanskrit online, futility towards life, and would therefore view their own life and existence meaningless. A second group of people we may encounter with will have a different view towards life. They are people who live life to research based the fullest and view life as a ladder to their success. By selecting a clear path in life, they set goals and strive hard to reach them. As a result they perform their daily tasks based on the goals they have set; they leave those tasks that do not have anything to do with their ultimate goal. Their tasks follow a definite routine and to find essays online, do not include acts without specific considerations. Though the goal different people choose differ from one another, all of them usually have two common goals: One is to satisfy their needs in the life , whereas the other t t o reach prosperity 6 . And Evidence Practice? Such people set their activities and behavior under certain regulations and structures to attain the two main goals. Certainly, the bad term papers basis of all these regulations is our belief and ideology. The decision to do an act or to leave it derives from our view toward the outside world, our understanding of research and evidence based, truth, and our understanding of prosperity. Each person who does not live aimlessly tries to reach certain goals, however each may choose a goal differently.
Some may choose their goal themselves because they know what they are following in their lives. They fulfill their destiny willingly through their own decisions. Others however have allowed a certain group other than themselves to choose their belief and way of thinking. They allow that group to impose their way of thinking on thesis opentype, them. These people are blindly following the belief of the group who had freely chosen its belief. They act like automobiles just waiting for the driver to come and drive it to any destination he wishes. Truly, if a person understands that his/her freedom is in practice the hands of another person, he would be disgusted to even think of such a situation. The case would be similar to that of a servant in the service of other’s desires. Now honestly which of these two groups do we belong to?
Who specifies our goal and way of thesis opentype, living? Is it us who decide our goal or have we surrendered to the publicities and inspirations of others? Are we following others blindly? Who really defines our criteria and belief? Each action has a purpose behind it, and the set of actions put together to based practice essay form our way of life. To be more precise, in each moment of our life we need to admission define our destination. Therefore, choosing our belief consciously is an inevitable must and should be the basis of our decisions and acts. Even if we do not intend for it, our actions are attributed to a specific belief set by the thinkers and scholars. We are similar to the person who is in the unending ocean of life, and it is his beliefs that teach him how to swim and research and evidence essay, choose the way to college admission essays the land. If he does not select his beliefs freely, the waves of other beliefs would take him in any direction they want; or may cause him to wander around in research and evidence practice essay the stormy ocean of the an essay on a separate life so that he finally drowns.
So let us find ourselves, and select the best belief and way in our life willingly. Our Belief, Community and Social life. In fact this need (the need for and evidence based essay belief in life) has always been a need in human life from the beginning of creation, and does not only belong to the present society of humans. However, there has been a change during the past centuries, which is the increasing tendency of college admission, humans to and evidence based practice essay accept a belief based on how alcohol the family essay, love and satisfaction . In the present day, we can feel such need more than any other time. The primary humans united much easier due to their strong reliance and bonds to their tribes, communities, or races. But what about the humans of today? By the formation of the cities and research based essay, the complication of the human societies, man needs legal references to specify his rights, positions, relations, and responsibilities in the social life: a reference to state the responsibility of people towards each other, and to tell them how to live to continue their social life. Today we need a cause to where sanskrit online connect us to other human beings and unite all as a single body. Of course satisfying this need is not simple at all.
Man himself has different unknown and unclear aspects, which cause the human society to and evidence practice be more complicated and unknown. On the on a separate peace other hand, the different scientific progresses have made the bonds between humanity weak, and as a result have strengthened individuality. Thus if our life is our social existence and we have to live together, definitely we need a cause to unite us, connect us together, and most importantly specify our way of social life. One of the best causes which might help us in research and evidence essay this respect is a belief which is based on thesis opentype, deep logic and understanding. Unlike the various differences among different people, such a belief may define a common and research and evidence practice essay, single goal for all because it is affects essay based on the human principles. This belief can be the criteria for good and bad, lawful and unlawful. Beside this we can get close to the facts beyond our personal benefits by paying attention to the issue of research essay, beliefs. Based on the points mentioned about the bad term papers important role of belief in our lives, which is an irreplaceable fact in our lives, your friends at Roshd have selected the research and evidence practice subject of how alcohol affects the family essay, belief to accompany you.
With this topic, we hope that we may together select the and evidence essay best way in life and choose the most beautiful goal together. With such an idea in mind we turned to the belief-based structure of Islam. We decided to on a separate investigate it and if we found it a belief that encompasses all aspects, to and evidence practice essay accept and thesis unions, select it. Insulance distribute hatefully geisha discoloration cohesive!
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Evidence Based Practice In Nursing - UK Essays
The College Essay as an Early Memoir. Occasional reflections on the admissions process by Caren Osten Gerszberg, the research practice essay, mother of a high school junior. Last weekend, I participated in a weekend writing workshop. In a sun-filled room overlooking the Berkshires, I sat amid 30 or so other writers for two days, as we talked, listened, read and how alcohol affects the family practiced the art of and evidence based practice memoir writing. On the first day of the workshop, Dani Shapiro, the author who led the workshop, talked about inspiration, memory and the ways to where to find essays enter into the telling — and in our case, writing — of a story. There I sat, struggling to put parts of practice my story onto paper. Into what incident, relationship or place did I want to delve? How would it feel to unlock something that resides within me? How would readers feel when they interpret my words? At one point, I looked out the window and the notion of the college essay popped into my mind. I suddenly realized that when these 17-year-old college applicants are drafting their “personal statement,” they are indeed writing a short form — or a portion — of their memoir.
My daughter, Nicole, has been giving thought to her college essay since her 11th-grade English teacher assigned students to write four different essays in that vein. I’d read the how alcohol affects the family, drafts of research practice essay those essays, and was touched and amused by the subjects — her heritage, middle name, love of storytelling, and a ropes course experience — she chose, remembered and recounted. Over these last several weeks of an essay peace summer vacation, Nicole has been working, and working some more, on her common application essay. She’s gone back and essay forth between two ideas, trying to perfect both, hoping that the one she ultimately chooses will best reflect who she is. Her essay will not be an account of her accomplishments, but rather a piece of labor herself that reveals itself on research and evidence based practice essay, paper. Reorganizing my office this summer and digging through years of thesis files and practice essay papers was part of my summer agenda. To Find Sanskrit Essays Online? And in doing so, I came upon and evidence based practice my own college essay.
Although it was interesting and emotional to read, I wasn’t too impressed with the end result. The topic was my grandfather — a Holocaust survivor — and all that I’d learned from an essay on a his passions and ability to appreciate life after surviving the atrocities of a concentration camp. “My grandfather has planted a seed in me which contains positive emotions of life and all it comprises. Research? This seed will grow, and I will pass it on prompts, to others so that the research, world will produce more people who appreciate life’s offerings.” My grammar was surprisingly strong, but the writing felt, upon rereading, repetitive and unsophisticated. How Alcohol The Family Essay? I don’t even recall showing it to and evidence based practice essay anyone before sending it off; maybe it would have been better if I had. I’m not sure that writing a personal essay or memoir is ever easy. We set out to tell a story, and hope that our readers will be able to identify with, or relate to our story, or perhaps just take something away upon thesis opentype which to reflect. While I sat in my safe haven last weekend, I listened intently as people in the room read portions of what may one day make it into their memoir — should they choose to write one — or may have been perhaps a part of their college essay. Some exposed personal tragedies, relationships gone awry, and life-changing revelations. Others shared snippets of research and evidence based essay life’s mundane moments that nevertheless left a lasting impression.
It felt liberating to be, and to find essays online write, in such an environment. For Nicole and her fellow applicants, however, the and evidence essay, slice of their story will be writing of another realm. The pressure is on to produce a personal statement that is simultaneously unique, heartfelt, illuminating and entirely impressive. This will be their chance to bad term papers give a very different set of strangers an opportunity to turn the pages of their memoir, perhaps the most important one they’ll write for research based a long time. To offer your thoughts on what Ms. Gerszberg has written, please use the comment box below. To read more by thesis, her, click here. Comments are no longer being accepted. My daughter, now a sophomore at Penn, completed her college applications and essays without allowing anyone to review them – especially her parents. She’s always been independent (stubborn?) and practice this followed the pattern she established early in her childhood. I viewed her applications as truly authentic in the sense that they weren’t polished and proofed by teachers, counselors, and hired consultants.
I’m sure there were flaws in labor, the writing and misspellings (she is research and evidence practice essay, dyslexic), but somehow the genuine person came through. Of course it made me nervous. Of course I thought my help was needed. But truly it wasn’t; the best thing is that she completely owned the process, and the result. She did it herself, and admission that’s the research and evidence based essay, most valuable outcome for an 18 year old setting out into the world. Wouldn’t it be wonderful if we could stop the frenzy and let the kids do this on their own? Wouldn’t it be wonderful if they could explore who they are during adolescence instead of essays prompts compiling resumes of research based practice activities they don’t care about but look impressive on a college application? And wouldn’t it be wonderful if they learned that their authentic selves are good enough without a bunch of separate peace adults pushing them to research and evidence practice be something else? My advice is to trust them enought to let go; let them own the process. Sure they will make mistakes.
Sure they will suffer disappointments. But what better preparation could they have for thesis opentype life? As a college admissions counselor, I read many of these personal essays. Practice Essay? They are by thesis labor, turn funny, touching and sometimes awkward. It is hard to research practice consider such efforts as a memoir because truly a 17 year old has so little of life to reflect on. For the labor unions, most part, we view an essay as something that a student can use to demonstrate that they can write something that adds another dimension to the black and white statistics reflected by based practice essay, their high school transcript and standardized test scores. Although it is how alcohol affects the family, important to spell all the words right and for goodness sake get the name of the institution correctly the rest should not be a source of angst for these students. Write something that sounds like you and it will stand up for itself. Writing the college essay can be difficult because it is so unlike any other writing assignment that a high school student has ever done. They are told to be witty, descriptive, and engaging, but at the same time they are trying to research practice sell themselves and their personality to thesis opentype a committee of strangers. We find that as long as students pick one anecdote, tie it to past accomplishments and future aspirations–almost any topic can make a great essay.
Still, it is hard to convince many students not to re-write their resume with paragraphs or write all about their role model in life without ever divulging much about themselves. College essays are great practice for that future professional balance between humility and research and evidence based self-promotion. It is really wonderful when we see a student embrace a well-chosen topic. While writing a college essay can be difficult, I actually liked writing my essays, especially the one I submitted as part of the common application (and used for thesis labor unions five or six schools). The key for research and evidence based essay me, was writing the essay on my terms. I planned it, but not too far in advance that the topic was no longer personally relevant.
I revised and rewrote it, but I never let my parents or anyone else see it. (I just trusted myself and didn’t want my voice to be changed as result of others’ editing.) In fact, when I left an edited copy near the printer, my dad asked if I had left it there for bad term papers him to edit. I chose a topic that was significant to me, an injury that ended my varsity high school sports career. When I got to research based practice college and starting working with the admissions office, I heard one of the deans suggest that students specifically not write about bad term papers injuries. According to her, injuries, like the research based essay, death of a grandparent, are commonly written about. She explained to a group of parents and prospective students, that, by in large, teenagers have many of the college prompts, same significant life experiences. If you choose one those topics, which many students do, it’s even harder for your application to stand out.
I like to and evidence based essay think that mine did stand out, but who knows? Congratulations on a great article! I think students write about such topics as injuries and the death of bad term papers a grandparent because there is very little else in their mundane teenage lives that forces them to reflect in the way these experiences do. Research And Evidence Essay? Some of the other experiences a teen may have had , however life-shaping(unwanted pregnancy, for instance), may be just too painful and private to write about. My own daughter is who she is in part because of some unique experiences that she simply doesn’t talk about. I know what they are because I experienced them along with her, but she is thesis opentype, a very private person (as I am) and shares very little about research and evidence essay how she feels about labor them. And Evidence Practice? She hates to be under a spotlight, and would probably end up choosing a common essay topic that would not force her to stand out. My daughter was fortunate to be accepted by her “first choice” college and has begun her freshman year. While reading Ms. Gerszberg’s musings I recalled my own experiences with my daughter’s application process. I was most struck by thesis opentype, the requests for the students to share their innermost thoughts and feelings about themselves and loved ones.
This was followed up with requests for the family’s complete financial status, down to the penny. Research Practice? In short, everything is shared. Then the student, who has bared her very soul to the anonymous admissions officers, receives a nice but generic rejection letter. Ultimately the students are accepted somewhere, matriculate, and succeed. However, I can’t help wondering about the admission essays, lingering effects of research based practice this one sided courtship. Labor? I think we quickly put it to rest and celebrate the remainder of the senior year, the graduation, the “final summer”, the countdown to matriculation day, and research based the ride back home from how alcohol affects essay college without the child. Still, as I feel parental pride and share my daughter’s joy with this next step in based practice, her life, I think there is something very wrong with this process that is not fully appreciated. Perhaps she can write about labor it in her personal statement for graduate school. re: «Over these last several weeks of summer vacation, Nicole has been working, and working some more, on her common application essay. She’s gone back and forth between two ideas, trying to perfect both, hoping that the one she ultimately chooses will best reflect who she is.»
If Nicole can give herself “permission” to spot the deeper, unexpected, but always “there” connection between her two “separate” essays, she’ll see that she can meld them into one self-defining piece of writing of inestimable power and supremely serenity-eliciting satisfaction. You too, for research and evidence based practice that matter, with your own writing. What are colleges looking for? People who don’t care what they’re looking for. That’s what the amazing process of writing a college essay is really all about. Interesting article. Here’s an interesting link to affects the family actual essays, some of research based which may surprise you.
I find it difficult to buy the idea that editing or advice removes a writer’s voice. To Find Sanskrit? Good editing does not, or else published prose wouldn’t show its author’s style. The editing is too heavy-handed if a person’s voice can’t be heard. It’s like polishing a piece of figured silver–the polish makes the figures clearer and sharper, but doesn’t efface them. I wrote two essays — one generic, and the other highly personal, which I didn’t show anyone because I didn’t feel I could. Research And Evidence Based Practice Essay? In the how alcohol affects essay, end, I decided to send the personal one, even though it hadn’t been vetted. I got into my reach school without having the research and evidence practice essay, best grades or scores; I think the essay must have stood out in the sea of this-experience-made-me-a-better-person essays. I also work with a company that does a lot of college counseling for thesis unions high school students, and and evidence based practice specifically student athletes who are hoping to play a sport at that school, and maybe even use that extra curricular passion to leverage them in the admissions process.
We also have ex-college admissions officers on college admission prompts, board who have read a lot of essays. We have all come to the conclusion that the essay is one of the most important pieces in the college admissions process. In many cases it is the only way to personalize yourself (especially when there is no interview) to the admissions officer, and show your character. Many folks say that the essay should by research, no means be a memoir. It is much easier for the writers character to college admission prompts be conveyed if they show a “glimpse” or a “peek through the research and evidence based practice essay, curtain” of thesis opentype their life, instead of the whole picture. Also, essays about lessons learned can be great for showing that, but discussing a major turning point in ones life can often be forced when coming from someone so young.
Athletes writing about their passion for sports is rather taboo. But on the other hand, writing about any other extra curricular activity or hobby (such as knitting mentioned above) would be a great way to show an officer something interesting about yourself that would never show up on research based essay, the transcript. I also do not envy the kids applying to thesis opentype colleges these days. On one hand they should be enjoying their last year of highschool, and on and evidence based essay, the other hand they are making a decision that will not impact the next 4 years of bad term papers their life, but the based practice essay, next 40 years. While most big public universities require an essay, I wonder how important that essay is for a student that fits easily into the admission requirements. It seems like it is an essay on a separate peace, not important at all really and it’s a shame that kids who are going this route are made to waste time with this nonsense. When the university we expect our kids will attend had to ban letters of research and evidence based recommendation (because they were aiding disasterous violations of the public trust) I cheered.
One less stress on seniors in college prompts, the application process. Ms. Based? Gerszberg I was so pleased to read your commentary on the essay as memoir. After reading so many applications, as an thesis opentype independent Admissions Counselor (and former staff counselor), I see this phenomenon daily. But memoirs rarely make good essays. When students try to write “authentic” accounts of their lives, they often lose sight of their audience: the research based essay, admissions department. In so doing, they often fail to provide useful information to admissions staff, telling about prompts friendships made, love lost, desires unrequited without how these things relate to college. Based Essay? Admissions folks can make educated guesses regarding how the where to find essays online, memoir-like essay translates into a great student at their college, but a good essay needs to take you there. Nonetheless, who can resist?
When I was 18 and about to go to college, I wanted (a la Whitman) “to sing myself.” It’s a rite of passage. Furthermore, applicants have a reasonable assurance that someone will read their essay, something that a blog or FaceBook can’t really guarantee when you really need it. Knowing that someone is and evidence practice essay, listening and listening close enough to evaluate the essay’s content invites all kinds of tales, many inappropriate. All of this is to bad term papers say: the College Essay Memoir is research based practice essay, not usually useful for College Admissions–but it’s here to stay. Like any memoir, however, it’s important to make sure it fits the audience.
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50 Inspiring Resume Designs: And What You Can Learn From Them. Your resume or CV may be one of the most important projects you ever design. It can make or break job applications, open doors to new careers, make a great (or dismal) first impression. When you send out research and evidence practice essay, your resume, you’re really sending out thesis opentype, a piece of yourself. So make sure it’s representing you to your best advantage. Just like how you dress your best for and evidence practice essay an interview, it’s important to give your resume the thesis opentype, same treatment — to make sure it’s polished and presentable.
The 50 resume designs below span a wide range of styles, from strictly businesslike to ultra creative — browse through them to get some ideas for based essay updating your own resume. Designing your own is easy with our wide collection of beautiful resume templates. Click the image to see more resume templates. Starting off your resume strong with a bold header, like in this design by Shed Labs for Loft Resumes, draws attention to your name and makes it more memorable. You can also include a few keywords or descriptors under your name that sum up who you are as a candidate. This chessboard-style layout is certainly striking, giving each category its own distinct space.
But Mikha Makhoul’s resume is still somewhat subdued thanks to college admission essays prompts, the simple black-and-white color scheme; it doesn’t sacrifice professionalism for research based practice essay visual interest. Some well-placed shadows can make your resume pop, literally — giving it a 3D appearance and creating the thesis opentype, illusion of practice depth. Errol Veloso explains how he chose the colors of essays prompts his design purposefully: blue to symbolize his creative side and red to symbolize his analytic side. Try using shapes and frames for emphasis. You can experiment with geometric shapes (circles, squares, rectangles), ribbons, or solid or dashed lines. Research Based Essay! Here, Michael Long frames his name and his role to on a, help them stand out.
A cohesive color scheme of cool blues and minty hues gives this information-packed, infographic-style resume by Joseph Acena a visual theme and an orderly, coordinated look. Using a horizontal orientation (instead of the traditional vertical format) immediately gives your resume an research essay edge in terms of attracting attention. Essays! Other strong points of this design by research based practice, Justin Schueler include a balanced, un-crowded layout and plenty of negative space. There seems to be a trend, at to find essays online, least in based practice, industries where you can take some risks with your resume, to forget the thesis opentype, stuffy business lingo and show that there’s a human behind the piece of paper. Using a more conversational tone, as David Elgena has done with his “Hello, nice to meet you. Here’s a little about research practice, me” header at the top of this resume, may help you create rapport with the thesis opentype, person who’s reviewing your application before you even meet them. This resume by Kyle Robertson features a custom crest with Kyle’s name and a catchy tagline. Creating a distinctive personal brand or style for research and evidence based practice yourself (such as a personal logo, a color scheme, a nice selection of fonts, etc.) gives your work an extra sheen of professionalism (and an affects essay opportunity to show off your abilities). Plus, once you put the research and evidence practice, work in, this “brand” is something you can use over and over essay again — on letterhead, business cards, social media profiles, you name it. For a unique take on traditional resume colors, try light text on a dark background, as Abdullah Al Mamun has done here.
Just make sure that your font is weighty enough to be easily readable and research not get lost against the background. This clean resume by Patrick Rogan uses a bright splash of thesis opentype color and whittles down the information to only the and evidence based practice essay, basics (skills and past positions). Icons in the skills section provide a visual reference that still complements the simplistic style. Thesis Opentype! Printing your resume on textured paper can give an impression of quality, craftsmanship, or luxury. If a color other than white seems inappropriate for research based essay your industry, try a white or cream-colored paper with a slight texture for an ultra-professional, upscale look. This example by S.N. Thesis Opentype! Carter, printed on a recycled or kraft-style paper, gives the resume a custom, hand-printed feel. When applying for research and evidence essay a position where a more creative approach isn’t appropriate, it’s always a safe bet to opt for a simple, text-based resume with clean fonts.
Here, Frank Schamhart has embellished his resume slightly with minimal use of an accent color and a small personal portrait. If you’re after a job in the family essay, the arts or some other highly visual industry, make your resume a mini portfolio like illustrator Rianti Hidayat has done here. Research And Evidence Practice! Bradley Brooks keeps his resume businesslike with a classic black-and-white color scheme, but livens things up with a modular layout and a personal logo. Infographic-style resumes have become popular, and where they can be effective when done well. But they should be more than a collection of research based essay pretty pictures; the images should, at essay, a glance, tell something about you and complement or enhance the text, like in this resume design by Rachel Winter. If you’re seeking work in an industry where appearance is important, or the job has asked you to and evidence based essay, include a portrait, try integrating it into your resume. College! It doesn’t have to research based essay, be the center of attention, though — you can make it a bit more subtle by using a small picture or placing it behind a colored screen, like in Egotype’s resume template. Mailing out some resumes? Make opening yours up a memorable experience, like Amber Van Mieghem has done with this clever folding resume. Thesis Opentype! Wishing you could infuse a little creativity into practice essay, your plain, corporate resume?
Try a monogram with your initials, like Bill Mawhinney has done for this resume template. It adds a little style while still keeping the overall presentation very businesslike. You can use the same graphic on your cover letter to give your application a polished, pulled-together look. If you have some creative leeway in creating your resume, using a non-rectangular shape will be sure to attract attention, like John Mujica’s round resume does here. If you do format your resume in any unusual shape, just make sure all the text is labor readable. Research Practice! You’ve only affects, got one name.
Make it memorable. Essay! If it’s unique, highlight it. How Alcohol Affects The Family Essay! Make it big and bold, like Fredrik Andresen did on research and evidence practice his resume. Give the hiring manager something to zero in bad term papers, on. Your font choices can change the whole character of your resume.
For instance, the research and evidence based practice essay, rounded fonts with soft edges that Louis Omari has used for his resume have a more casual, friendly feel than sharper, serif fonts might have. Need to show your qualifications on the run? Post your resume online and how alcohol the family make it mobile-friendly, like Julien Renvoye has done. You can include your resume on your personal website or even post it to networking platforms like LinkedIn. Use blocks of based practice color and/or lines to separate different sections of your resume, give it structure, and make it easy to navigate visually. An Essay On A! This template from Beautiful Resumes features vibrant colors, but you could just as easily get the same effect with a more subtle color scheme. If you’re going the infographic route, think of effective ways that you can use different types of graphs to represent your skills, experience, or background, like Martin Suster did here. Organizing your resume with columns, like this three-column layout Anton Yermolov used, keeps the information tidy, creates clear divisions between sections, and helps you keep everything sharply aligned. Research Practice Essay! Use a sidebar in your resume to call attention to extra (or extra important) information that you want to highlight.
Here, Ola Hamdy used a colored sidebar to separate her personal and contact information from her educational and professional details. Although this resume design is text-heavy, Gershom Charig mixes things up with a two-color scheme and a word cloud to creatively represent the bad term papers, breadth of research and evidence based practice essay his skills and experience. Thesis Labor Unions! Similar in function to the word cloud above, various sizes of circles represent Silviu Schiau’s proficiency in various areas, such as management and design. The size of the circles corresponds with his amount of experience — a fresh way to illustrate core competencies. Research! Give the person looking at your resume an excuse to find out how alcohol the family, more about you.
Including a link to your website or portfolio (or even a QR code, as Krysten Newby has done here) acts as a good prompt. If your job history includes working for big companies with recognizable logos, feature them on your resume. Tamas Leb has included space to research, do so on this resume template, and it makes an essays online impressive statement, even at a glance. For creative resumes, a theme can give you a starting point to build a one-of-a-kind design and think about innovative ways to and evidence based practice essay, present your information. Thesis Opentype! Here, Peter Kisteman’s laboratory theme makes a strong visual statement and gives his artistic background a scientific, experimental dimension. Putting your resume in a folder or other kind of research practice holder gives you more space to showcase your experience and accomplishments, plus the the family essay, extra tactile feature makes it memorable, as with this design from S1M. The vertical timeline on the outside offers an immediate visual representation of the research practice, candidate’s career history.
This traditional black, white, and gray design by how alcohol the family essay, Brice Seraphin brightens up quite nicely with some turquoise as an accent. This can be done with any color (and you may want to tone it down depending on your industry), but vibrant hues have particular impact. Besides being another nice example of using an accent color, this design by Adam Rozmus keeps things clean and simple, showing that resumes don’t have to be fancy to make a good impression. If competition is stiff, try standing out with a resume package that gives you some space to demonstrate your abilities, develop a personal brand, and include more information than the research based essay, limited area of admission prompts a one-page resume allows for. Research And Evidence Based Practice! Here, Sabrae Precure uses a distinct color scheme and custom illustrations to stand out from the essays, crowd. This resume by Gabriel Valdivia combines a traditional format (the typical positions, dates, and research and evidence based practice short descriptions) with pictorial elements that provide a more personal touch. Bad Term Papers! As if to say that a normal paper resume just won’t cut it, Alison Root got clever with her resume presentation, which demonstrates that she thinks outside the based practice, box.
This sample resume from Rahul Chakraborty features bold typography and bright colors for a high-impact look that will make people take notice. There may be times when it’s ok to thesis unions, let your sense of humor shine through in your resume; it makes you more relatable, more likable. For instance, check out the pronunciation guide Nick Iannuccilli provided for his difficult last name. Using a border is and evidence practice essay a good way to add a little bit of color to separate, your resume, as Evelien Callens has done here, without worrying about looking unprofessional. Research Practice! Stylistically, this design is a good compromise between customary and more creative resumes. The two-color, mostly traditional layout uses graphic elements sparingly but purposefully. Thesis Opentype! As a nice touch, Dan Hernandez has branded his cover letter with the research practice, same style, which is a smart idea if your job application involves submitting multiple documents. Sometimes you have to labor, do what you can to based, get noticed. How Alcohol Affects! For an illustrator like Lucia Paul, hand-drawing her resume is both appropriate for her industry and gives her a standout way to display her skills. Research And Evidence Based Practice Essay! Big, bold typography, a high-contrast color scheme, and a well-organized presentation all combine to make sure Joao Andrade’s resume gets looked at. No long-winded explanations of thesis unions job roles here.
Just the essentials — enough to get someone interested in research based practice essay, wanting to know more about Gianina Santiago and her background. Thesis Opentype! Clean, sans-serif fonts, relatively little text, and lots of research based practice white space give Maxat Malbekov’s resume a sleek look that’s easy to where to find sanskrit, achieve if you condense your resume down to only the most relevant information. If you have a lot of information you need to and evidence practice essay, fit on one page, take a tip from this design by Halle Rasco and use easy-to-read fonts and clear headings for each section. Need to keep your resume fairly conservative? A two-column layout with a businesslike blue-gray accent color gives this otherwise traditional resume from an essay, ResumeBaker some extra interest. Syril Bobadilla’s illustrations are whimsical and kid-friendly, and her resume reflects that style. Essay! Notice how she also created matching business cards for a cohesive personal brand. Even if your industry doesn’t allow as much creative expression as someone in the arts, you can express your personality in more subtle ways, like through font choices or an sanskrit essays accent color. Resumes don’t always have to read from left to research and evidence based, right, top to bottom.
You can play with the layout of your resume to make the best and sanskrit essays online most visually interesting use of the space you have available, like Milena Filipova has done here. You can use a grid structure to research based practice, organize your resume and make it easier to navigate, similarly to where essays online, how Orlando Silva designed this template. If applicable, you might also try including some pieces from your portfolio right on the resume (so your abilities are on display at first glance). As you can see from the examples above, there are many approaches you can take to designing your resume. But no matter what style or format you choose, there are a few things you want to make sure to get right: Readable text Industry-appropriate style (if unsure, play it safe with a conservative design.) Updated and accurate information No spelling/grammar errors. Now it#8217;s your turn. Put these skills into action!
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Chapter 16 — Testing .NET Application Performance. This content is outdated and is no longer being maintained. It is provided as a courtesy for individuals who are still using these technologies. This page may contain URLs that were valid when originally published, but now link to research based essay sites or pages that no longer exist. Improving .NET Application Performance and Scalability. J.D. Meier, Srinath Vasireddy, Ashish Babbar, and Alex Mackman. Home Page for Improving .NET Application Performance and Scalability.
Summary: This chapter provides a step-by-step process that helps you to load test, stress test, and capacity test your Web application. The chapter presents testing best practices and highlights the common issues to avoid. It also shows how to simulate workload, and then measure and analyze results. Learn performance testing fundamentals. Perform load testing. Perform stress testing. Perform workload modeling. Identify testing best and on a separate peace worst practices.
Performance testing is used to research based practice essay verify that an application is able to perform under expected and peak load conditions, and that it can scale sufficiently to handle increased capacity. There are three types of performance tests that share similarities yet accomplish different goals: Load testing . Use load testing to verify application behavior under normal and peak load conditions. This allows you to how alcohol affects verify that your application can meet your desired performance objectives; these performance objectives are often specified in a service level agreement. It enables you to measure response times, throughput rates, resource utilization levels, and to based practice essay identify your application's breaking point, assuming that breaking point occurs below the thesis labor, peak load condition. Stress testing . Based? Use stress testing to evaluate your application's behavior when it is pushed beyond the bad term papers, normal or peak load conditions. The goal of stress testing is to research and evidence based practice essay unearth application bugs that surface only thesis opentype under high load conditions. These can include such things as synchronization issues, race conditions, and research and evidence based practice memory leaks. Stress testing enables you to an essay peace identify your application's weak points, and and evidence how it behaves under extreme load conditions. Bad Term Papers? Capacity testing . Research And Evidence Based Essay? Capacity testing is complementary to load testing and it determines your server's ultimate failure point, whereas load testing monitors results at various levels of load and traffic patterns. You perform capacity testing in where to find online conjunction with capacity planning.
You use capacity planning to plan for future growth, such as an increased user base or increased volume of data. For example, to accommodate future loads you need to know how many additional resources (such as CPU, RAM, disk space, or network bandwidth) are necessary to support future usage levels. Capacity testing helps you identify a scaling strategy to determine whether you should scale up or scale out. For more information, refer to How To: Perform Capacity Planning for .NET Applications in the How To section of research and evidence, this guide. This chapter demonstrates an separate approach to performance testing that is particularly effective when combined with the other principles in this guide. To gain the most from this chapter: Jump to topics or read from beginning to end . The main headings in this chapter help you locate the topics that interest you. Alternatively, you can read the chapter from and evidence based practice essay beginning to end to gain a thorough appreciation of the issues around performance testing. Identify your stress test tool . Thesis Opentype? To execute the performance test processes defined in this chapter, you need a stress test tool to simulate user load. For example, you could use Microsoft® Application Center Test (ACT) tool, Microsoft Web Application Stress tool, or any other tool of your own choice. ACT is included with Enterprise editions of the Microsoft Visual Studio® .NET development system.
You can download the Microsoft Web Application Stress tool at http://www.iis.net/downloads/default.aspx?tabid=34g;=6i;=1298. And Evidence Based Practice? Identify your scenarios . Various sections in this chapter refer to a fictitious application that sells products online. Labor Unions? For example, the research and evidence essay, user can browse and search through products, add them to a shopping cart, and purchase them with a credit card. An Essay Separate Peace? When you performance test your own application, make sure you know your application's key scenarios. Use the How To section . The How To section of this guide includes the following instructional articles referenced by this chapter: How To: Use ACT to Test Performance and Scalability How To: Use ACT to Test Web Services Performance How To: Perform Capacity Planning for .NET Framework Applications Performance testing is the process of identifying how an application responds to research based practice essay a specified set of conditions and input. Multiple individual performance test scenarios (suites, cases, scripts) are often needed to cover all of the conditions and/or input of interest. For testing purposes, if possible, the thesis opentype, application should be hosted on a hardware infrastructure that is representative of the live environment. Research Practice Essay? By examining your application's behavior under simulated load conditions, you identify whether your application is trending toward or away from its defined performance objectives. The main goal of performance testing is to identify how well your application performs in relation to your performance objectives.
Some of the other goals of on a separate peace, performance testing include the following: Identify bottlenecks and their causes. Optimize and tune the based practice essay, platform configuration (both the hardware and software) for maximum performance. College Admission Prompts? Verify the reliability of your application under stress. You may not be able to identify all the and evidence based practice essay, characteristics by on a peace running a single type of performance test. The following are some of the application characteristics that performance testing helps you identify: Response time. Based Practice Essay? Throughput. Maximum concurrent users supported. Where Online? For a definition of concurrent users, see Testing Considerations, later in this chapter. Resource utilization in and evidence essay terms of the affects essay, amount of CPU, RAM, network I/O, and disk I/O resources your application consumes during the test.
Behavior under various workload patterns including normal load conditions, excessive load conditions, and conditions in between. Application breaking point. The application breaking point means a condition where the application stops responding to requests. Some of the symptoms of breaking point include 503 errors with a Server Too Busy message, and research practice errors in bad term papers the application event log that indicate that the practice essay, ASPNET worker process recycled because of thesis opentype, potential deadlocks. Symptoms and research and evidence based practice essay causes of application failure under stress conditions. Thesis Labor Unions? Weak points in your application. What is required to support a projected increase in research based practice load. An Essay On A Separate Peace? For example, an increase in the number of research, users, amount of data, or application activity might cause an to find sanskrit online increase in research and evidence essay load. Most of the performance tests depend on a set of predefined, documented, and admission agreed-upon performance objectives. Knowing the objectives from the beginning helps make the testing process more efficient.
You can evaluate your application's performance by comparing it with your performance objectives. You may run tests that are exploratory in nature to know more about the system without having any performance objective. Research? But even these eventually serve as input to bad term papers the tests that are conducted for evaluating performance against performance objectives. Performance objectives often include the following: Response time is the amount of time taken to research based practice essay respond to a request. You can measure response time at the server or client as follows: Latency measured at the server . This is the time taken by college admission the server to complete the research based practice, execution of a request. This does not include the client-to-server latency, which includes additional time for the request and response to on a separate peace cross the network. Latency measured at the client . Research And Evidence Essay? The latency measured at thesis opentype, the client includes the request queue, plus the research and evidence based, time taken by the server to complete the execution of the request and college admission prompts the network latency.
You can measure the latency in various ways. Two common approaches are time taken by the first byte to and evidence based practice reach the client ( time to first byte , TTFB), or the time taken by the last byte of the response to reach the client ( time to last byte , TTLB). Generally, you should test this using various network bandwidths between the client and unions the server. By measuring latency, you can gauge whether your application takes too long to respond to based practice client requests. Throughput is the essays prompts, number of requests that can be served by your application per unit time. It can vary depending upon the load (number of users) and the type of user activity applied to the server. For example, downloading files requires higher throughput than browsing text-based Web pages. Research And Evidence Based? Throughput is usually measured in terms of requests per second. There are other units for measurement, such as transactions per second or orders per second. Identify resource utilization costs in terms of thesis labor unions, server and network resources. The primary resources are:
You can identify the resource cost on a per based, operation basis. Operations might include browsing a product catalog, adding items to a shopping cart, or placing an order. Labor? You can measure resource costs for a given user load, or you can average resource costs when the application is tested using a given workload profile . A workload profile consists of an aggregate mix of users performing various operations. For example, for a load of 200 concurrent users (as defined below), the based practice essay, profile might indicate that 20 percent of thesis labor, users perform order placement, 30 percent add items to a shopping cart, while 50 percent browse the product catalog. This helps you identify and optimize areas that consume an unusually large proportion of research based, server resources and response time. In this chapter, we have defined the load on the application as simultaneous users or concurrent users. Simultaneous users have active connections to the same Web site, whereas concurrent users hit the site at exactly the same moment. Concurrent access is likely to occur at on a, infrequent intervals. Your site may have 100 to 150 concurrent users but 1,000 to 1,500 simultaneous users. When load testing your application, you can simulate simultaneous users by including a random think time in your script such that not all the user threads from the load generator are firing requests at the same moment.
In addition to generating load, these tools can also help you gather performance-related metrics such as response time, requests per second, and performance counters from remote server computers. Microsoft Application Center Test (ACT) and the Microsoft Web Application Stress tool are examples of such load generating tools. The ACT tool is research included with Enterprise editions of labor unions, Visual Studio .NET. You can download the and evidence based essay, Microsoft Web Application Stress Tool at thesis unions, http://www.iis.net/downloads/default.aspx?tabid=34g;=6i;=1298. You can also use various third party tools such as Mercury LoadRunner, Compuware's QALoad, Rational's Performance Tester, or custom tools developed for your application.
You use load testing to verify application behavior under normal and peak load conditions. You incrementally increase the load from normal to peak load to see how your application performs with varying load conditions. You continue to increase the load until you cross the threshold limit for research based, your performance objectives. For example, you might continue to increase the load until the server CPU utilization reaches 75 percent, which is labor unions your specified threshold. Practice Essay? The load testing process lets you identify application bottlenecks and the maximum operating capacity of the application. Input may include the following: Performance objectives from admission essays prompts your performance model. For more information about Performance Modeling, see Chapter 2, Performance Modeling. Application characteristics (scenarios). Research? Workload characteristics. Performance objectives for each scenario.
Test plans. The load testing process is a six step process as shown in Figure 16.1. Figure 16.1: The load testing process. The load testing process involves the thesis unions, following steps: Identify key scenarios . Research And Evidence Based? Identify application scenarios that are critical for performance. Identify workload . Sanskrit Essays Online? Distribute the total application load among the key scenarios identified in step 1. And Evidence Practice Essay? Identify metrics . Identify the metrics that you want to collect about the college admission essays prompts, application when running the based, test. Create test cases . Create the an essay peace, test cases where you define steps for executing a single test along with the expected results. Simulate load . Use test tools to simulate load according to the test cases and to capture the and evidence, result metrics. Analyze the results . Analyze the metric data captured during the where to find sanskrit online, test. The next sections describe each of these steps. Start by based practice identifying your application's key scenarios.
Scenarios are anticipated user paths that generally incorporate multiple application activities. Key scenarios are those for which you have specific performance goals or those that have a significant performance impact, either because they are commonly executed or because they are resource intensive. The key scenarios for the sample application include the following: Log on to the application. Browse a product catalog. Bad Term Papers? Search for a specific product. Add items to research and evidence the shopping cart. College Admission Essays? Validate credit card details and place an order. Identify the performance characteristics or workload associated with each of the defined scenarios. Research And Evidence Based Practice? For each scenario you must identify the following:
Numbers of essays prompts, users . The total number of concurrent and simultaneous users who access the application in a given time frame. For a definition of concurrent users, see Testing Considerations, later in this chapter. Rate of requests . The requests received from the concurrent load of users per unit time. Patterns of requests . A given load of concurrent users may be performing different tasks using the application. Patterns of requests identify the average load of users, and research and evidence based practice essay the rate of labor, requests for a given functionality of an application. For more information about and evidence practice, how to create a workload model for your application, see Workload Modeling, later in this chapter.
After you create a workload model, begin load testing with a total number of users distributed against your user profile, and then start to incrementally increase the load for each test cycle. Continue to increase the load, and record the behavior until you reach the threshold for the resources identified in your performance objectives. You can also continue to increase the number of users until you hit your service level limits, beyond which you would be violating your service level agreements for throughput, response time, and college essays resource utilization. Identify the metrics that you need to measure when you run your tests. When you simulate load, you need to practice essay know which metrics to look for and where to how alcohol essay gauge the performance of research based essay, your application. Bad Term Papers? Identify the metrics that are relevant to your performance objectives, as well as those that help you identify bottlenecks. Metrics allow you to evaluate how your application performs in research based relation to performance objectives — such as throughput, response time, and bad term papers resource utilization. As you progress through multiple iterations of the tests, you can add metrics based upon practice essay your analysis of the previous test cycles. For example, if you observe that that your ASP.NET worker process is showing a marked increase in the ProcessPrivate Bytes counter during a test cycle, during the second test iteration you might add additional memory-related counters (counters related to garbage collection generations) to do further precision monitoring of the memory usage by the worker process. For more information about the types of metrics to affects the family capture for an ASP.NET application, see Metrics, later in this chapter. To evaluate the performance of your application in more detail and to identify the research and evidence based practice essay, potential bottlenecks, monitor metrics under the following categories:
Network-specific metrics . This set of metrics provides information about the overall health and efficiency of thesis opentype, your network, including routers, switches, and gateways. System-related metrics . This set of metrics helps you identify the resource utilization on your server. Research Practice Essay? The resources are CPU, memory, disk I/O, and network I/O. Platform-specific metrics . Platform-specific metrics are related to software that is used to host your application, such as the to find, .NET Framework common language runtime and ASP.NET-related metrics. Application-specific metrics . These include custom performance counters inserted in your application code to monitor application health and identify performance issues.
You might use custom counters to determine the number of research and evidence based essay, concurrent threads waiting to thesis opentype acquire a particular lock or the number of requests queued to make an outbound call to a Web service. Research Based Essay? Service level metrics . Bad Term Papers? Service level metrics can help to measure overall application throughput and research based practice essay latency, or they might be tied to specific business scenarios as shown in Table 16.1. Table 16.1: Sample Service Level Metrics for the Sample Application. For a complete list of the counters that you need to how alcohol the family essay measure, see Metrics, later in this chapter. After identifying metrics, you should determine a baseline for them under normal load conditions. Based Essay? This helps you decide on the acceptable load levels for your application. Baseline values help you analyze your application performance at varying load levels. An example is showed in Table 16.2.
Table 16.2: Acceptable Load Levels. Document your various test cases in test plans for the workload patterns identified in Step 2. Two examples are shown in this section. Test Case for the Sample E-Commerce Application. The test case for the sample e-commerce application used for illustration purposes in this chapter might define the following: Number of users : 500 simultaneous users Test duration : 2 hours Think time : Random think time between 1 and thesis opentype 10 seconds in the test script after each operation. Divide the users into various user profiles based on and evidence essay, the workload identified in step 2. For the thesis opentype, sample application, the distribution of load for research and evidence based, various profiles could be similar to admission that shown in Table 16.3. Table 16.3: Load Distribution. The expected results for and evidence based practice, the sample application might be defined as the where online, following:
Throughput : 100 requests per second (ASP.NETRequests/sec performance counter) Requests Executing : 45 requests executing (ASP.NETRequests Executing performance counter) Avg. Response Time : 2.5 second response time (TTLB on 100 megabits per second [Mbps] LAN) Resource utilization thresholds : Processor% Processor Time : 75 percent. MemoryAvailable MBytes : 25 percent of research and evidence essay, total physical RAM. Use tools such as ACT to run the identified scenarios and to simulate load. In addition to handling common client requirements such as authentication, cookies, and view state, ACT allows you to run multiple instances of the test at the same time to match the where to find online, test case. Note Make sure the client computers you use to generate load are not overly stressed. Resource utilization such as processor and memory should be well below the utilization threshold values. For more information about using ACT for performance testing, see How To: Use ACT to Test Performance and Scalability in practice the How To section of this guide.
Analyze the captured data and compare the results against the metric's accepted level. The data you collect helps you analyze your application with respect to your application's performance objectives: Throughput versus user load. Response time versus user load. Resource utilization versus user load.
Other important metrics can help you identify and diagnose potential bottlenecks that limit your application's scalability. To generate the test data, continue to increase load incrementally for multiple test iterations until you cross the threshold limits set for your application. Threshold limits may include service level agreements for throughput, response time, and sanskrit essays resource utilization. For example, the based practice, threshold limit set for CPU utilization may be set to 75 percent; therefore, you can continue to increase the load and perform tests until the processor utilization reaches around 80 percent. The analysis report that you generate at the end of various test iterations identifies your application behavior at how alcohol the family, various load levels. For a sample report, see the Reporting section later in this chapter.
If you continue to increase load during the testing process, you are likely to ultimately cause your application to fail. If you start to receive HTTP 500 (server busy) responses from the server, it means that your server's queue is and evidence based full and that it has started to reject requests. These responses correspond to the 503 error code in the ACT stress tool. Another example of application failure is a situation where the ASP.NET worker process recycles on the server because memory consumption has reached the limit defined in the Machine.config file or the bad term papers, worker process has deadlocked and has exceeded the time duration specified through the responseDeadlockInterval attribute in the Machine.config file. You can identify bottlenecks in practice essay the application by analyzing the metrics data.
At this point, you need to investigate the cause, fix or tune your application, and college admission then run the based practice, tests again. Based upon your test analysis, you may need to create and run special tests that are very focused. For more information about identifying architecture and design related issues in your application, see Chapter 4, Architecture and Design Review of a .NET Application for Performance and Scalability For more information about identifying architecture and sanskrit design-related issues in your application, see Chapter 13, Code Review: .NET Application Performance For more information about tuning, refer to Chapter 17, Tuning .NET Application Performance The various outputs of the load testing process are the following: Updated test plans. Behavior of your application at various load levels. Maximum operating capacity. Potential bottlenecks. Practice? Recommendations for fixing the bottlenecks.
Stress test your application by thesis subjecting it to very high loads that are beyond the capacity of the application, while denying it the resources required to process that load. For example, you can deploy your application on a server that is running a processor-intensive application already. Research Based Essay? In this way, your application is immediately starved of affects essay, processor resources and must compete with the other application for CPU cycles. The goal of stress testing is to unearth application bugs that surface only under high load conditions. These bugs can include: Synchronization issues Race conditions Memory leaks Loss of data during network congestion. Unlike load testing, where you have a list of prioritized scenarios, with stress testing you identify a particular scenario that needs to be stress tested.
There may be more than one scenario or there may be a combination of scenarios that you can stress test during a particular test run to reproduce a potential problem. You can also stress test a single Web page or even a single item, such as a stored procedure or class. To perform stress testing, you need the following input: Application characteristics (scenarios) Potential or possible problems with the research, scenarios Workload profile characteristics Peak load capacity (obtained from load testing) The stress testing process is a six-step process as shown in Figure 16.2. Figure 16.2: Stress testing process.
The process involves the following steps: Identify key scenario(s) . Identify the application scenario or cases that need to how alcohol essay be stress tested to identify potential problems. Identify workload . Identify the workload that you want to apply to the scenarios identified in step 1. This is based on research and evidence practice, the workload and peak load capacity inputs. Identify the metrics . Identify the metrics that you want to to find sanskrit online collect about the research and evidence practice, application. Base these metrics on the potential problems identified for the scenarios you identified in step 1. Create test cases . Thesis Opentype? Create the test cases where you define steps for running a single test and your expected results. Simulate load . Use test tools to research based practice simulate the required load for bad term papers, each test case and research and evidence capture the metric data results. Analyze the results . Analyze the to find online, metric data captured during the test. The next sections describe each of these steps. Identify the scenario or multiple scenarios that you need to stress test.
Generally, you start by defining a single scenario that you want to stress test to identify a potential performance issue. There are a number of ways to and evidence practice choose appropriate scenarios: Select scenarios based on how critical they are to overall application performance. Try to test those operations that are most likely to affect performance. Peace? These might include operations that perform intensive locking and based synchronization, long transactions, and disk-intensive I/O operations. Base your scenario selection on on a peace, the data obtained from load testing that identified specific areas of your application as potential bottlenecks. While you should have fine-tuned and removed the bottlenecks after load testing, you should still stress test the system in these areas to research verify how well your changes handle extreme stress levels. Scenarios that may need to be stress tested separately for a typical e-commerce application include the following:
An order processing scenario that updates the inventory for a particular product. This functionality has the potential to thesis opentype exhibit locking and research based practice essay synchronization problems. A scenario that pages through search results based on user queries. College Essays Prompts? If a user specifies a particularly wide query, there could be a large impact on memory utilization. For example, memory utilization could be affected if a query returns an entire data table. For illustration processes, this section considers the order placement scenario from the sample e-commerce application. The load you apply to a particular scenario should stress the system sufficiently beyond threshold limits. You can incrementally increase the load and observe the application behavior over various load conditions. As an alternative, you can start by applying an anti-profile to the workload model from load testing. The anti-profile has the workload distributions inverted for the scenario under consideration.
For example, if the normal load for the place order scenario is research based practice 10 percent of the total workload, the anti-profile is 90 percent of the total workload. The remaining load can be distributed among the thesis labor, other scenarios. This can serve as a good starting point for your stress tests. You can continue to increase the load beyond this starting point for stress testing purposes. Based Essay? Configure the anti-profile needs in such a way that the load for thesis opentype, the identified scenario is deliberately increased beyond the peak load conditions.
For example, consider the normal workload profile identified for a sample application that is shown in Table 16.4. Table 16.4: Sample Workload Profile for a Sample Application. The anti-profile used to stress test the and evidence essay, order placement scenario is shown in Table 16.5. Table 16.5: Order Use Case Anti-Profile. Continue to increase the load for this scenario, and observe the application response at various load levels. The time duration of the tests depends upon the scenario. For example, it might take 10 to 15 days to simulate deadlocks on a four-processor machine, but the same deadlocks may be simulated on an eight-processor machine in half that time.
Identify the online, metrics corresponding to the potential pitfalls for each scenario. The metrics can be related to both performance and throughput goals, in addition to ones that provide information about the potential problems. This might include custom performance counters that have been embedded in research and evidence based practice the application. Unions? For example, this might be a performance counter used to monitor the and evidence practice, memory usage of a particular memory stream used to serialize a DataSet . For the place order scenario, where contention-related issues are the focus, you need to measure the metrics that report contention in addition to the basic set of college prompts, counters. Table 16.6 shows the metrics that have been identified for the place order scenario.
Table 16.6: Metrics to Measure During Stress Testing of the Place Order Scenario. Document your test cases for the various workload patterns identified in step 2. For example: 1,000 simultaneous users. Use a random think time between 1 and 10 seconds in the test script after each operation. Run the test for 2 days. The ASP.NET worker process should not recycle because of deadlock. Throughput should not fall below 35 requests per second. Response time should not be greater than 7 seconds. Server busy errors should not be more than 10 percent of the total response because of research and evidence essay, contention-related issues. Use tools such as ACT to run the identified scenarios and to essays online simulate load. Research? This allows you to thesis labor unions capture the data for your metrics.
Note Make sure that the practice, client computers that you use to generate load are not overly stressed. Resource utilization, such as processor and memory, should not be very high. Analyze the captured data and compare the results against thesis unions, the metric's accepted level. If the results indicate that your required performance levels have not been attained, analyze and fix the cause of the bottleneck. To address the research and evidence based practice, issue, you might need to do one of the following: Perform a design review. For more information, see Chapter 4, Architecture and Design Review of affects essay, a .NET Application for Performance and research practice Scalability. Perform a code review. Admission Essays? For more information, see Chapter 13, Code Review: .NET Application Performance.
Examine the stack dumps of the worker process to diagnose the practice essay, exact cause of deadlocks. For example, to reduce the contention for the place order scenario of the how alcohol affects, sample application, you can implement queues into which orders are posted and are processed serially rather than processing them immediately after the research and evidence practice essay, order is how alcohol affects essay placed. For more information on tools and based essay techniques for debugging, see Production Debugging for .NET Framework Applications, at how alcohol affects the family, http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms954594.aspx. For more information on and evidence based essay, debugging deadlocks, see Scenario: Contention or Deadlock Symptoms in college essays Production Debugging for .NET Framework Applications, at http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms954592.aspx. Research And Evidence? For more information on deadlocks, see Microsoft Knowledge Base article 317723, INFO: What Are Race Conditions and Deadlocks? at http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;317723. Workload modeling is the process of identifying one or more workload profiles to be simulated against the target test systems. Each workload profile represents a variation of the to find sanskrit online, following attributes:
Key scenarios. Numbers of simultaneous users. Rate of requests. Patterns of requests. The workload model defines how each of the identified scenarios is research practice executed. Bad Term Papers? It also defines approximate data access patterns and identifies user types and characteristics. You can determine patterns and call frequency by using either the predicted usage of essay, your application based on market analysis, or if your application is already in production, by thesis opentype analyzing server log files. Some important questions to help you determine the based practice essay, workload for where to find essays online, your application include:
Identify the scenarios that are critical for your application from a performance perspective. You should capture these scenarios as a part of the research and evidence based practice, requirements analysis performed in to find the very early stages of your application development life cycle. Simultaneous users are users who have active connections to the same Web site. This represents the maximum operating capacity for your application. For the sample e-commerce application, assume 1,000 simultaneous users. If you are developing a new application, you can obtain these numbers by working with the marketing team and using the results of the team's analysis. Practice? For existing applications, you can identify the how alcohol affects the family essay, number of simultaneous users by analyzing your Internet Information Services (IIS) logs.
This depends upon the actions a user can perform when he or she is logged into the application. For the sample application, consider the following actions: Connect to the home page. Log on to the application. Research And Evidence Based Practice Essay? Browse the product catalog. Search for specific products. Add products to the shopping cart. Validate and place an order.
Log out from the application. What are the admission prompts, various user profiles for the application? You can group together the based essay, various types of users and the actions they perform. For example, there are groups of users who simply connect and browse the product catalog, and there are other users who log on, search for specific products, and then log out. The total number of users logging on is a subset of the users who actually order products.
Based on this approach, you can classify your user profiles. For the sample application, the user profile classification would include: Browse profile. Search profile. Place order profile. What are the operations performed by an average user for each profile? The operations performed by an average user for bad term papers, each profile are based on marketing data for research and evidence based essay, a new application and IIS log analysis for an existing one. For example, if you are developing a business-to-consumer e-commerce site, your research-based marketing data tells you that on an average, a user who buys products buys at least three products from your site in a single session. The actions performed for the place order profile for the sample application are identified in Table 16.7. Table 16.7: Actions Performed for bad term papers, the Place Order Profile. A typical user for the place order profile might not search your site, but you can assume such actions by averaging out the activity performed by various users for practice essay, a specific profile.
You can then create a table of actions performed by an essay on a an average user for all the profiles for based practice, your application. Think time is the time spent by the user between two consecutive requests. Sanskrit Essays? During this time, the user views the information displayed on a page or enters details such as credit card numbers, depending on the nature of operation being performed. Think time can vary depending on and evidence based practice, the complexity of the data on a page. For example, think time for an essay on a, the logon page is less than the think time for an order placement page where the user must enter credit card details. You can average out the think time for all the research and evidence practice essay, requests. For more information about think time, see Testing Considerations, later in this chapter. The usage pattern for each scenario gives an idea in a given time frame of the labor unions, percentage mix of business actions performed by users. An example is shown in Table 16.8.
Table 16.8: Sample User Profile Over a Period of Time. The test duration depends on the workload pattern for your application and may range from research and evidence essay 20 minutes to as long as a week. Consider the following scenarios: A Web site experiences a steady user profile throughout the day. For example, if you host an how alcohol the family essay online e-commerce site, the operations performed by an average user visiting the site are unlikely to vary during the course of an 8-to-10 hour business day.
The test script for such a site should not vary the profile of users over the test period. The tests are executed simply by and evidence practice essay varying the number of users for each test cycle. For this scenario, a test duration in the range of 20 minutes to 1 hour may be sufficient. A Web site experiences a varying profile of users on a given day. For example, a stock brokerage site might experience more users buying (rather than selling) stocks in essays prompts the morning and the opposite in based practice the evening. The test duration for where sanskrit, this type of research and evidence practice, application may range between 8 and 16 hours. You may even run tests continuously for where to find essays, a week or multiple weeks with a constant load to observe how your application performs over a sustained period of activity. This helps you identify any slow memory leaks over a period of time.
Your test environment should be capable of research and evidence practice, simulating production environment conditions. To do this, keep the following considerations in mind during the test cycle: Do not place too much stress on the client . Create baselines for your test setup . Allow for on a separate, think time in your test script . Consider test duration . Minimize redundant requests during testing . Consider simultaneous versus concurrent users . Set an appropriate warm up time . The next sections describe each of these considerations. Do Not Place Too Much Stress on the Client. Do not overly stress the client computer used to generate application load. The processor and memory usage on your client computers should be well below the threshold limit (CPU: 75 percent). And Evidence Practice? Otherwise, the client computer may end up as a bottleneck during your testing. To avoid this, consider distributing the affects the family, load on multiple client computers. Also, monitor the network interface bandwidth utilization to ensure that the network is not getting congested. Create Baselines for Your Test Setup. Create baselines for your test setup for research based essay, all types of tests you need to thesis opentype perform.
The setup should be representative of the real life environment. This has two advantages. First, the results from various categories of tests do not reflect the type of hardware you are using. This means that your application modifications are the only variable. Second, you can depend on the test results because the and evidence practice, test setup closely mirrors the real life environment.
Allow for Think Time in college Your Test Script. Think time reflects the amount of time that a typical user is likely to pause for thought while interacting with your application. During this time, the user views the information displayed on the page or enters details such as credit card numbers or addresses. You should average the think time across various operations. If you do not include think time in your script, there is no time gap between two subsequent requests on a per-user basis. And Evidence Based Practice Essay? This directly translates to all users firing requests to the server concurrently. So, for a concurrent load of 200 users, there will be 200 requests fired at where to find sanskrit online, a given instance to the server. This is not a true representation of how your typical users use your application. Note Omitting think time can be helpful when you want to generate excessive load on the server. Make sure that the think time in and evidence based practice your test script is based on admission prompts, real life conditions.
This varies according to and evidence essay the operations performed by thesis labor the user, and and evidence it varies depending on the page the thesis unions, user is research practice interacting with. For your test scripts, you can program for either a fixed think time between consecutive requests or a random think time ranging between minimum and maximum values. You should base the time duration for your tests on the end goal. If the goal is to load test and monitor the application behavior for your workload pattern, the test duration might range from where sanskrit essays 20 minutes to as long as one week. If the site is expected to experience users of similar profile, and research and evidence based practice essay the average user is expected to perform the same set of operations during the labor, intraday activity, a test of 20 minutes to one hour is sufficient for generating data for load testing.
You may want to run load tests for an extended period — four to five days — to see how your application performs on the peak operating capacity for a longer duration of time. However, to generate test data for your site if your site expects users of research and evidence, different profiles during various hours of operation, you may need to unions test for at and evidence practice essay, least eight to 10 hours to simulate various user profiles in the workload pattern. For stress testing purposes, the end goal is to run tests to identify potential resource leaks and the corresponding degradation in application performance. This may require a longer duration, ranging from peace a couple of hours to a week, depending on the nature of the and evidence practice essay, bottleneck. For tests used to measure the transaction cost of an to find operation using transaction cost analysis, you might need to run test for only approximately 20 minutes. For more information about based practice, capacity planning and transaction cost analysis, see How To: Perform Capacity Planning for on a, .NET Framework Applications in the How To section of practice essay, this guide. Minimize Redundant Requests During Testing. Make sure that your test load script simulates an appropriate load for your particular scenario and bad term papers does not generate additional redundant requests. For example, consider a logon scenario.
The complete operation typically consists of and evidence based essay, two requests: A GET request used to thesis opentype retrieve the initial page where the user supplies a logon name and password. A POST request when the user clicks the Logon button to verify the credentials. The GET request is the research and evidence, same for all users and can easily be cached and served to all users. However, it is the POST request that is thesis opentype critical from a performance perspective. Practice? In this example, your test script should avoid sending a GET request before submitting a POST request. By avoiding the GET request within your test script, the to find essays, client threads of the load generator are able to iterate faster through the loop for a given set of users, thereby generating more POST requests. This results in a more effective stress test for research and evidence essay, the actual POST operation. However, there may be conditions when even the response to bad term papers a GET request is customized for a user; therefore, you should consider including both the GET and POST requests in the stress tests. Consider Simultaneous vs. Research Based? Concurrent Users.
Simultaneous users have active connections to the same Web site, whereas concurrent users connect to the site at exactly the same moment. Concurrent access is likely to occur at infrequent intervals. Your site may have 100 to bad term papers 150 concurrent users but 1,000 to 1,500 simultaneous users. To stress test your application by using tools such as ACT, use a think time of zero in your test scripts. This allows you to stress your application without any time lag, with all users concurrently accessing the site. By using an appropriate think time, however, you can more accurately mirror a real life situation in which a user takes some time before submitting a new request to the server. High numbers of simultaneous users tend to produce spikes in your resource usage and research based practice can often cause interaction that is labor beyond the concurrent load a server can handle. Based Essay? This results in occasional server busy errors. Tests with simultaneous users are very useful because they help you identify the actual load your system can handle without sending back too many server busy errors.
ACT supports warm-up times. The warm-up time is used in a test script to separate peace ensure your application reaches a steady state before the test tool starts to record results. The warm-up time causes ACT to ignore the data from the first few seconds of a test run. This is particularly important for ASP.NET applications because the first few requests trigger just-in-time (JIT) compilation and caching. The warm up time is particularly relevant for short duration tests, so that the research essay, initial startup time does not skew the test results. To determine an appropriate warm-up time for how alcohol the family, your application, use the ASP.NET ApplicationsCompilations Total counter to measure the and evidence based practice essay, effects of JIT compilation. This counter should increase every time a user action triggers the JIT complier. In some cases you may want to know how long it takes to compile and cache.
It should be a separate test; it should not be averaged into your steady state measurements. Best Practices for Performance Testing. When you test, consider the following best practices. When performing performance testing, make sure you do the following: Clear the where to find, application and database logs after each performance test run. Excessively large log files may artificially skew the and evidence based practice essay, performance results. Identify the correct server software and thesis opentype hardware to mirror your production environment. Use a single graphical user interface (GUI) client to research based practice essay capture end-user response time while a load is generated on the system.
You may need to college admission essays prompts generate load by using different client computers, but to make sense of client-side data, such as response time or requests per second, you should consolidate data at a single client and generate results based on research based essay, the average values. Include a buffer time between the incremental increases of users during a load test. Use different data parameters for each simulated user to create a more realistic load simulation. Unions? Monitor all computers involved in and evidence based the test, including the client that generates the load. This is important because you should not overly stress the client. Prioritize your scenarios according to critical functionality and high-volume transactions. Use a zero think time if you need to fire concurrent requests,. This can help you identify bottleneck issues. An Essay On A Separate? Stress test critical components of the system to and evidence assess their independent thresholds. Do not allow the test system resources to cross resource threshold limits by a significant margin during load testing, because this distorts the data in your results. Do not run tests in live production environments that have other network traffic.
Use an isolated test environment that is thesis opentype representative of the actual production environment. Do not try to break the system during a load test. The intent of the load test is not to break the system. The intent is to observe performance under expected usage conditions. You can stress test to determine the research, most likely modes of failure so they can be addressed or mitigated. Do not place too much stress on the client test computers. The metrics that you need to capture vary depending on the server role. For example, a Web server will have a different set of metrics than a database server. The metrics in this section are divided into separate, the following categories:
The next sections describe each of these categories. Table 16.9 lists the set of research and evidence practice essay, metrics that you should capture on all your servers. These metrics help you identify the where to find sanskrit essays, resource utilization (processor, memory, network I/O, disk I/O) on the servers. For more information on the metrics, see Chapter 15, Measuring .NET Application Performance. Table 16.9: Metrics to Be Measured on All Servers. You can either capture a small set of research and evidence based practice essay, metrics for the Web server that lets you evaluate the application performance with respect to your performance goals, or you can capture a bigger set of counters that helps you identify potential bottlenecks for your application. Table 16.10 shows a set of labor unions, counters that helps you evaluate your application performance with respect to goals. The counters can be mapped to some of the goals as follows: Throughput : ASP.NET ApplicationsRequests/Sec Server-side latency (subset of Response Time) : ASP.NETRequest Execution Time Process utilization : Processor% Processor Time Memory utilized by the ASP.NET worker process : ProcessPrivate Bytes (aspnet_wp) ?Free memory available for the server : MemoryAvailable MBytes. Table 16.10: Metrics for Application Performance Goals. The set of metrics shown in Table 16.11 is the set that you should capture on your Web servers to identify any potential performance bottlenecks for your application.
The set of metrics shown in and evidence practice Table 16.12 is the set that you should capture on your database servers that are running SQL Server. This section shows a report template that you can use to separate peace create load test reports for your applications. You can customize this template to suit your own application scenarios. The analysis section of the report demonstrates performance analysis with the help of suitable graphs. You can have other graphs based upon the performance objectives identified for your application.
Before you begin testing and before you finalize the report's format and wish list of required data, consider getting feedback from the report's target audience. This helps you to plan for your tests and capture all the relevant information. Research And Evidence Essay? Table 16.13 highlights the main sections and the items you should include in where to find essays online a load test report. Table 16.13: Load Test Report Template. Memory: 1 GB RAM. Number of servers: 2. Load balancing: Yes. Memory: 1 GB RAM.
Number of servers: 1. Load balancing: No. Number of servers: 2. Network Bandwidth between client and server: 100 Mbps. Web server: IIS 5.0. Platform: .NET Framework 1.1. Database Server: SQL Server 2000 Service Pack SP3. trace enabled=false requestLimit=10 pageOutput=false traceMode=SortByTime localOnly=true / sessionState mode=InProc timeout=20/ Table 16.14 shows the workload profile for the sample e-commerce application.
Table 16.14: Sample Application Workload Profile. Table 16.15 shows some sample performance objectives identified in the performance modeling phase for the application. For more information on performance modeling, see Chapter 2, Performance Modeling. Table 16.15: Performance Objectives. (for each server) Disk I/O (for database server): (custom performance counters)
Table 16.16 lists typical Web server metrics. Table 16.16: Web Server Metrics. Table 16.17 lists typical SQL Server metrics. Table 16.17: SQL Server Metrics. After you capture and consolidate your results, analyze the captured data and compare the results against the metric's accepted level.
If the results indicate that your required performance levels have not been attained, you can analyze and fix the cause of the bottleneck. The data that you collect helps you analyze your application with respect to your application's performance objectives: The next sections describe each of these data comparisons. The throughput versus user load graph for the test results is shown in Figure 16.3. Figure 16.3: Throughput versus user load graph. The graph identifies the point-of-service level failure. This point represents the user load the and evidence based essay, sample application can handle to meet service level requirements for requests per second. The response time versus user load graph, based on the test results for the sample application, is thesis unions shown in Figure 16.4.
Figure 16.4: Response time versus user load graph. The response time is essentially flat with a gentle rise and linear growth for low to medium levels of research and evidence practice, load. After queuing on affects the family essay, the server becomes excessive, the response time begins to increase suddenly. The graph identifies the user load that the sample application can withstand, while satisfying the service level goals for response time for the application scenario under consideration. The graph in Figure 16.5 shows the variation of processor utilization with user load.
Figure 16.5: Processor versus user load graph. This graph identifies the workload for the sample application that is below the threshold limit set for research and evidence based practice essay, processor utilization. The potential bottlenecks based on the analysis of performance counters for the sample application are the following: Low cache hit ratio for the application indicated by the ASP.NET Applications: Cache Total Hit Ratio performance counter. A significant amount of time is spent by the garbage collector in cleanup (indicated by .NET CLR Memory% Time in GC). This indicates inefficient cleanup of resources. This chapter has explained the three main forms of performance testing: load testing, stress testing, and capacity testing. It has also presented processes for load testing and stress testing. Use these processes together with the other guidance and recommendations in this chapter to plan, develop, and run testing approaches for thesis opentype, your applications.
By acting appropriately on the test output, you can fine tune your application and remove bottlenecks to improve performance, and you can ensure that your application is able to practice essay scale to meet future capacity demands. For more information about testing performance, see the following resources in this guide: See the following How Tos in the How To section of this guide: For further reading, see the following resources: Performance Testing Microsoft .NET Web Applications , MS Press®.
For a context-driven approach to performance testing and practical tips on running performance tests, see the articles available at Effective Performance Testing at http://www.perftestplus.com/pubs.htm. For a systematic, quantitative approach to performance tuning that helps you find problems quickly, identify potential solutions, and prioritize your efforts, see Five Steps to Solving Software Performance Problems, by Lloyd G. Williams, Ph.D., and Connie U. Smith, Ph.D., at http://www.perfeng.com/papers/step5.pdf. For techniques and strategies for building a collaborative relationship between test and development around performance tuning, see Part 11: Collaborative Tuning from Beyond Performance Testing by Scott Barber at college admission, http://www.perftestplus.com/resources/BPT11.pdf. For insight into bottleneck identification and analysis, see Part 7: Identify the Critical Failure or Bottleneck from Beyond Performance Testing by Scott Barber at http://www.perftestplus.com/resources/BPT7.pdf. This content is outdated and is no longer being maintained. Based Practice Essay? It is provided as a courtesy for individuals who are still using these technologies.
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