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Political Science 601: Political Theory of the American Revolution. Essays Moral, Political and Literary. Nothing appears more surprizing to those, who consider human affairs with a philosophical eye, than the easiness with which the many are governed by the few; and the implicit submission, with which men resign their own sentiments and passions to those of their rulers. When we enquire by what means this wonder is effected, we shall find, that, as Force is always on the side of the governed, the governors have nothing to support them but opinion. It is therefore, on opinion only that government is essay topic founded; and this maxim extends to the most despotic and most military governments, as well as to the most free and most popular.
The soldan° of newman and historical Egypt , or the essay emperor of Rome , might drive his harmless subjects, like brute beasts, against their sentiments and inclination: But [ 33 ] he must, at least, have led his mamalukes, ° or pr?torian bands, ° like men, by their opinion. Opinion is of two kinds, to informal in critical thinking, wit, opinion of interest , and opinion of right . By opinion of in urdu interest, I chiefly understand the sense of the essays critical and historical general advantage which is reaped from essay in urdu government; together with the persuasion, that the particular government, which is established, is equally advantageous with any other that could easily be settled. Meetings! When this opinion prevails among the generality of in urdu topic a state, or among those who have the force in newman critical their hands, it gives great security to any government. Right is of two kinds, right to Power and right to Property . Essay! What prevalence opinion of the first kind has over mankind, may easily be understood, by observing the attachment which all nations have to their ancient government, and even to those names, which have had the sanction of antiquity. Antiquity always begets the opinion of right; and whatever disadvantageous sentiments we may entertain of mankind, they are always found to be prodigal° both of blood and treasure in the maintenance of public justice.a There is, indeed, no particular, in which, at first sight, there may appear a greater contradiction in the frame of the human mind than the present. When men act in good thesis statement essays a faction, they are apt, without shame or remorse, to neglect all the ties of honour and morality, in essay order to serve their party; and yet, when a faction is formed upon a point of right or principle, there is no occasion, where men discover a greater obstinacy, and a more determined sense of outline justice and equity. The same social disposition of mankind is the cause of these contradictory appearances. It is sufficiently understood, that the opinion of right to property is of moment in all matters of government. A noted author has made property the foundation of all government;1 [ 34 ] and in urdu, most of our political writers seem inclined to follow him in that particular. This is good thesis statement essays carrying the matter too far; but still it must be owned, that the opinion of right to property has a great influence in this subject. Upon these three opinions, therefore, of public interest, of right to in urdu, power, and of right to property, are all governments founded, and all authority of the few over the many.
There are indeed other principles, which add force to these, and determine, limit, or alter their operation; such as self-interest, fear, and affection: But still we may assert, that these other principles can have no influence alone, but suppose the hotel housekeeper cover letter antecedent influence of those opinions above-mentioned. They are, therefore, to be esteemed the secondary, not the original principles of government. For, first, as to self-interest, by which I mean the expectation of particular rewards, distinct from the essay in urdu topic general protection which we receive from government, it is good statement for descriptive essays evident that the magistrate’s authority must be antecedently established, at essay in urdu, least be hoped for, in order to produce this expectation. Thesis Statement! The prospect of topic reward may augment his authority with regard to some particular persons; but can never give birth to cover letter, it, with regard to the public. Men naturally look for the greatest favours from their friends and acquaintance; and therefore, the hopes of any considerable number of the state would never center in any particular set of essay topic men, if these men had no other title to magistracy, and had no separate influence over the opinions of outline mankind.
The same observation may be extended to the other two principles of fear and affection. No man would have any reason to fear the fury of a tyrant, if he had no authority over any but from fear; since, as a single man, his bodily force can reach but a small way, and all the farther power he possesses must be founded either on our own opinion, or on the presumed opinion of others. And though affection to wisdom and virtue in a sovereign extends very far, and has great influence; yet he must antecedently be supposed invested with a public character, otherwise the public esteem will serve him in no stead,° nor will his virtue have any influence beyond a narrow sphere. A Government may endure for essay in urdu topic several ages, though the balance of power, and plan, the balance of property do not coincide. This chiefly happens, where any rank or order of the state has acquired a large share in the property; but from the original constitution of the government, has no share in in urdu the power. Good For Descriptive! Under what pretence would any individual of that order assume authority in public affairs? As men are commonly much attached to their ancient government, it is not to be expected, that the public would ever favour such usurpations. But where the original constitution allows any share of power, though small, to an order of essay in urdu men, who possess a large share of the property, it is easy for good thesis statement for descriptive essays them gradually to stretch their authority, and essay, bring the plan business balance of power to coincide with that of property. This has been the case with the house of commons in England . Most writers, that have treated of the British government, have supposed, that, as the lower house represents all the commons of Great Britain , its weight in the scale is proportioned to the property and power of all whom it represents. But this principle must not be received as absolutely true. For though the people are apt to attach themselves more to the house of essay commons, than to any other member of the constitution; that house being chosen by them as their representatives, and as the informal fallacies thinking public guardians of their liberty; yet are there instances where the house, even when in opposition to the crown, has not been followed by the people; as we may particularly observe of the tory house of commons in topic the reign of king William .2 Were the members obliged to receive instructions from financial plan for small business their constituents, like the Dutch deputies, [ 36 ] this would entirely alter the case; and if such immense power and in urdu, riches, as those of all the commons of Great Britain , were brought into the scale, it is not easy to athesis meetings, conceive, that the crown could either influence that multitude of people, or withstand that overbalance of property.
It is essay true, the crown has great influence over the collective body in the elections of financial plan for small business members; but were this influence, which at present is only exerted once in seven years, to be employed in essay topic bringing over essays and historical the people to every vote, it would soon be wasted; and no skill, popularity, or revenue, could support it. I must, therefore, be of opinion, that an alteration in this particular would introduce a total alteration in our government, and essay topic, would soon reduce it to a pure republic; and, perhaps, to a republic of no inconvenient form. For though the people, collected in a body like the Roman tribes, be quite unfit for thesis government, yet when dispersed in small bodies, they are more susceptible both of reason and order; the force of essay in urdu topic popular currents and financial, tides is, in a great measure, broken; and essay in urdu, the public interest may be pursued with some method and constancy. But it is needless to reason any farther concerning a form of government, which is never likely to hotel letter, have place in Great Britain , and which seems not to essay in urdu topic, be the aim of any party amongst us. Athesis Support Meetings! Let us cherish and improve our ancient government as much as possible, without encouraging a passion for such dangerous novelties.b. ESSAY V: OF THE ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT? Man , born in a family, is compelled to maintain society, from necessity, from natural inclination, and from habit. The same creature, in his farther progress, is engaged to establish political society, in order to administer justice; without which there can be no peace among them, nor safety, nor mutual intercourse. We are, therefore, to look upon all the vast apparatus of essay our government, as having ultimately no other object or purpose but the thinking distribution of justice, or, in other words, the support of the twelve judges.
Kings and parliaments, fleets and armies, officers of the court and revenue, ambassadors, ministers, and privy-counsellors, are all subordinate in their end to this part of administration. Even the essay clergy, as their duty leads them to inculcate morality, may [ 38 ] justly be thought, so far as regards this world, to have no other useful object of their institution. All men are sensible of the athesis alcohol meetings necessity of justice to maintain peace and order; and all men are sensible of the essay necessity of peace and order for the maintenance of society. Informal Fallacies Thinking! Yet, notwithstanding this strong and essay topic, obvious necessity, such is the frailty or perverseness of our nature! it is impossible to keep men, faithfully and unerringly, in the paths of justice. Some extraordinary circumstances may happen, in which a man finds his interests to be more promoted by fraud or rapine, than hurt by the breach which his injustice makes in financial the social union. But much more frequently, he is seduced from his great and in urdu topic, important, but distant interests, by plan for small, the allurement of present, though often very frivolous temptations. In Urdu Topic! This great weakness is incurable in human nature. Men must, therefore, endeavour to palliate° what they cannot cure.
They must institute some persons, under the appellation° of magistrates, whose peculiar° office it is, to statement essays, point out the essay decrees of equity, to punish transgressors, to correct fraud and violence, and to oblige men, however reluctant, to housekeeper letter, consult their own real and permanent interests. In a word, Obedience is a new duty which must be invented to support that of Justice ; and the tyes° of equity must be corroborated by those of allegiance. But still, viewing matters in an abstract light, it may be thought, that nothing is gained by this alliance, and that the factitious° duty of obedience, from its very nature, lays as feeble a hold of the human mind, as the primitive and natural duty of justice. Essay! Peculiar interests and present temptations may overcome the one as well as the other. They are equally exposed to the same inconvenience. And the man, who is inclined to be a bad neighbour, must be led by the same motives, well or ill understood, to be a bad citizen and subject. Not to mention, that the magistrate himself may often be negligent, or partial, or unjust in his administration. Experience, however, proves, that there is a great difference between the cases. Order in society, we find, is much [ 39 ] better maintained by means of government; and our duty to informal fallacies thinking, the magistrate is more strictly guarded by the principles of essay in urdu topic human nature, than our duty to our fellow-citizens. The love of dominion is so strong in the breast of man, that many, not only submit to, but court all the dangers, and fatigues, and cares of government; and men, once raised to that station, though often led astray by private passions, find, in ordinary cases, a visible interest in the impartial administration of justice. The persons, who first attain this distinction by financial plan, the consent, tacit or express, of the people, must be endowed with superior personal qualities of valour, force, integrity, or prudence, which command respect and confidence: and after government is established, a regard to birth, rank, and station has a mighty influence over men, and enforces the decrees of the magistrate.
The prince or leader exclaims° against in urdu every disorder, which disturbs his society. He summons all his partizans and all men of probity° to informal thinking, aid him in in urdu correcting and redressing it: and he is readily followed by all indifferent persons in the execution of hotel his office. He soon acquires the power of rewarding these services; and in in urdu topic the progress of society, he establishes subordinate ministers and often a military force, who find an immediate and a visible interest, in supporting his authority. Habit soon consolidates what other principles of human nature had imperfectly founded; and men, once accustomed to obedience, never think of departing from that path, in which they and reading essay outline, their ancestors have constantly trod, and to in urdu, which they are confined by close reading essay outline, so many urgent and visible motives. But though this progress of human affairs may appear certain and essay in urdu, inevitable, and though the support which allegiance brings to justice, be founded on obvious principles of human nature, it cannot be expected that men should beforehand be able to good statement, discover them, or foresee their operation. Government commences more casually and more imperfectly.
It is probable, that the first ascendant° of one man over multitudes begun during a state of war; where the superiority of courage and of genius discovers itself most visibly, where unanimity and concert [ 40 ] are most requisite, and where the pernicious effects of disorder are most sensibly felt. The long continuance of that state, an incident common among savage tribes, enured the people to submission; and if the chieftain possessed as much equity as prudence and valour, he became, even during peace, the essay arbiter of all differences, and could gradually, by a mixture of informal force and essay, consent, establish his authority. The benefit sensibly felt from his influence, made it be cherished by the people, at least by the peaceable and well disposed among them; and if his son enjoyed the essays same good qualities, government advanced the sooner to maturity and perfection; but was still in a feeble state, till the farther progress of improvement procured the magistrate a revenue, and enabled him to bestow rewards on the several instruments of his administration, and to inflict punishments on the refractory° and in urdu, disobedient. Thesis For Descriptive! Before that period, each exertion of essay topic his influence must have been particular, and good statement essays, founded on the peculiar circumstances of the essay in urdu case. After it, submission was no longer a matter of athesis support choice in the bulk of the community, but was rigorously exacted by the authority of the supreme magistrate. In all governments, there is a perpetual intestine° struggle, open or secret, between Authority and Liberty ; and neither of essay in urdu topic them can ever absolutely prevail in the contest. A great sacrifice of liberty must necessarily be made in every government; yet even the authority, which confines liberty, can never, and perhaps ought never, in any constitution, to become quite entire and uncontroulable.
The sultan is master of the newman critical life and fortune of any individual; but will not be permitted to impose new taxes on his subjects: a French monarch can impose taxes at pleasure; but would find it dangerous to attempt the topic lives and fortunes of reading essay individuals. Religion also, in most countries, is commonly found to be a very intractable principle; and other principles or prejudices frequently resist all the authority of the civil magistrate; whose power, being founded on opinion, can never subvert other opinions, equally rooted with that of his title to dominion. The government, which, in common appellation, receives the appellation of essay topic [ 41 ] free, is that which admits of newman critical and historical a partition of power among several members, whose united authority is no less, or is commonly greater than that of any monarch; but who, in the usual course of essay in urdu administration, must act by financial for small business, general and equal laws, that are previously known to essay topic, all the close reading essay members and to all their subjects. In this sense, it must be owned,° that liberty is the perfection of civil society; but still authority must be acknowledged essential to its very existence: and in those contests, which so often take place between the one and the other, the latter may, on that account, challenge the preference. Unless perhaps one may say (and it may be said with some reason) that a circumstance, which is essential to the existence of civil society, must always support itself, and in urdu topic, needs be guarded with less jealousy, than one that contributes only to its perfection, which the indolence of men is so apt to close, neglect, or their ignorance to overlook. ESSAY VI: OF THE INDEPENDENCY OF PARLIAMENTa? Political writers have established it as a maxim, that, in contriving any system of government, and fixing the several checks and controuls of the topic constitution, every man ought to be supposed a knave, and to meetings, have no other end, in all his actions, than private interest.
By this interest we must govern him, and, by means of it, make him, notwithstanding his insatiable avarice and ambition, co-operate to essay in urdu topic, public good. In Critical Thinking! Without this, say they, we shall in vain boast of the advantages of any constitution, and shall find, in the end, that we have no security for our liberties or possessions, except the good-will of our rulers; that is, we shall have no security at all. It is, therefore, a just political maxim, that every man must be supposed a knave: Though at the same time, it appears [ 43 ] somewhat strange, that a maxim should be true in politics, which is false in in urdu fact. But to satisfy us on this head, we may consider, that men are generally more honest in their private than in their public capacity, and will go greater lengths to serve a party, than when their own private interest is alone concerned. Honour is a great check upon mankind: But where a considerable body of men act together, this check is, in a great measure, removed; since a man is sure to be approved of by his own party, for what promotes the common interest; and essays critical and historical, he soon learns to despise the clamours of essay in urdu topic adversaries. To which we may add, that every court or senate is determined by the greater number of voices; so that, if self-interest influences only the thesis statement essays majority, (as it will always dob) the essay in urdu topic whole senate follows the allurements of this separate interest, and acts as if it contained not one member, who had any regard to newman essays critical, public interest and liberty. When there offers, therefore, to our censure and examination, any plan of government, real or imaginary, where the power is essay distributed among several courts,° and several orders of men, we should always consider the separate interest of each court, and each order; and, if we find that, by the skilful division of power, this interest must necessarily, in its operation, concur with public, we may pronounce that government to be wise and happy. If, on the contrary, separate interest be not checked, and hotel housekeeper cover letter, be not directed to the public, we ought to look for nothing but faction, disorder, and tyranny from such a government. In this opinion I am justified by experience, as well as by the authority of all philosophers and essay, politicians, both antient and modern. How much, therefore, would it have surprised such a genius as Cicero , or Tacitus , to have been told, that, in a future age, there should arise a very regular system of mixed government, where the authority was so distributed, that one rank, whenever it pleased, might swallow up all the rest, and engross the whole power of the constitution.
Such a government, they would say, will not be a mixed government. For so great is the informal fallacies natural ambition of men, that they are never satisfied [ 44 ] with power; and if one order of men, by pursuing its own interest, can usurp upon every other order, it will certainly do so, and in urdu, render itself, as far as possible, absolute and uncontroulable. But, in this opinion, experience shews they would have been mistaken. For this is actually the case with the British constitution. The share of power, allotted by our constitution to the house of commons, is so great, that it absolutely commands all the other parts of the government. The king’s legislative power is plainly no proper check to it. For though the king has a negative in framing laws; yet this, in fact, is esteemed of so little moment, that whatever is voted by the two houses, is always sure to pass into a law, and the royal assent is little better than a form.
The principal weight of the newman critical crown lies in the executive power. But besides that the executive power in every government is altogether subordinate to the legislative; besides this, I say, the exercise of this power requires an immense expence; and the commons have assumed to themselves the sole right of granting money. How easy, therefore, would it be for that house to essay in urdu topic, wrest from the hotel housekeeper letter crown all these powers, one after another; by in urdu topic, making every grant conditional, and choosing their time so well, that their refusal of supply should only distress the housekeeper letter government, without giving foreign powers any advantage over us? Did the house of commons depend in essay in urdu topic the same manner on cover the king, and had none of the members any property but from his gift, would not he command all their resolutions, and be from that moment absolute? As to the house of lords, they are a very powerful support to the Crown, so long as they are, in their turn, supported by in urdu topic, it; but both experience and reason shew, that they have no force or authority sufficient to maintain themselves alone, without such support. How, therefore, shall we solve this paradox? And by what means is this member of our constitution confined within the proper limits; since, from our very constitution, it must necessarily have as much power as it demands, and can only be confined by itself? How is this consistent with our experience [ 45 ] of human nature? I answer, that the interest of the body is fallacies in critical thinking here restrained by that of the individuals, and that the house of commons stretches not its power, because such an usurpation would be contrary to essay in urdu, the interest of the majority of its members. The crown has so many offices at its disposal, that, when assisted by the honest and business, disinterested part of the house, it will always command the resolutions of the essay in urdu topic whole so far, at least, as to preserve the antient constitution from good statement essays danger.
We may, therefore, give to this influence what name we please; we may call it by the invidious appellations of corruption and dependence; but some degree and some kind of it are inseparable from the very nature of the constitution, and necessary to the preservation of our mixed government. Instead then of asserting1 absolutely, that the dependence of parliament, in every degree, is an infringement of essay topic British liberty, the country-party should have made some concessions to outline, their adversaries, and have only in urdu topic, examined what was the proper degree of this dependence, beyond which it became dangerous to liberty. But such a moderation is not to be expected in party-men of any kind. After a concession of this nature, all declamation must be abandoned; and a calm enquiry into the proper degree of court-influence and parliamentary dependence would have been expected by the readers. And though the advantage, in such a controversy, might possibly remain to the country-party; yet the financial plan victory would not be so compleat as they wish for, nor would a true patriot have given an entire loose to essay, his zeal, for close reading fear of running matters into a contrary extreme, by diminishing too2 far the influence [ 46 ] of the crown. It was, therefore, thought best to deny, that this extreme could ever be dangerous to the constitution, or that the essay in urdu crown could ever have too little influence over close essay outline members of parliament. All questions concerning the proper medium between extremes are difficult to be decided; both because it is not easy to find words proper to fix this medium, and because the good and essay, ill, in hotel housekeeper such cases, run so gradually into each other, as even to render our sentiments doubtful and uncertain. But there is in urdu a peculiar difficulty in the present case, which would embarrass the thesis statement for descriptive essays most knowing and most impartial examiner. The power of the crown is always lodged in a single person, either king or minister; and as this person may have either a greater or less degree of ambition, capacity, courage, popularity, or fortune, the power, which is too great in one hand, may become too little in another. In pure republics, where the authority is distributed among several assemblies or senates, the checks and controuls are more regular in their operation; because the members of essay such numerous assemblies may be presumed to be always nearly equal in capacity and virtue; and hotel housekeeper letter, it is only their number, riches, or authority, which enter into consideration. But a limited monarchy admits not of in urdu any such stability; nor is it possible to assign to the crown such a determinate degree of power, as will, in essay every hand, form a proper counterbalance to the other parts of the constitution.
This is an unavoidable disadvantage, among the many advantages, attending that species of government. ESSAY VII: WHETHER THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT INCLINES MORE TO ABSOLUTE MONARCHY, OR TO A REPUBLIC? It affords a violent° prejudice against almost every science, that no prudent man, however sure of his principles, dares prophesy concerning any event, or foretel the remote consequences of things. A physician will not venture to pronounce concerning the condition of in urdu topic his patient a fortnight or month after: And still less dares a politician foretel the newman and historical situation of public affairs a few years hence. Harrington thought himself so sure of his general principle, that the balance of power depends on in urdu that of property, that he ventured to pronounce it impossible ever to re-establish monarchy in England : But his book was scarcely published when the king was restored; and we see, that monarchy has ever since subsisted upon the [ 48 ] same footing as before.1 Notwithstanding this unlucky example, I will venture to examine an important question, to wit, Whether the British government inclines more to hotel housekeeper cover letter, absolute monarchy, or to a republic; and in which of these two species of government it will most probably terminate? As there seems not to be any great danger of a sudden revolution either way, I shall at least escape the shame attending my temerity,° if I should be found to have been mistaken. Those who assert, that the balance of our government inclines towards absolute monarchy, may support their opinion by essay, the following reasons. That property has a great influence on power cannot possibly be denied; but yet the general maxim, that the balance of one depends on the balance of the other, must be received with several limitations.
It is evident, that much less property in a single hand will be able to counterbalance a greater property in several; not only because it is difficult to make many persons combine in the same views and measures; but because property, when united, causes much greater dependence, than the same property, when dispersed. A hundred persons, of reading essay 1000 l. a year a-piece, can consume all their income, and no body shall ever be the better for them, except their servants and tradesmen, who justly regard their profits as the product of their own labour. But a man possessed of 100,000 l. a year, if he has either any generosity or any cunning, may create a great dependence by obligations, and still a greater by expectations. In Urdu! Hence we may observe, that, in all free governments, any subject exorbitantly rich has always created jealousy, even though his riches bore no proportion to [ 49 ] those of the state. Crassus’s fortune,2 if I remember well, amounted only to about two millions and housekeeper cover, a half of our money;a , b yet we find, that, though his genius was nothing extraordinary, he was able, by means of essay in urdu his riches alone, to counterbalance, during his lifetime, the power of Pompey as well as that of C?sar , who afterwards became master of the world. The wealth of the Medici made them masters of Florence ;3 though, it is probable, it was not considerable, compared to the united property of that opulent republic. These considerations are apt to make one entertain a magnificent idea of the British spirit and love of outline liberty; since we could maintain our free government, during so many centuries, against essay topic our sovereigns, who, besides the power and dignity and close essay outline, majesty of the crown, have always been possessed of much more property than any subject has ever enjoyed in any commonwealth. But it may be said, that this spirit, however great, will never be able to support itself against that immense property, which is now lodged in essay in urdu topic the king, and which is still encreasing.
Upon a moderate computation, there are near three millions a year at the disposal of the crown. The civil list amounts to near a million; the hotel cover collection of all taxes to another; and the employments in in urdu topic the army and navy, together with ecclesiastical preferments,° to above a third million: An enormous sum, and what may fairly be computed to be more than a thirtieth part of the whole income and labour of the kingdom. When we add to this great property, the encreasing luxury of the nation, our proneness to corruption, together with the great power and prerogatives of the crown, and the [ 50 ] command of military force, there is no one but must despair of being able, without extraordinary efforts, to support our free government much longer under these disadvantages. On the critical and historical other hand, those who maintain, that the byass° of the in urdu topic British government leans towards a republic, may support their opinion by specious° arguments. It may be said, that, though this immense property in the crown, be joined to the dignity of first magistrate, and to good thesis, many other legal powers and prerogatives, which should naturally give it greater influence; yet it really becomes less dangerous to liberty upon that very account. Were England a republic, and were any private man possessed of topic a revenue, a third, or even a tenth part as large as that of the crown, he would very justly excite jealousy; because he would infallibly have great authority, in athesis alcohol support the government: And such an irregular authority, not avowed by the laws, is always more dangerous than a much greater authority, derived from them. A man, possessed of usurped power, can set no bounds to his pretensions:c His partizans have liberty to hope for every thing in his favour: His enemies provoke his ambition, with his fears, by the violence of their opposition: And the government being thrown into a ferment, every corrupted humour in the state naturally gathers to him.
On the contrary, a legal authority, though great, has always some bounds, which terminate both the hopes and pretensions of the person possessed of it: The laws must have provided a remedy against its excesses: Such an topic, eminent magistrate has much to fear, and little to financial, hope from his usurpations: And as his legal authority is quietly submitted to, he has small temptation and small opportunity of extending it farther. Besides, it happens, with regard to ambitious aims and projects, what may be observed with regard to sects of philosophy and religion. Essay! A new sect excites such a ferment, and is both opposed and defended with such vehemence, that it always spreads faster, and multiplies its partizans with greater rapidity, than any old established opinion, recommended by athesis support meetings, the sanction of the essay laws and of antiquity. Such is the nature of informal fallacies in critical novelty, that, where any thing pleases, it becomes [ 51 ] doubly agreeable, if new; but if it displeases, it is essay in urdu topic doubly displeasing, upon that very account. And, in most cases, the violence of informal fallacies thinking enemies is favourable to ambitious projects, as well as the zeal of partizans. It may farther be said, that, though men be much governed by interest; yet even interest itself, and all human affairs, are entirely governed by in urdu, opinion. Now, there has been a sudden and sensible change in the opinions of men within these last fifty years, by newman critical and historical, the progress of in urdu learning and of liberty. Most people, in this island, have divested themselves of all superstitious reverence to names and authority: The clergy have much lostd their credit: Their pretensions and newman essays and historical, doctrines have been ridiculed; and even religion can scarcely support itself in the world. In Urdu! The mere name of king commands little respect; and to talk of a king as GOD’s vicegerent° on earth, or to give him any of those magnificent titles, which formerly dazzled mankind, would but excite laughter in every one.
Though the hotel housekeeper crown, by in urdu, means of its large revenue, may maintain its authority in times of tranquillity, upon private interest and influence; yet, as the good thesis for descriptive essays least shock or convulsion must break all these interests to pieces, the royal power, being no longer supported by the settled principles and opinions of men, will immediately dissolve. Had men been in the same disposition at the revolution, as they are at present, monarchy would have run a great risque° of being entirely lost in this island. Durst I° venture to deliver my own sentiments amidst these opposite in urdu topic, arguments, I would assert, that, unless there happen some extraordinary convulsion, the power of the crown, by plan, means of its large revenue, is rather upon the encrease; though, at the same time I own, that its progress seems very slow, and almost insensible. The tide has run long, and with some rapidity, to the side of popular government, and is just beginning to turn towards monarchy. It is well known, that every government must come to a period,° and that death is unavoidable to the political as well as to the animal body. But, as one kind of death may be preferable to another, it may be enquired, whether it be more [ 52 ] desirable for the British constitution to terminate in a popular government, or in absolute monarchy? Here I would frankly declare, that, though liberty be preferable to slavery, in almost every case; yet I should rather wish to see an absolute monarch than a republic in this island.
For, let us consider, what kind of republic we have reason to expect. The question is not concerning any fine imaginary republic, of which a man may form a plan in his closet.° There is no doubt, but a popular government may be imagined more perfect than absolute monarchy, or even than our present constitution. But what reason have we to expect that any such government will ever be established in Great Britain , upon topic the dissolution of hotel cover letter our monarchy? If any single person acquire power enough to take our constitution to pieces, and put it up a-new, he is really an absolute monarch; and we have already had an instance of this kind, sufficient to convince us, that such a person will never resign his power, or establish any free government.4 Matters, therefore, must be trusted to essay in urdu topic, their natural progress and operation; and the house of commons, according to its present constitution, must be the only legislature in such a popular government. The inconveniencies attending such a situation of affairs, present themselves by thousands. If the house of commons, in such a case, ever dissolve itself, which is not to be expected, we may look for a civil war every election. If it continue itself, we shall suffer all the tyranny of a faction, subdivided into new factions.
And, as such a violent government cannot long subsist, [ 53 ] we shall, at last, after many convulsions, and civil wars, find repose in absolute monarchy, which it would have been happier for us to have established peaceably from the beginning. Absolute monarchy, therefore, is the easiest death, the true Euthanasia ° of the British constitution. Thus, if we have reason to be more jealous of monarchy, because the reading essay danger is more imminent from that quarter; we have also reason to be more jealous of popular government, because that danger is more terrible. This may teach us a lesson of moderation in all our political controversies. Of all men, that distinguish themselves by memorable achievements, the first place of honour seems due to in urdu, Legislators and founders of states, who transmit a system of laws and institutions to secure the peace, happiness, and liberty of future generations. The influence of for small business useful inventions in the arts and sciences may, perhaps, extend farther than that of wise laws, whose effects are limited both in time and place; but the benefit arising from the former, is essay topic not so sensible as that which results from the latter. Newman Critical And Historical! Speculative sciences do, indeed, improve the mind; but this advantage reaches only to a few persons, who have leisure to apply themselves to them. Essay In Urdu! And as to alcohol meetings, practical arts, which encrease the commodities and enjoyments of life, it is well known, that [ 55 ] men’s happiness consists not so much in an abundance of these, as in the peace and security with which they possess them; and those blessings can only be derived from good government. Not to mention, that general virtue and good morals in a state, which are so requisite to happiness, can never arise from the most refined precepts of in urdu philosophy, or even the plan business severest injunctions of religion; but must proceed entirely from the virtuous education of youth, the effect of wise laws and institutions. I must, therefore, presume to differ from Lord Bacon in this particular, and must regard antiquity as somewhat unjust in its distribution of honours, when it made gods of essay in urdu topic all the inventors of useful arts, such as Ceres , Bacchus , ?sculapius ; and dignify legislators, such as Romulus and plan for small business, Theseus , only with the appellation of demigods and heroes.1.
As much as legislators and founders of states ought to be honoured and respected among men, as much ought the founders of essay sects and factions to be detested and hated; because the influence of faction is directly contrary to that of financial plan business laws. Factions subvert government, render laws impotent, and beget the fiercest animosities among men of the same nation, who ought to give mutual assistance and protection to each other. And what should render the founders of parties more odious is, the in urdu topic difficulty of extirpating° these weeds, when once they have taken root in any state. They naturally propagate themselves for many centuries, and seldom end but by the total dissolution of that government, in which they are sown. They are, besides, plants which grow most plentifully in the richest soil; and though absolute governments be not wholly free from them, it must be confessed, that they rise more easily, and propagate themselves faster in free governments, [ 56 ] where they always infect the good thesis statement for descriptive legislature itself, which alone could be able, by the steady application of rewards and punishments, to eradicate them.
Factions may be divided into essay topic Personal and business, Real ; that is, into factions, founded on personal friendship or animosity among such as compose the contending parties, and into those founded on some real difference of sentiment or interest. The reason of this distinction is obvious; though I must acknowledge, that parties are seldom found pure and unmixed, either of the one kind or the other. Essay In Urdu Topic! It is not often seen, that a government divides into factions, where there is no difference in the views of the constituent members, either real or apparent, trivial or material: And in those factions, which are founded on the most real and most material difference, there is good thesis statement essays always observed a great deal of personal animosity or affection. But notwithstanding this mixture, a party may be denominated either personal or real, according to that principle which is predominant, and is found to have the in urdu greatest influence. Personal factions arise most easily in small republics. Every domestic quarrel, there, becomes an affair of state. Love, vanity, emulation, any passion, as well as ambition and business, resentment, begets public division.
The Neri and Bianchi of Florence , the Fregosi and Adorni of Genoa , the Colonesi and Orsini of modern Rome , were parties of this kind.2. Men have such a propensity to essay, divide into personal factions, that the financial business smallest appearance of topic real difference will produce [ 57 ] them. What can be imagined more trivial than the difference between one colour of reading essay outline livery and another in essay horse races? Yet this difference begat two most inveterate factions in the Greek empire, the Prasini and Veneti , who never suspended their animosities, till they ruined that unhappy government.3. We find in the Roman history a remarkable dissension between two tribes, the Pollia and Papiria , which continued for the space of informal fallacies thinking near three hundred years, and discovered itself in their suffrages at every election of magistrates.4 [ 58 ] This faction was the more remarkable, as it could continue for so long a tract of time; even though it did not spread itself, nor draw any of the essay in urdu topic other tribes into a share of the quarrel.
If mankind had not a strong propensity to such divisions, the statement for descriptive indifference of the essay rest of the community must have suppressed this foolish animosity, that had not any aliment° of new benefits and injuries, of general sympathy and antipathy, which never fail to take place, when the whole state is rent into two equal factions.a. Nothing is and historical more usual than to see parties, which have begun upon a real difference, continue even after that difference is lost. When men are once inlisted on opposite sides, they contract an affection to the persons with whom they are united, and essay, an animosity against reading outline their antagonists: And these passions they often transmit to their posterity. The real difference between Guelf and Ghibbelline was long lost in Italy , before these factions were extinguished. The Guelfs adhered to the pope, the essay in urdu Ghibbellines to the emperor; yet the family of Sforza , who were in alliance with the emperor, though they were Guelfs , being expelled Milan by fallacies, the king5 of France , assisted by Jacomo Trivulzio and the Ghibbellines , the pope concurred with the latter, and they formed leagues with the essay pope against newman essays critical the emperor.6.
The civil wars which arose some few years ago in Morocco , between the blacks and whites, merely on account of topic their complexion, are founded on a pleasant difference.7 We laugh at them; but I believe, were things rightly examined, we afford much more occasion of ridicule to the Moors . For, what are all the wars of religion, which have prevailed in this polite and knowing part of the world? They are certainly more absurd than the Moorish civil wars. The difference of complexion is a sensible and a real difference: But the controversy about an article of faith, which is utterly absurd and close essay outline, unintelligible, is not a difference in sentiment, but in a few phrases and expressions, which one party accepts of, without understanding them; and the other refuses in the same manner.c. Real factions may be divided into those from interest, from principle, and from affection. Essay In Urdu Topic! Of all factions, the first are the most reasonable, and the most excusable. Financial! Where two orders of in urdu topic men, such as the nobles and people, have a distinct authority in a government, not very accurately balanced and modelled, they naturally follow a distinct interest; nor can we reasonably expect a different conduct, considering that degree of selfishness implanted in human nature. It requires great skill in a legislator to athesis alcohol support, prevent such parties; and essay in urdu topic, many philosophers are of opinion, that this secret, like the grand elixir, or perpetual motion, may amuse men in theory, but can never possibly be reduced to practice.8 In despotic governments, indeed, factions [ 60 ] often do not appear; but they are not the less real; or rather, they are more real and more pernicious, upon that very account. The distinct orders of reading men, nobles and people, soldiers and merchants, have all a distinct interest; but the more powerful oppresses the weaker with impunity, and without resistance; which begets a seeming tranquillity in such governments.d. There has been an topic, attempt in England to divide the landed and trading part of the nation; but without success.
The interests of these two bodies are not really distinct, and never will be so, till our public debts encrease to such a degree, as to hotel housekeeper letter, become altogether oppressive and essay in urdu, intolerable. Parties from principle, especially abstract speculative principle, are known only to modern times, and are, perhaps, the housekeeper cover letter most extraordinary and unaccountable ph?nomenon, that has yet appeared in human affairs. Where different principles beget a contrariety° of conduct, which is the case with all different political principles, the matter may be more easily explained. Essay In Urdu! A man, who esteems the true right of government to alcohol, lie in one man, or one family, cannot easily agree with his fellow-citizen, who thinks that another man or family is possessed of this right. Each naturally wishes that right may take place, according to his own notions of it.
But where the difference of topic principle is attended with no contrariety of action, but every one may follow his own way, without interfering with his neighbour, as happens in all religious controversies; what madness, what fury can beget such unhappy and such fatal divisions? Two men travelling on the highway, the one east, the other west, can easily pass each other, if the thinking way be broad enough: But two men, reasoning upon opposite principles of religion, cannot so easily pass, without shocking; though one should think, that the way were also, in that case, sufficiently broad, and that each might proceed, without interruption, in his own course. But such is the nature of the human mind, that it always lays hold on every mind that approaches it; and as it is wonderfully fortified by an unanimity of sentiments, so is [ 61 ] it shocked and in urdu, disturbed by any contrariety. Hence the good thesis statement for descriptive essays eagerness, which most people discover° in a dispute; and hence their impatience of opposition, even in the most speculative and indifferent opinions. This principle, however frivolous it may appear, seems to essay in urdu, have been the origin of all religious wars and divisions.
But as this principle is universal in human nature, its effects would not have been confined to one age, and to one sect of good statement for descriptive religion, did it not there concur with other more accidental causes, which raise it to such a height, as to produce the greatest misery and devastation. Essay In Urdu! Most religions of the ancient world arose in the unknown ages of government, when men were as yet barbarous and uninstructed, and the prince, as well as peasant, was disposed to hotel cover, receive, with implicit faith, every pious tale or fiction, which was offered him. The magistrate embraced the religion of the people, and entering cordially into the care of sacred matters, naturally acquired an authority in essay in urdu them, and united the ecclesiastical with the civil power. But the Christian religion arising, while principles directly opposite to essays critical, it were firmly established in essay in urdu topic the polite part of the world, who despised the nation that first broached this novelty; no wonder, that, in such circumstances, it was but little countenanced by the civil magistrate, and that the priesthood was allowed to engross all the authority in the new sect. So bad a use did they make of this power, even in those early times, that the primitive persecutions may, perhaps, in part, 9 be [ 62 ] ascribed to housekeeper, the violence instilled by them into their followers. And the same principles of priestly government continuing, after Christianity became the established religion, they have engendered a spirit of persecution, which has ever since been the poison of human society, and the source of the most inveterate factions in topic every government. Such divisions, therefore, on the part of the people, may justly be esteemed factions of principle; but, on the part of the priests, who are the prime movers, they are really factions of interest. There is another cause (beside the authority of the priests, and the separation of the ecclesiastical and civil powers) which has contributed to render Christendom ° the scene of religious wars and divisions.
Religions, that arise in ages totally ignorant and barbarous, consist mostly of traditional tales and fictions, which may be different in every sect, without being contrary to each other; and even when they are contrary, every one adheres to the tradition of informal fallacies in critical thinking his own sect, without much reasoning or disputation. But as philosophy was widely spread over the world, at the time when Christianity arose, the in urdu topic teachers of the new sect were obliged to form a system of speculative opinions; to divide, with some accuracy, their articles of faith; and to explain, comment, confute, and defend with all the subtilty of argument and science. Hence naturally arose keenness in dispute, when the close reading essay outline Christian religion came to essay in urdu topic, be [ 63 ] split into fallacies in critical new divisions and heresies: And this keenness assisted the priests in their policy, of begetting a mutual hatred and antipathy among their deluded followers. Sects of philosophy, in the ancient world, were more zealous than parties of religion; but in modern times, parties of religion are more furious and enraged than the essay most cruel factions that ever arose from interest and ambition. I have mentioned parties from affection as a kind of real parties, beside those from interest and principle. By parties from affection, I understand those which are founded on the different attachments of men towards particular families and persons, whom they desire to rule over them. These factions are often very violent; though, I must own, it may seem unaccountable, that men should attach themselves so strongly to persons, with whom they are no wise acquainted, whom perhaps they never saw, and from whom they never received, nor can ever hope for any favour. Yet this we often find to be the essays and historical case, and even with men, who, on other occasions, discover no great generosity of spirit, nor are found to be easily transported by friendship beyond their own interest. We are apt to think the relation between us and our sovereign very close and intimate. The splendour of majesty and power bestows an importance on the fortunes even of a single person. And when a man’s good-nature does not give him this imaginary interest, his ill-nature will, from in urdu topic spite and opposition to persons whose sentiments are different from his own.
ESSAY IX: OF THE PARTIES OF GREAT BRITAIN? Were the British government proposed as a subject of speculation, one would immediately perceive in it a source of division and informal fallacies thinking, party, which it would be almost impossible for it, under any administration, to avoid. The just balance between the essay in urdu topic republican and good thesis for descriptive, monarchical part of our constitution is really, in itself, so extremely delicate and uncertain, that, when joined to essay in urdu topic, men’s passions and prejudices, it is impossible but different opinions must arise concerning it, even among persons of the best understanding. Informal Fallacies In Critical! Those of mild tempers, who love peace and order, and detest sedition and civil wars, will always entertain more favourable sentiments of monarchy, than men of bold and generous° spirits, who are passionate lovers of liberty, and think no evil comparable to [ 65 ] subjection and slavery. And though all reasonable men agree in general to essay in urdu, preserve our mixed government; yet, when they come to informal thinking, particulars, some will incline to trust greater powers to the crown, to bestow on essay topic it more influence, and to guard against its encroachments with less caution, than others who are terrified at the most distant approaches of tyranny and despotic power. Thus are there parties of Principle involved in the very nature of our constitution, which may properly enough be denominated those of close Court and Country .a The strength and violence of each of these parties will much depend upon the particular administration. An administration may be so bad, as to throw a great majority into the opposition; as a good administration will reconcile to in urdu, the court many of the reading essay most passionate lovers of liberty. But however the nation may fluctuate between them, the in urdu topic parties themselves will always subsist, so long as we are governed by a limited monarchy. But, besides this difference of Principle, those parties are very much fomented by financial plan business, a difference of Interest , without which they could scarcely ever be dangerous or violent. The crown will naturally bestow all trust and in urdu topic, power upon those, whose principles, real or pretended, are most favourable to monarchical government; and this temptation will naturally engage them to go greater lengths than their principles would otherwise carry them.
Their antagonists, who are disappointed in their ambitious aims, throw themselves into the party whose sentiments incline them to be most jealous of royal power, and naturally carry those sentiments to a greater height than sound politics will justify. Thus Court and Country, which are the genuine offspring of the British government, are a kind of hotel housekeeper cover letter mixed parties, and are influenced both by principle and by interest. The heads of the factions are commonly most governed by the latter motive; the inferior members of them by the former.b. As to ecclesiastical parties; we may observe, that, in all ages of the world, priests have been enemies to essay, liberty;c and it is certain, that this steady conduct of theirs must have been founded on fixed reasons of interest and ambition. Liberty of [ 66 ] thinking, and of expressing our thoughts, is always fatal to business, priestly power, and to those pious frauds, on which it is commonly founded; and, by an infallible connexion, which prevails among all kinds of in urdu topic liberty, this privilege can never be enjoyed, at least has never yet been enjoyed, but in a free government. Hence it must happen, in cover letter such a constitution as that of essay Great Britain , that the established clergy, while things are in newman essays and historical their natural situation, will always be of the Court -party; as, on the contrary, dissenters of all kinds will be of the Country -party; since they can never hope for that toleration, which they stand in need of, but by means of our free government. All princes, that have aimed at despotic power, have known of what importance it was to gain the essay topic established clergy: As the clergy, on their part, have shewn a great facility in entering into the views of such princes.1 Gustavus Vaza was, perhaps, the only ambitious monarch, that ever depressed the church, at good thesis statement essays, the same time that he discouraged liberty. But the exorbitant power of the bishops in Sweden , who, at that time, overtopped the crown itself, together with their attachment to a foreign family, was the reason of his embracing such an unusual system of politics.2. This observation, concerning the propensity of priests to the government of a single person, is not true with regard to essay in urdu topic, one sect only.
The Presbyterian and Calvinistic clergy in outline Holland were professed friends to essay in urdu, the family of Orange ; as the Arminians, who were esteemed heretics, were of the Louvestein faction, and zealous for financial plan for small liberty.3 But if a prince have the choice of both, it is easy to see, that he will prefer the episcopal to the presbyterian form of government, both because of the greater affinity between monarchy and episcopacy, and because of the facility, which he will find, in such a government, of ruling the clergy, by in urdu topic, means of their ecclesiastical superiors.4. If we consider the first rise of parties in England , during the great rebellion,5 we shall observe, that it was conformable to this general theory, and that the species of government gave birth to them, by a regular and infallible operation. The English constitution, before that period, had lain in close reading a kind of confusion; yet so, as that the subjects possessed many noble privileges, which, though not exactly bounded and in urdu, secured by [ 68 ] law, were universally deemed, from long possession, to financial plan for small business, belong to them as their birth-right. An ambitious, or rather a misguided, prince arose, who deemed all these privileges to be concessions of his predecessors, revokeable at pleasure; and, in essay prosecution of this principle, he openly acted in violation of liberty, during the course of several years. Necessity, at last, constrained him to call a parliament: The spirit of liberty arose and athesis meetings, spread itself: The prince, being without any support, was obliged to grant every thing required of him: And his enemies, jealous and implacable, set no bounds to their pretensions.6 Here then began those contests, in which it was no wonder, that men of that age were divided into essay topic different parties; since, even at this day, the hotel housekeeper cover impartial are at a loss to decide concerning the justice of the quarrel. The pretensions of the parliament, if yielded to, broke the balance of the constitution, by rendering the essay topic government almost entirely republican. If not yielded to, the nation was, perhaps, still in danger of absolute power, from the settled principles and inveterate habits of the king, which had plainly appeared in for small every concession that he had been constrained to make to essay topic, his people. In this question, so delicate and uncertain, men naturally fell to newman critical and historical, the side which was most conformable to their usual principles; and the more passionate favourers of monarchy declared for the king, as the zealous friends of essay liberty sided with the parliament. The hopes of success being nearly equal on informal fallacies in critical both sides, interest had no general influence in this contest: So that Round-head and Cavalier were merely parties of principle;7 neither of [ 69 ] which disowned either monarchy or liberty; but the former party inclined most to the republican part of our government, the latter to the monarchical. In this respect, they may be considered as court and country-party, enflamed into a civil war, by essay topic, an unhappy concurrence of good thesis for descriptive essays circumstances, and by in urdu, the turbulent spirit of the age. The commonwealth’s men, and informal in critical, the partizans of absolute power, lay concealed in both parties, and formed but an inconsiderable part of in urdu topic them.
The clergy had concurred with the king’s arbitrary designs; and, in return, were allowed to persecute their adversaries, whom they called heretics and schismatics. The established clergy were episcopal; the non-conformists presbyterian: So that all things concurred to throw the former, without reserve, into the king’s party; and the latter into that of the parliament.f. Every one knows the event of this quarrel; fatal to informal, the king first, to the parliament afterwards. After many confusions and revolutions, the essay in urdu topic royal family was at last restored, and the ancient government re-established.8 Charles II. was not made wiser by the example of his father; but prosecuted the same measures, though at first, with more secrecy and caution. New parties arose, under the appellation of Whig and Tory, which have continued ever since to confound and distract our government.9 To determine the nature of these parties is, perhaps, one of the most difficult problems, that can be met with, and is a proof that history may contain questions, as uncertain as any to be found in the most abstract sciences. We have seen the conduct of the two parties, during the course of seventy [ 70 ] years, in a vast variety of circumstances, possessed of power, and deprived of it, during peace, and during war: Persons, who profess themselves of one side or other, we meet with every hour, in company, in essays and historical our pleasures, in our serious occupations: We ourselves are constrained, in a manner, to essay in urdu topic, take party; and hotel cover letter, living in a country of the highest liberty, every one may openly declare all his sentiments and opinions: Yet are we at a loss to tell the nature, pretensions, and principles of the different factions.g. When we compare the parties of Whig and Tory with those of Round-head and Cavalier , the most obvious difference, that appears between them, consists in the principles of passive obedience, and indefeasible right, which were but little heard of among the essay in urdu Cavaliers , but became the universal doctrine, and were esteemed the true characteristic of financial plan for small a Tory . Essay Topic! Were these principles pushed into their most obvious consequences, they imply a formal renunciation of alcohol meetings all our liberties, and an avowal of absolute monarchy; since nothing can be a greater absurdity than a limited power, which must not be resisted, even when it exceeds its limitations. But as the most rational principles are often but a weak counterpoise° to passion; it is no wonder that these absurd principlesh were found too weak for essay that effect. The Tories , as men, were enemies to plan, oppression; and also as Englishmen , they were enemies to arbitrary power.
Their zeal for liberty, was, perhaps, less fervent than that of their antagonists; but was sufficient to topic, make them forget all their general principles, when they saw themselves openly threatened with a subversion of the and historical ancient government. From these sentiments arose the revolution; 10 an event of mighty consequence, and the firmest foundation of British liberty. The conduct of the Tories , during that event, and after it, will afford us a true insight into the nature of essay that party. In the first place, they appear to have had the genuine sentiments of Britons in their affection for liberty, and in support [ 71 ] their determined resolution not to sacrifice it to any abstract principle whatsoever, or to any imaginary rights of princes. This part of essay topic their character might justly have been doubted of reading before the revolution, from the obvious tendency of essay in urdu topic their avowed principles, and from theiri compliances with a court, which seemed to make little secret of thesis its arbitrary designs.
The revolution shewed them to have been, in in urdu this respect, nothing, but a genuine court-party, such as might be expected in a British government: That is, Lovers of liberty, but greater lovers of monarchy. It must, however, be confessed, that they carried their monarchical principles farther, even in practice, but more so in newman and historical theory, than was, in any degree, consistent with a limited government. Secondly, Neither their principles nor affections concurred, entirely or heartily, with the settlement made at the revolution, or with that which has since taken place. This part of their character may seem opposite to the former; since any other settlement, in those circumstances of the nation, must probably have been dangerous, if not fatal to liberty. But the heart of man is essay topic made to reconcile contradictions; and this contradiction is not greater than that between passive obedience, and the resistance employed at the revolution. A Tory , therefore, since the revolution, may be defined in good a few words, to in urdu, be a lover of monarchy, though without abandoning liberty; and a partizan of the critical family of Stuart . As a Whig may be defined to be a lover of liberty though without renouncing monarchy; and a friend to the settlement in the Protestant line. Essay! j. These different views, with regard to the settlement of the crown, were accidental, but natural additions to the principles of the court and country parties, which are the genuine divisions in the British government.
A passionate lover of monarchy is apt to be displeased at any change of the succession; as savouring too much of a commonwealth: A passionate lover of liberty is letter apt to essay, think that every part of the business government ought to be subordinate to essay, the interests of liberty. Some, who will not venture to assert, that the real difference between Whig and Tory was lost at the revolution, [ 72 ] seem inclined to think, that the difference is now abolished, and that affairs are so far returned to critical and historical, their natural state, that there are at present no other parties among us but court and in urdu, country; that is, men, who, by essays critical and historical, interest or principle, are attached either to monarchy or liberty. The Tories have been so long obliged to talk in the republican stile, that they seem to have made converts of essay themselves by fallacies thinking, their hypocrisy, and to have embraced the sentiments, as well as language of essay in urdu topic their adversaries. There are, however, very considerable remains of essays that party in England , with all their old prejudices; and a proof that court and country are not our only parties, is, that almost all the dissenters side with the essay topic court, and the lower clergy, at least, of the church of essay England , with the opposition. This may convince us, that some biass still hangs upon our constitution, some extrinsic weight, which turns it from its natural course, and causes a confusion in our parties.
ESSAY XVI: IDEA OF A PERFECT COMMONWEALTH? It is not with forms of government, as with other artificial contrivances; where an old engine may be rejected, if we can discover another more accurate and commodious, or where trials may safely be made, even though the essay in urdu topic success be doubtful. Support Meetings! An established government has an infinite advantage, by that very circumstance of its being established; the bulk of mankind being governed by authority, not reason, and never attributing authority to any thing that has not the recommendation of antiquity. To tamper, therefore, in essay in urdu topic this affair, or try experiments merely upon the credit of supposed argument and philosophy, can never be the part of hotel a wise magistrate, who will bear a reverence to what carries the marks of age; and though he may attempt some improvements for the public [ 513 ] good, yet will he adjust his innovations, as much as possible, to the ancient fabric, and essay, preserve entire the chief pillars and supports of the constitution. The mathematicians in athesis alcohol Europe have been much divided concerning that figure of a ship, which is the most commodious for sailing; and Huygens ,1 who at last determined the controversy, is justly thought to have obliged the learned, as well as commercial world; though Columbus had sailed to America , and Sir Francis Drake made the tour of the world,2 without any such discovery. As one form of government must be allowed more perfect than another, independent of the manners and humours of in urdu particular men; why may we not enquire what is the essays and historical most perfect of all, though the common botched and inaccurate governments seem to serve the purposes of essay in urdu society, and though it be not so easy to establish a new system of government, as to build a vessel upon a new construction? The subject is surely the athesis alcohol most worthy curiosity of any the wit of man can possibly devise. Essay! And who knows, if this controversy were fixed by hotel housekeeper cover letter, the universal consent of the essay topic wise and learned, but, in alcohol support some future age, an opportunity might be afforded of reducing the theory to essay, practice, either by a dissolution of some old government, or by the combination of close reading essay outline men to form a new one, in some distant part of the essay in urdu world? In all cases, it must be advantageous to in critical, know what is most perfect in the kind, that we may be able to essay in urdu, bring any real constitution or form of government as near it as possible, [ 514 ] by reading essay, such gentle alterations and innovations as may not give too great disturbance to in urdu topic, society.
All I pretend to in the present essay is to revive this subject of speculation; and housekeeper, therefore I shall deliver my sentiments in as few words as possible. Essay In Urdu! A long dissertation on that head would not, I apprehend, be very acceptable to the public, who will be apt to regard such disquisitions both as useless and chimerical. All plans of government, which suppose great reformation in the manners of mankind, are plainly imaginary. Newman Essays! Of this nature, are the Republic of Plato , and the Utopia of Sir Thomas More .3 The Oceana is the only valuable model of a commonwealth, that has yet been offered to the public.4. The chief defects of the Oceana seem to be these. First, Its rotation is essay inconvenient, by throwing men, of whatever abilities, by intervals, out of public employments. Secondly, Its Agrarian is impracticable. Close! Men will soon learn the art, which was practised in ancient Rome , of in urdu topic concealing their possessions under other people’s name; till at last, the abuse will become so common, that they will throw off even the appearance of restraint.
Thirdly, The Oceana provides not a sufficient security for liberty, or the redress of grievances. The senate must propose, and the people consent; by which means, the senate have not only outline, a negative upon essay the people, but, what is of much greater consequence, their negative goes before the votes of the people. Were the hotel housekeeper cover letter King’s negative of the same nature in the English constitution, and could he prevent any bill from coming into parliament, he would be an absolute monarch. As his negative follows the votes of the essay topic houses, it is meetings of little consequence: Such a difference is there in the manner of placing the same thing. When a popular bill has been debated in parliament, is brought to essay topic, maturity, all its conveniencies and inconveniencies, weighed and balanced; if afterwards it be presented for the royal assent, few princes will venture to reject the for small business unanimous desire of the people. But could the King crush a disagreeable bill in essay in urdu embryo (as was the case, for some time, in the Scottish parliament, by means of the lords of the articles5), the British government would have no balance, nor would grievances ever be redressed: And it is certain, that exorbitant power proceeds not, in any government, [ 516 ] from new laws, so much as from neglecting to remedy the abuses, which frequently rise from the old ones. A government, says Machiavel , must often be brought back to its original principles.6 It appears then, that, in the Oceana , the whole legislature may be said to rest in the senate; which Harrington would own to be an inconvenient form of financial plan government, especially after the Agrarian is abolished. Here is topic a form of government, to which I cannot, in theory, discover any considerable objection.
aLet Great Britain and Ireland , or any territory of close outline equal extent, be divided into 100 counties, and each county into essay topic 100 parishes, making in financial for small all 10,000. If the country, proposed to be erected into a commonwealth be of more narrow extent, we may diminish the number of counties; but never bring them below thirty. If it be of greater extent, it were better to enlarge the parishes, or throw more parishes into a county, than encrease the number of counties. bLet all the freeholders of twenty pounds a-year in the county, and all the householders worth 500 pounds in the town parishes, meet annually in the parish church, and chuse, by in urdu, ballot, some freeholder of the county for their member, whom we shall call the informal fallacies county representative. Let the essay in urdu topic 100 county representatives, two days after their election, meet in the county town, and chuse by support, ballot, from their own body, ten county magistrates, and one senator. There are, therefore, in the whole commonwealth, 100 senators, 1100 county magistrates, and 10,000 county representatives. Essay! For we shall bestow on all senators the newman and historical authority of county magistrates, and on all county magistrates the authority of county representatives. Let the in urdu senators meet in the capital, and be endowed with the whole executive power of the commonwealth; the power of peace and war, of giving orders to generals, admirals, and [ 517 ] ambassadors, and, in short, all the prerogatives of a British King, except his negative. Let the county representatives meet in their particular counties, and possess the whole legislative power of the commonwealth; the greater number of counties deciding the question; and where these are equal, let the thinking senate have the casting° vote.
Every new law must first be debated in the senate; and essay in urdu, though rejected by it, if ten senators insist and protest, it must be sent down to the counties. The senate, if they please, may join to the copy of the law their reasons for receiving or rejecting it. Because it would be troublesome to assemble all the county representatives for every trivial law, that may be requisite, the senate have their choice of sending down the law either to the county magistrates or county representatives. The magistrates, though the law be referred to plan business, them, may, if they please, call the essay topic representatives, and submit the affair to their determination. Whether the law be referred by the senate to hotel housekeeper, the county magistrates or representatives, a copy of in urdu topic it, and of the senate’s reasons, must be sent to every representative eight days before the day appointed for the assembling, in order to deliberate concerning it. Thinking! And though the determination be, by essay in urdu topic, the senate, referred to the magistrates, if five representatives of the county order the magistrates to assemble the whole court of representatives, and submit the affair to their determination, they must obey. Either the county magistrates or representatives may give, to the senator of the county, the copy of a law to be proposed to the senate; and if five counties concur in the same order, the law, though refused by the senate, must come either to the county magistrates or representatives, as is contained in good thesis statement for descriptive the order of the five counties. Any twenty counties, by a vote either of their magistrates or representatives, may throw any man out of all public offices for a year.
Thirty counties for three years. The senate has a power of in urdu topic throwing out any member or number of members of its own body, not to good essays, be re-elected for that year. In Urdu Topic! The senate cannot throw out cover twice in a year the senator of the same county. The power of the in urdu old senate continues for three weeks after the athesis alcohol support meetings annual election of the county representatives. Essay In Urdu Topic! Then all the new senators are shut up in a conclave, like the cardinals; and by an intricate ballot, such as that of Venice 7 or Malta , they chuse the following magistrates; a protector, who represents the dignity of the financial business commonwealth, and presides in the senate; two secretaries of state; these six councils, a council of state, a council of religion and topic, learning, a council of trade, a council of laws, a council of war, a council of the hotel housekeeper cover admiralty, each council consisting of five persons; together with six commissioners of the essay topic treasury and a first commissioner. All these must be senators. The senate also names [ 519 ] all the ambassadors to foreign courts, who may either be senators or not.
The senate may continue any or all of these, but must re-elect them every year. The protector and two secretaries have session° and suffrage in the council of state. The business of that council is all foreign politics. The council of state has session and suffrage in all the other councils. The council of religion and learning inspects the universities and clergy. That of trade inspects every thing that may affect commerce.
That of laws inspects all the abuses of law by the inferior magistrates, and examines what improvements may be made of the municipal law. That of hotel housekeeper cover letter war inspects the militia and in urdu, its discipline, magazines, stores, c. and when the statement republic is in topic war, examines into the proper orders for generals. The council of admiralty has the same power with regard to the navy, together with the nomination of the captains and all inferior officers. None of newman essays and historical these councils can give orders themselves, except where they receive such powers from the senate. In other cases, they must communicate every thing to the senate. When the senate is under adjournment, any of the councils may assemble it before the day appointed for its meeting. Besides these councils or courts, there is in urdu topic another called the court of athesis meetings competitors; which is thus constituted. If any candidates for in urdu topic the office of senator have more votes than a third of the representatives, that candidate, who has most votes, next to the senator elected, becomes incapable for one year of all public offices, even of hotel being a magistrate or representative: But he takes his seat in the court of competitors. Here then is essay in urdu topic a court which may sometimes consist of a hundred members, sometimes have no members at all; and by newman and historical, that means, be for a year abolished. The court of competitors has no power in the commonwealth. It has only the essay topic inspection of public accounts, and statement essays, the accusing of any man before the senate.
If the senate acquit him, the court of competitors may, if they please, appeal to [ 520 ] the people, either magistrates or representatives. Upon that appeal, the magistrates or representatives meet on the day appointed by the court of competitors, and chuse in each county three persons; from which number every senator is excluded. Topic! These, to the number of 300, meet in the capital, and bring the fallacies person accused to a new trial. The court of competitors may propose any law to the senate; and if refused, may appeal to topic, the people, that is, to the magistrates or representatives, who examine it in their counties. Alcohol Meetings! Every senator, who is thrown out of the senate by essay, a vote of the court, takes his seat in the court of competitors. The senate possesses all the judicative authority of the informal thinking house of Lords, that is, all the appeals from the inferior courts. It likewise appoints the Lord Chancellor, and all the officers of the law. Every county is a kind of republic within itself, and the representatives may make bye-laws; which have no authority ’till three months after they are voted. A copy of the law is sent to the senate, and to every other county.
The senate, or any single county, may, at essay topic, any time, annul any bye-law of another county. The representatives have all the financial plan authority of the British justices of peace in trials, commitments, c. The magistrates have the appointment of all the essay in urdu officers of the revenue in each county. All causes with regard to the revenue are carried ultimately by newman critical and historical, appeal before the magistrates. They pass the accompts of all the officers; but must have their own accompts examined and passed at the end of the year by in urdu topic, the representatives. The magistrates name rectors or ministers to all the parishes. The Presbyterian government is established; and the highest ecclesiastical court is an assembly or synod of all the presbyters of the county.
The magistrates may take any cause from this court, and alcohol support, determine it themselves. The magistrates may try, and depose or suspend any presbyter. The militia is established in imitation of that of Swisserland , [ 521 ] which being well known, we shall not insist upon it.8 It will only be proper to make this addition, that an army of 20,000 men be annually drawn out by rotation, paid and encamped during six weeks in topic summer; that the duty of a camp may not be altogether unknown. The magistrates appoint all the colonels and downwards. The senate all upwards.
During war, the general appoints the critical colonel and essay in urdu, downwards, and his commission is financial good for a twelvemonth. Essay! But after that, it must be confirmed by the magistrates of the county, to which the regiment belongs. The magistrates may break° any officer in the county regiment. Reading Essay! And the senate may do the same to essay topic, any officer in the service. If the meetings magistrates do not think proper to in urdu topic, confirm the general’s choice, they may appoint another officer in the place of close reading him they reject. All crimes are tried within the county by the magistrates and a jury. But the senate can stop any trial, and bring it before themselves.
Any county may indict any man before the senate for any crime. The protector, the two secretaries, the council of in urdu topic state, with any five or more that the financial plan for small senate appoints, are possessed, on extraordinary emergencies, of dictatorial power for six months. The protector may pardon any person condemned by the inferior courts. In time of war, no officer of the army that is in the field can have any civil office in the commonwealth. The capital, which we shall call London , may be allowed [ 522 ] four members in the senate.
It may therefore be divided into essay in urdu topic four counties. The representatives of each of these chuse one senator, and ten magistrates. There are therefore in the city four senators, forty-four magistrates, and four hundred representatives. The magistrates have the same authority as in the counties. The representatives also have the same authority; but they never meet in one general court: They give their votes in reading essay their particular county, or division of hundreds. When they enact any bye-law, the greater number of counties or divisions determines the matter. Essay In Urdu! And where these are equal, the magistrates have the casting vote.
The magistrates chuse the mayor, sheriff, recorder, and other officers of the city. In the commonwealth, no representative, magistrate, or senator, as such, has any salary. The protector, secretaries, councils, and ambassadors, have salaries. The first year in every century is set apart for and historical correcting all inequalities, which time may have produced in the representative. This must be done by topic, the legislature. The following political aphorisms° may explain the reason of alcohol these orders. The lower sort of people and in urdu, small proprietors are good judges enough of one not very distant from them in rank or habitation; and therefore, in their parochial meetings, will probably chuse the best, or nearly the best representative: But they are wholly unfit for county-meetings, and for electing into the higher offices of the republic. Their ignorance gives the grandees an opportunity of deceiving them. Ten thousand, even though they were not annually elected, are a basis large enough for any free government.
It is true, the nobles in Poland are more than 10,000, and yet these oppress the people. But as power always continues there in the same persons and families, this makes them, in a manner, a different nation from the people. Besides the newman critical and historical nobles are there united under a few heads of families. All free governments must consist of two councils, a lesser and greater; or, in essay other words, of a senate and people. The [ 523 ] people, as Harrington observes, would want wisdom, without the alcohol senate: The senate, without the people, would want honesty. A large assembly of 1000, for instance, to represent the people, if allowed to debate, would fall into disorder. If not allowed to debate, the essay in urdu senate has a negative upon them, and outline, the worst kind of negative, that before resolution. Here therefore is an inconvenience, which no government has yet fully remedied, but which is the in urdu topic easiest to be remedied in the world. If the athesis people debate, all is confusion: If they do not debate, they can only resolve; and then the senate carves for them. Divide the people into many separate bodies; and then they may debate with safety, and every inconvenience seems to be prevented. Cardinal de Retz says, that all numerous assemblies, however composed, are mere mob, and swayed in their debates by the least motive.9 This we find confirmed by in urdu, daily experience.
When an absurdity strikes a member, he conveys it to his neighbour, and so on, till the whole be infected. Separate this great body; and though every member be only of middling sense, it is not probable, that any thing but reason can prevail over the whole. Influence and example being removed, good sense will always get the better of bad among a number of people.c. There are two things to be guarded against in every senate: Its combination, and and historical, its division. Its combination is most dangerous. Essay In Urdu Topic! And against this inconvenience we have provided the reading outline following remedies. 1. The great dependence of the senators on the people by essay, annual elections; and that not by an undistinguishing [ 524 ] rabble, like the English electors, but by men of fortune and education. 2. The small power they are allowed. They have few offices to dispose of.
Almost all are given by the magistrates in outline the counties. 3. The court of competitors, which being composed of men that are their rivals, next to them in interest, and uneasy in essay topic their present situation, will be sure to take all advantages against good thesis statement them. The division of the senate is prevented, 1. Essay In Urdu! By the smallness of their number. 2. As faction supposes a combination in a separate interest, it is prevented by their dependence on the people. 3. They have a power of thesis statement for descriptive expelling any factious member.
It is true, when another member of the essay in urdu same spirit comes from the county, they have no power of expelling him: Nor is it fit they should; for that shows the humour to be in the people, and may possibly arise from some ill conduct in public affairs. 4. Almost any man, in a senate so regularly chosen by the people, may be supposed fit for any civil office. Housekeeper Cover! It would be proper, therefore, for the senate to form some general resolutions with regard to the disposing of offices among the members: Which resolutions would not confine them in critical times, when extraordinary parts on the one hand, or extraordinary stupidity on the other, appears in any senator; but they would be sufficient to preventd intrigue and faction, by making the essay disposal of the offices a thing of alcohol meetings course. For instance, let it be a resolution, That no man shall enjoy any office, till he has sat four years in the senate: That, except ambassadors, no man shall be in essay in urdu topic office two years following: That no man shall attain the higher offices but through the lower: That no man shall be protector twice, c. The senate of Venice govern themselves by such resolutions. In foreign politics the interest of the senate can scarcely ever be divided from that of the people; and thinking, therefore it is fit to make the senate absolute with regard to them; otherwise there could be no secrecy or refined policy. Besides, without money no alliance can be executed; and the senate is still sufficiently dependant. Not to mention, that the legislative power being always superior to the executive, the magistrates or representatives may interpose whenever they think proper. The chief support of the essay topic British government is the opposition of athesis support meetings interests; but that, though in the main serviceable, breeds endless factions. In the in urdu topic foregoing plan, it does all the good without any of the harm. The competitors have no power of controlling the senate: They have only the power of accusing, and appealing to the people. It is necessary, likewise, to financial plan for small business, prevent both combination and division in the thousand magistrates.
This is done sufficiently by the separation of in urdu topic places and interests. But lest that should not be sufficient, their dependence on the 10,000 for their elections, serves to essays critical and historical, the same purpose. Nor is that all: For the 10,000 may resume the power whenever they please; and not only when they all please, but when any five of a hundred please, which will happen upon the very first suspicion of a separate interest. The 10,000 are too large a body either to unite or divide, except when they meet in essay one place, and fall under the guidance of ambitious leaders. Not to mention their annual election,e by the whole body of the people, that are of any consideration. A small commonwealth is the happiest government in the world within itself, because every thing lies under the eye of the rulers: But it may be subdued by great force from without. This scheme seems to have all the advantages both of a great and a little commonwealth. Every county-law may be annulled either by the senate or another county; because that shows an hotel cover, opposition of interest: In which case no part ought to decide for itself. The matter must be referred to the whole, which will best determine what agrees with general interest. As to the clergy and militia, the reasons of these orders are obvious. Essay! Without the good statement dependence of the clergy on the civil magistrates, and without a militia, it is in vain to think that any free government will ever have security or stability.
In many governments, the inferior magistrates have no rewards but what arise from their ambition, vanity, or public spirit. The salaries of the French judges amount not to in urdu, the interest of the newman and historical sums they pay for their offices. The Dutch [ 526 ] burgo-masters have little more immediate profit than the English justices of peace, or the members of the house of commons formerly. But lest any should suspect, that this would beget negligence in the administration (which is little to be feared, considering the natural ambition of mankind), let the magistrates have competent salaries. Essay In Urdu Topic! The senators have access to so many honourable and lucrative offices, that their attendance needs not be bought. There is little attendance required of the representatives. That the foregoing plan of athesis government is practicable, no one can doubt, who considers the resemblance that it bears to the commonwealth of the United Provinces,f a wise and renowned government. The alterations in the present scheme seem all evidently for the better. Essay! 1. The representation is more equal.
2. The unlimited power of the burgo-masters in the towns, which forms a perfect aristocracy in the Dutch commonwealth, is corrected by a well-tempered democracy, in giving to the people the hotel housekeeper annual election of the county representatives. Topic! 3. The negative, which every province and town has upon alcohol support meetings the whole body of the Dutch republic, with regard to alliances, peace and war, and the imposition of taxes, is here removed. 4. The counties, in the present plan, are not so independent of in urdu topic each other, nor do they form separate bodies so much as the good thesis statement for descriptive essays seven provinces; where the jealousy and envy of the smaller provinces and towns against the greater, particularly Holland and Amsterdam , have frequently disturbed the government. 5. Larger powers, though of the safest kind, are intrusted to in urdu, the senate than the informal fallacies thinking States-General possess; by which means, the former may become more expeditious, and secret in their resolutions, than it is possible for the latter. The chief alterations that could be made on the British government, in order to bring it to the most perfect model of limited monarchy, seem to be the following. First, The plan of g Cromwell’s parliament ought to be restored, by making the representation equal, and by allowing none to vote in the county elections who possess noth a property of 200 pounds [ 527 ] value. Secondly, As such a house of essay in urdu topic Commons would be too weighty for a frail house of Lords, like the present, the Bishops and Scotch Peers ought to close outline, be removed:i The number of the essay upper house ought to plan for small business, be raised to three or four hundred: Their seats not hereditary, but during life: They ought to have the election of their own members; and no commoner should be allowed to refuse a seat that was offered him. Essay In Urdu Topic! By this means the house of Lords would consist entirely of the newman essays men of chief credit, abilities, and interest in topic the nation; and every turbulent leader in the house of Commons might be taken off, and alcohol support, connected by interest with the essay in urdu topic house of Peers. Such an aristocracy would be an excellent barrier both to the monarchy and against it.
At present, the balance of our government depends in some measure on the abilities and behaviour of the sovereign; which are variable and uncertain circumstances. This plan of limited monarchy, however corrected, seems still liable to three great inconveniencies. First, It removes not entirely, though it may soften, the parties of court and country. Secondly, The king’s personal character must still have great influence on the government. Housekeeper! Thirdly, The sword is in essay topic the hands of a single person, who will always neglect to support, discipline the militia, in order to in urdu topic, have a pretence for newman essays critical and historical keeping up a standing army.j. We shall conclude this subject, with observing the in urdu falsehood of the common opinion, that no large state, such as France or Great Britain , could ever be modelled into a commonwealth, but that such a form of government can only take place in a city or small territory.
The contrary seems probable. Though it is statement more difficult to form a republican government in an extensive country than in a city; there is more facility, when once it is formed, of preserving it steady and uniform, without tumult and faction. It is not easy, for the distant parts of a large state to combine in any plan of free government; but they easily conspire in the esteem and reverence for a single person, who, by means of this popular favour, may seize the power, and forcing the more obstinate to in urdu topic, submit, may establish a monarchical government. Outline! On the other [ 528 ] hand, a city readily concurs in the same notions of government, the natural equality of property favours liberty, and the nearness of in urdu habitation enables the citizens mutually to housekeeper cover letter, assist each other. Even under absolute princes, the subordinate government of cities is commonly republican; while that of counties and provinces is monarchical. But these same circumstances, which facilitate the essay erection of financial plan for small commonwealths in cities, render their constitution more frail and uncertain. In Urdu! Democracies are turbulent. Financial Plan For Small Business! For however the people may be separated or divided into small parties, either in in urdu topic their votes or elections; their near habitation in a city will always make the force of reading essay popular tides and currents very sensible. Aristocracies are better adapted for peace and order, and accordingly were most admired by essay topic, ancient writers; but they are jealous and oppressive. In a large government, which is modelled with masterly skill, there is compass and room enough to refine the democracy, from the lower people, who may be admitted into the first elections or first concoction of the commonwealth, to the higher magistrates, who direct all the movements. At the same time, the parts are so distant and athesis support, remote, that it is very difficult, either by intrigue, prejudice, or passion, to hurry them into any measures against in urdu topic the public interest.
It is needless to enquire, whether such a government would be immortal. I allow the alcohol meetings justness of the poet’s exclamation on the endless projects of essay in urdu human race, Man and for ever! 10 The world itself probably is not immortal. Such consuming plagues may arise as would leave even a perfect government a weak prey to its neighbours. Plan For Small Business! We know not to what length [ 529 ] enthusiasm, or other extraordinary movements of the human mind, may transport men, to the neglect of all order and public good.
Where difference of interest is removed, whimsical and unaccountable factions often arise, from personal favour or enmity. Perhaps, rust may grow to the springs of the most accurate political machine, and disorder its motions. Essay! Lastly, extensive conquests, when pursued, must be the ruin of every free government; and of the more perfect governments sooner than of the imperfect; because of the very advantages which the athesis support meetings former possess above the latter. And though such a state ought to establish a fundamental law against conquests; yet republics have ambition as well as individuals, and topic, present interest makes men forgetful of housekeeper their posterity. Essay! It is a sufficient incitement to human endeavours, that such a government would flourish for many ages; without pretending to bestow, on any work of man, that immortality, which the Almighty seems to have refused to his own productions.
Week 10: On the Brink of Independence. Week 13: The Declaration of critical Independence. Hume, Essays Copyright © 2017 by topic, John Zumbrunnen. All Rights Reserved.
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Resume Fonts, Margins, Style #038; Paper Selection. Building a resume is a process that requires finesse. If it’s stuffed with good content but formatted poorly, it will often get tossed into the “no” pile; leaving many job candidates confused as to why they never received a call back. On the other hand, if it’s clean and essay in urdu topic, professional ( even if it’s filled with fluff ), it will frequently catch the eye of financial, a hiring manager and land you an interview. Although content is ultimately the essay in urdu topic most significant element of your resume, it’s important to close essay outline not underestimate the in urdu topic power of appearance. The reason we need the fallacies adage “don’t judge a book by essay in urdu, its cover” is because we do judge things by their appearance frequently , whether we like it or not. This guide will help you take advantage of hotel cover letter, that fact . Finding the essay topic best aesthetic font , outlining ideal margins and even discussing your paper selection —we will cover it all. 1.) Best font for a resume: Style, size color. Creating a clear, succinct resume requires multiple elements working in harmony. For this to statement for descriptive essays happen, one thing is in urdu, certain: don’t use Comic Sans . Choosing an aesthetic font might seem daunting, but it doesn’t need to be.
People often ask us: is there a best style? We’ve crunched the numbers, and we have an answer. The best font for hotel cover a resume is… Tricked you—there isn’t truly a single best font, but there are several options that stand out amongst the rest! We will give you some solid choices and you can take it from there.
Consider downloading some resume templates and see which ones are most attractive to you. Select your favorite, and try out that font! First, consider this: how will you be sending your resume? Printed fonts and those read on a computer monitor appear differently to the reader. There are two key groups of fonts used globally: serif and essay in urdu topic, sans-serif (i.e. “non-serif”). Serif fonts have accentuated corners that make them appear more distinct, especially when printed. Essay Outline? Sans-serif fonts simply don’t have these accents, which make them clearer at topic, smaller sizes as well as on a computer screen. Example of serifs on a capital F, using Garamond Sans-serif capital F, Calibri. Keep these ideas in mind when constructing your resume.
Here’s a breakdown of athesis support, our top three serif and sans-serif options: Top 3 serif choices: Times New Roman : Times New Roman is a classic serif that looks good both on essay, paper and on a computer screen. It’s a safe, standard choice for any resume. Garamond : Garamond is an good essays, attractive option for people who enjoy a classic, graceful font. Georgia : Georgia is also a popular choice. In Urdu? Clear, familiar and functional, it’s a nice change for people who like Times New Roman but want something a little different. Top 3 sans-serif choices: Arial : An excellent choice if you prefer the sans-serif style. Essay Outline? It is easy to read, and familiar to many people due to its appearance on commonly used web applications like gmail. In Urdu? Calibri : Popular amongst professionals.
If you’ve ever opened a Microsoft Word document, you’ve used Calibri—its use as a Word default makes it palatable for informal thinking most readers. Verdana : The spacing of Verdana is essay in urdu topic, slightly wider than Arial and quite more so than Calibri. Choose this style if you’re aiming for ease-of-reading. Font size is essay outline, another area that you’ll need to play with to find your ideal option. Each style handles sizing differently– for example, Garamond is noticeably smaller than Arial at topic, 12. Many experts consider 11 to be the perfect size, but this depends on and historical, the font. The most important thing is that it’s clear and large enough to essay topic read . A rule of essays critical and historical, thumb is to choose between 10 and 12; adjusting it according to your style. If you’re leaning toward a smaller font, consider selecting a sans-serif option.
The simpler design will help keep visual clarity, which serif styles lose at in urdu, smaller sizes. Before you shrink your words too much though, try changing the wording to see if you can organically make it smaller. This should be your first course of action, but if necessary, it’s acceptable to make minor changes to the font size margins. The majority of resumes use a standard black and white format. There is athesis meetings, a reason for this– bright colors are distracting and take away from your actual content. With that said, you are allowed to essay in urdu topic use some color if you want, just make sure it complements your content rather than detracts from it. Your name, as well as the headers throughout your resume can be modified– but make sure you use the statement for descriptive essays same color here to keep things uniform. A dark red, blue or green can be a nice touch, but using neon colors is a surefire way to make the hiring manager take you less seriously. 2. Resume margins, length alignment.
The size and shape of your resume are just as important, if not more so, than the font. At a glance, the essay topic structure already expresses certain ideas to the reader– for example, larger margins make your content seem lacking, whereas smaller margins make things feel cluttered. Hotel Housekeeper? You don’t want your resume to get noticed for its formatting. Playing it safe is advisable. Avoid extremes and in urdu topic, you’ll be in good shape (pun intended). Standard one inch by close reading outline, one inch margins are a good choice , but you do have some flexibility. The smallest margins considered to be acceptable are half an in urdu, inch by essays critical and historical, half an inch (.5 by .5), but even this format will appear a bit heavy on the words unless done correctly. Essay? A good visual balance would be keeping your top and essays, bottom margins between .5? and 1? , and essay topic, moving between .6? and 1? for thesis statement essays your left and right margins . This will help decrease reader fatigue and make your resume more palatable for whoever is looking at topic, it. Take a look at the following sample to good thesis for descriptive get an idea of good, balanced margins: The next image is in urdu topic, a snippet of a resume with extremely narrow margins.
Notice how they push to plan business the very bottom of the page– this gives a cramped feeling to the reader. Narrow margins can make reading anything a chore. For most people the essay in urdu topic ideal resume length is reading outline, one page, using reasonable margins as discussed above. Occasionally two pages is acceptable, but three pages is almost always in danger of being too wordy. Essay In Urdu? Here are some reasons you may need to critical make yours longer than one page:
You have a large quantity of relevant experience. Many candidates can fill a resume with work experiences, but it’s usually possible to narrow them down to the most relevant ones and fit them onto a single page. If you have many examples of related experience that make your application stronger, don’t be afraid to include them! You are a published scientist or academic . Proper citations can take up a lot of in urdu, space, so hiring managers in these fields expect this. Landing an executive position is outline, your goal . In Urdu? These posts require large amounts of relevant experience, so it’s alright if they’re a bit extensive. Before deciding upon a multi-page resume, ask yourself: is the information you’ve added worth the additional page? Or will the hiring manager find it unnecessary? Your resume is athesis support, a tool to efficiently convey your qualifications to a potential employer so you can proceed to essay in urdu topic the interview process– you don’t need to list every piece of work you’ve ever performed.
Quality is more important than quantity. If you really do need to cut the length down, you could try using a resume profile instead of statement for descriptive, a career objective or qualifications summary. Here’s a table to check if you’re okay at your current page length, or if yours could do with a little trimming. The best alignment makes your resume easy to in urdu read. We learn to read English from the left, therefore left alignment is close reading essay, always a safe bet . Your name and contact information is essay topic, usually centered , but the support headers (“Professional Experience”, “Education”, “Additional Skills”) and essay in urdu, your introduction/objective can be left aligned or centered.
This depends on the template you’re following, as well as your personal taste. Left-aligned Resume Sample. Center-aligned Resume Sample. Left-aligned Resume Sample. Center-aligned Resume Sample. You don’t need your resume to be as stylish as this guy, but it doesn’t hurt to try! Another way to accent yours is to use style elements like lines, symbols and text boxes . If implemented effectively, these can help direct the reader’s attention to your stronger sections, and make the overall reading experience more pleasant. If used haphazardly though, they can hurt your chances at getting an interview. Newman Essays Critical And Historical? There are some general rules to follow if you want your style game to be on point.
Lines, like many things, must be enjoyed in moderation. Placing a strategic line after your objective makes the reader subconsciously linger on your objective. This is a good tactic if you want them to give your objective that additional attention. Lines can also be used in a functional resume to draw the essay topic reader’s attention toward your skills section and informal fallacies thinking, away from essay, your work history. Functional resumes are great if you have are trying to close outline mask your 1) lack of or 2) abundance of experience.
They are also helpful if you have large gaps in your work history or have been jumping from essay in urdu, company to company, which are two things hiring managers don’t like to see. Whether you’re inexperienced, over-experienced or just have a tendency to job-hop, you can use our wide range of free resume templates to learn how to cover employment blemishes and emphasize your strongest areas. Pugs are cute, but this is not the financial plan for small time to put a clip art image of an adorable little Pug puppy on your Veterinarian resume. The only essay in urdu topic flashy aspect should be your relevant work experience ; others are used to make this experience clear to the reader . This holds true for symbols. Bullet points come in different shapes and sizes, and are the primary symbol used in a resume because they draw the hiring manager’s attention to your achievements and skills. Thesis Statement? If there’s a time to get a bit creative, it’s here– just remember to keep things clear. You can’t go wrong with the topic circle bullet, but arrows diamonds are also nice choices for the less conventional job applicant. Mantis Resume Template (arrows) Lynx Resume Template (squares)
Mantis Resume Template (arrows) Lynx Resume Template (squares) Some experts advise against alcohol support meetings, text boxes because they are worried the Applicant Tracking System (ATS) will skip over the content placed inside, but this bias is in urdu, a bit outdated. Hotel Housekeeper Cover Letter? As ATS software improves, text boxes have become a viable stylistic option for your resume. If you’re feeling conservative then feel free to steer clear of topic, them, but if you do want to use a text box or two (or several), go for it!
Text boxes can be an for small business, ally in essay in urdu, your quest to achieve aesthetic harmony. One way a well-placed text box can help your resume stand out is by emphasizing certain pieces of information , like your name. Notice in the following image how a text box around the applicant’s name, “Chris Jones,” makes it jump off the page. A hiring manager is close essay, much more likely to remember this applicant as a result, which helps later on in the hiring process. An applicant’s name in a text box.
Text boxes also make your content clearer to the reader because they help break information into reasonable chunks. This makes you appear organized and thoughtful, which are valuable traits in a job candidate. They also improve overall readability. Check out how these headers are highlighted through the use of essay in urdu, each text box. Each header included in a text box. Text boxes can also give your resume some personality and cover letter, make it stand out, but don’t go overboard! They have the essay in urdu topic power to strengthen and weaken your application, so use every text box responsibly. 4. Resume paper: Color, weight, size texture. Woah, now. Your draft is looking pretty solid, but don’t lose control– it’s not the right time to fallacies in critical use that Egyptian papyrus you’ve been saving as printing material.
I’d also advise against in urdu, spraying it with cologne or perfume– that only works in the movies. Legally Blonde might not be the place to look for thesis statement for descriptive essays job application advice. With that said, it’s still important to consider what impressions different types of paper may give your hiring manager. Bring a printed copy of your resume to the interview! Even if you already emailed a copy to the hiring manager, it’s courteous and essay topic, professional to have physical copies on in critical, hand. The paper color of your printed resume should be some shade of topic, white or off-white; avoid colors like baby blue or hot pink unless you’re applying to be the Easter Bunny. Plain white is good thesis essays, definitely acceptable for most people, but if you’re feeling adventurous you could dabble in the realm of essay, ivory or cream-colored paper.
These colors stand out a bit from run-of-the-mill white paper, without standing out too much. They are like adding cuff-links to a nice dress shirt– they catch the eye and look nice, but aren’t needed to thesis statement look stylish. Have you ever felt 100% cotton, 32lbs linen paper? It’s the topic Rolls Royce of the paper world, and it will instantly make your resume appear more important than its 24lbs counterpart. It’s soft yet sturdy, and gives the holder a strong urge to essays critical and historical never let go. Paper quality so good, you can’t help but hold it in two hands. If that paper weight texture is too inconvenient to find, see if you can still land a 32lbs option. 24lbs is better than your standard printer paper, but not by much. Use some serious paper to show that you’re a serious job applicant. There are many factors that can make or break your resume, and we’ve just covered the essay in urdu topic visual elements.
If it’s well-honed, it can be a valuable tool during the alcohol support meetings job hunt. Try not to in urdu underestimate the importance of informal thinking, good aesthetics ! If you’re ready to start, you can take a look at our templates pages or use our builder to construct a professional resume in minutes. Get more interviews with our Free Resume Builder. Our software has everything you need, including industry-specific bullet points, templates formatted to fit every type of job seeker, and exportable PDFs and Word docs.
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Essay: WHAT IS CRIME? Crime prevention and crime reduction. Crime is any action or offence that defies a state or country and is punishable by law. Crime has many definitions. Essay In Urdu. In fact the most common thing about newman essays critical, these definitions is that crime is punishable. Essay. Crime cuts across many disciplines such as sociology, psychology and hotel cover criminology. Essay In Urdu. Each of these disciplines try to explain why crime is committed and how people are compelled to commit crime, a good example is sociology. Sociology attributes crime due to poor socialization in society, while psychology attributes crime mainly due to biological and Pathological criminogenic behaviors. Many scholars have tried to define crime and financial for small business each has given many reasons why crime is committed. Scholars such Cesare Lombroso attribute crime to biological anomalies while scholars like Edwin Sutherland claim that criminal behavior is learned. Topic. Generally all these come, to the same conclusions that crime is an offence punishable by close reading essay law.
There are two main types of crime, these include violent crimes and property crime. Violent crime constitutes when someone decides to harm, threaten and conspire against someone else while property crime constitute someone who damages, destroys or steals someone’s property. Both violent and property crimes are offences which involve force and damage to society. There are different types of punishing crime, the most common typologies are retribution, restorative justice, general and topic specific deterrence, rehabilitation and just deserts. Crime punishment has been there since the beginning of time, theoldesttype of punishment was retribution. A good example of how retribution justice was used was during the Hammurabi period. In those days if crime was committed it constituted an essay, eye for an eye. If I killed someone my punishment would be death. No one was spared.
Justice was viewed differently. In the recent times retribution has been reviewed and has been lowered to just deserts. The punishment is still harsh but considers many factors at hand, such as the state of mindof the offender. In Urdu. Crime has been there for a long time and has been defined and been punished in different ways. What constitutes a crime has also been reviewed .what was viewed a crime in the previous times is not a crime now. Close Reading. A good example is freedom of worship. Many people were not allowed to worship any other gods and did it secrecy due to fear of topic prosecution and being labeled a heretic. In present times one is hotel letter allowed to worship any god and believe in whoever they please. Generallycrime is a wide topic and has been vigorously studied in different aspects butin this essay I am going to essay in urdu, focus mainly on the major objectives of crime prevention, typologies of crime reduction, law enforcement and crime, recidivism of crime and interventions on reduction of good thesis statement for descriptive essays crime. 2.0 OBJECTIVES OF CRIME PREVENTIONAND CRIME REDUCTION. Crime prevention includes reducing and deterring crime and criminals from committing crimes.
Crime reduction is essay quite similar to crime prevention, for crime reduction to fallacies in critical, occur we need to prevent it at first. Essay In Urdu Topic. Crime prevention strategies are usually implemented by criminal justice agencies, individuals, businesses and non-governmental agencies in order to maintain order and enforce the law. Crime prevention strategies not only deter crime but also reduce the risk of financial for small business increasing victimization in the society.Crime prevention has many objectives but the most main objective is to reduce and deter crime. Many criminal justice agencies have developed strategies through public policy in order to prevent crime. Essay In Urdu Topic. Various models have been adopted by countries in order to combat crime. Kenya for example has enforced the Nyumbakumi initiative (community policing) spear headed by Kaguthi in order to combat crime.
By this strategy neighbors are supposed to be readily aw e and watchful of athesis support what happens in the neighborhood in order to deter criminals from committing crimes. Essay. There are many approaches of crime prevention; the main objectives have been included in these strategies. These strategies are situational crime prevention strategy, environmental crime prevention, social crime prevention, developmental crime prevention, policing strategies, and community crime prevention strategies. The environmental prevention strategy was first introduced by fallacies in critical thinking C. Ray Jeffery a criminologist. Environmental crime prevention strategy main objective is to protect the essay environment which entails wildlife, Nature and the atmosphere. Environmental crime entails an illegal act that harms the environment. Many international bodies such as Interpol and support the UN have recognized environmental crime due to the havoc it has causedthe environment, Types of environmental crime may include dumping hazardous waste in the ocean, illegal wild life trade of endangered species, smuggling, emitting chemicals those ozone layer and illegal logging of trees.
There many crimes associated with environmental crime but I am going to focus on the two main which affect many countries which is illegal trade of wildlife and logging of tress. Many counties have been trying to fight this crime. Many influential people have actually fought against environmental crime and have actually received Nobel prizes for it. The late Wangari Maathai who was an activist for the environment was highly against illegal logging of trees. In fact she proposed that for every tree that was cut down, three should beplanted. Prevention strategies have been implemented in order to combat crime.
In Ireland under the department of agriculture section 37 of the forestry act. It is illegal to uproot any tree over ten years old or cut down any tree of any age (agriculture, 2015). Illegal wildlife trade is also a major problem. Kenya has had this problem for in urdu years, being one of the countries that harbors endangered species such as the white rhino and plan elephants. It has faced a lot of problems in trying to combat this problem. Many poachers are killing these animals and selling the tusks of these animals for high prices. Elephant poaching was made illegal in in urdu 1973, and hunting without a permit in 1977. Kenya has roughened sentencing through increasing fines.Poachers caught with illegal wildlife such as tusks face fines up to 10 million Kenya shillings and close essay outline jail time of 5 years(Kahumbu.
2013).Though it is still rampant prevention strategies have been implemented. Situational crime prevention strategy was a concept that gained wide recognition in the late 1940’s when Edwin in Sutherland argued that crime was a result of environmental factors. Essay In Urdu Topic. Hebelieved that crime was learned. Situational crime prevention strategy is deeply rooted in theories such as routine activity theory, crime pattern theory and rational choice theory. Situational crime prevention strategy focuses on mainly reducing crime by hotel housekeeper cover letter providing settings in which it is less conducive for criminals to attack. Essay In Urdu. Unlike routine, rational and crime prevention theories, situational prevention theory not only focuses on the criminals but focuses mainly on the environment. A good example of newman how criminal justice agencies have applied this strategy is by ensuring that their heavy surveillance in the cities in order to deter criminals from in urdu topic committing crimes. In Kenya the housekeeper cover letter Government has installed cameras on the traffic lights in order to record criminal activity and find corrupt road traffic users (Okere, 2012). In Urdu. The Cameras not only essays, deter people from committing crimes but also helps the police to essay topic, .find culprits who may commit a crime and get away with it. A study done in Nairobi by Stephen Okere found out that 85.7% of hotel letter all the Kenyans respondents of the study had installed CCTV cameras and found it effective in curbing crime. He also found that the traffic cameras also helped in curbing crime (Okere, 2012).The main objective of this crime prevention strategy isto protect people from essay topic criminals through providing or ensuring there are safety measures such as surveillance cameras.
Social crime prevention is plan business a strategy that addresses the essay in urdu direct root causes of crime. The main objective of social crime prevention is on the social elements that have lead people to financial, commit this crimes, these elements may include breakdown in familyvalues and ignorance. Lack of cohesion and environmental conditions. Social crime prevention is not an easy task to achieve because it deals with peoples ideals bad believes. The only way to create a society that is peaceful is to start from the beginning.
This means ensuring that schooling from essay in urdu young age is given much importance. A good example of how governments have done this is by thesis essays ensuring that the curriculum in nursery schools teaches children values of what wrong and what is right. There are many ways of how social crime prevention can be achieved, through changing values at home through public education and encouraging the community to essay in urdu topic, be the agent of business social change in their own communities. Developmental crime prevention focuses on how crime occurs; the essay in urdu mainobjective of essay this strategy is essay show how crime develops and hotel housekeeper cover letter causes victimization in society. Developmental crime prevention strategy is used by many countries. Public education is one of the essay in urdu topic approaches that have been used. By using public education many people are taught and developed in to young abiding citizens rather than criminals. Communities may also focus on helping teachers to be an integral part in developing self-control in young people. In the plan business USA most stateshave developed programs which develop ex offender or drug addicts in to better people. They engage in essay in urdu social programs and good statement essays help them achieve GEDS in order to get a better life. In general development crime prevention actually rehabilitates youth and helps develop others become better people rather than committing crime.
Policing strategies are also crucial in crime prevention. Essay Topic. The main objective of policing in crime prevention is to ensure that police officers actually do help citizens and actually, curb crime beforeit occurs. Policing should be proactive. And Historical. When police actually improve on how they combat crime it helps reduce crime. Essay In Urdu Topic. Though police officers may be reluctant to change their ways, but with additional training they can change. In order to reduce crime policing should be an important aspect.
Community Crime prevention strategies are also important in curbing crime. The main objective of this strategy is to ensure that the community and police actually work together in order to prevent crime. By the community being involved in everything it helps reduce crime. In Critical Thinking. Most countries have actually adopted this model. Kenya for example calls it nyumba kumi while other countries regard it as community policing. By the community and the police being involved it helps curb crime because the police are not working alone but are working hand in in urdu hand to ensure safety. Community crime prevention strategy can be very effective if the relationship between the citizen and the police is hotel cordial. If it is not, this approach can be very hard to achieve.
By societies using all these models of crime prevention, reduction of topic crime actually occurs. Crime reduction cannot occur if the government and criminal justice agencies are not doing anything about it. If you look at countries that have high crime, the criminal justice agency and government are weak, and corruption is newman essays critical and historical common. Such countries are run by cartels who engage in organized crime. Essay Topic. Organized crime also tends to be present in countries that have strong criminal justice systems, but the difference between the two is that they are not strong as they are in failed states or weak countries. Guinea-Bissau for example which faces a lot corruption has made it easier for athesis organized crime flourish. In April 2007 the authorizes of essay topic Guinea-Bissau managed to seize 635 kilograms of cocaine , unfortunately the drug traffickers managed to reading outline, escape with 2.5 tons of essay drugs because the police could not catch up with them (Mutume, 2007).
The drug traffickers could have been captured but because of corruption and a poor criminal justice system the statement for descriptive essays drug traffickers were able maneuver out with more than half. Crime prevention and limitations. Crime analysis is understood as the essay systematic study of crime and disorder problems as well as other police-related issues (Santos). It is important to include sociodemographic, spatial, and thesis statement for descriptive mundane factors to assist in criminal apprehension, crime reduction, and crime prevention. It is used primarily as information so that personnel, from in urdu topic patrol officers to police chiefs, have an newman critical, idea of when and where crime is occurring and how much it has overall occurred.
While analysis has proven helpful in many cases, what it fails to do is directly inform proactive crime reduction strategies. This is because police officers are limited ion dealing with prevention. They are often assigned to patrol areas where they are not fully familiar with. Essay Topic. They may not fully understand the social structure and norms that fuel the neighborhood and newman critical the actions of its residents. While crime analysis was once focused primarily on tactical issues of identifying offenders, discrimination and stereotyping led to social unrest and led to essay, other tactics of crime prevention.
With the stop and newman essays critical frisk campaign in new York, where the police had the right to stop an topic, individual and frisk them for any sort of cover weapons, drugs or paraphernalia, it became apparent hat innocent young blacks were not being targeted, but were having their rights infringed upon. This emphasizes the social and cultural disconnect between crime analysts, the sworn personnel, and the civilians they are attempting to protect. These became a blurred line between the officers’ role of protecting and essay topic harassing innocent civilians. Statement. The question still remains how to effectively prevent and reduce crime. Crime analysis and crime mapping are becoming more common, but they are primarily implemented in larger police agencies. Areas that have statistically needed more protection have been given more policing depending on essay, the capacity of the police in the district. For example, it is argued tat there is a need for more policing in urban areas because that is where crime is usually more prevalent, but that leaves other low population, yet crime ridden areas with less assistance. Despite this all, policing is occasionally being shifted to focus more on ‘hot spots,’ areas where crime is more prevalent. The close monitoring has o an extent been able to deter crime, but that again depends on fallacies in critical, the stance of the essay topic offender and what they have to lose from fallacies thinking their potential criminal transaction. While in an ideal world all crime prevention efforts would work, that is not the case in the society that we live in essay in urdu today. Crime and alcohol meetings its prevention vary depending on the environment of where the crime is happening.
The demographics, the socioeconomic status of the people, and the relationships within the community all factor into crime and its prevention. To address crime rates there must be various forms of prevention attempts. From the research conducted, it is evident that incarceration is limited in its effectiveness of crime prevention and reduction. While there may be fewer criminals on the streets from essay in urdu topic incarceration, this does not directly affect rising crime rates. Given that about two thirds of criminals in the U.S. return to prison, incarceration only proves to be a temporary fix. I believe that incarceration would be more effective if there are efforts made in prison to better the lives of those incarcerated. Financial Plan For Small. Through efforts such as education, creating job skills and community buildings, those incarcerated are les likely to return to their former criminal past. This has the in urdu ability to create crime prevention and reduction in the long run. I also believe that random patrol and reactive arrests used responses to a community’s demand are generally effective, policing in areas where crime is more prevalent makes it easier to identify problems within a community. It develops tailored responses in a timely manner so that crime can be controlled, reduced, and close reading essay outline prevented. I see various issues in maintaining prevention, the topic main one being sustainability.
Prevention takes long-term planning with targeted spending and strong correspondence. It requires consistent community action and persistence with or without the presence of government funding. Without flexibility crime cannot be prevented or reduced. Newman Critical And Historical. Like I have mentioned before, there are no two communities alike so there cannot be any single approach to sustainability. It is up to the individual communities and organizations to determine appropriate strategies and implement them. I agree with the World Health Organization and the understanding that creating and implementing and essay in urdu monitoring a national action plan for violence prevention would be effective.
In order to do so, the issues of funding must be addressed. I believe that the federal and local government should invent in testing method of policing in order to raise awareness and informal fallacies in critical thinking reduce crime. To keep time rates low, there is a need to enhance the capacity of data collection on violence. In Urdu. That way, the issues that need to athesis support, be addressed are apparent. When looking at issues and crimes within a community, it is important to essay topic, examine the athesis meetings causes. Consequences and costs for prevention as well as reduction. To keep crime prevention low, criminals as well as victims should be dealt with. By strengthening responses for victims, I believe that there will be a deterrence effect for criminals and less retaliation crimes that promote even more crime.
I also believe that integrating crime prevention into essay topic social and educational policies has the for descriptive ability to reduce crime by essay in urdu promoting social equality. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Criminology essay, dissertation or piece of for descriptive essays coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. In Urdu Topic. Each of us is qualified to close reading outline, a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.
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