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Moral Arguments for the Existence of God. [ Editor's Note: The following new entry by coursework help, C. Stephen Evans replaces the peace former entry on this topic by the previous author. ] Moral arguments for media coursework, God's existence form a diverse family of arguments that reason from some feature of morality or the moral life to english 12 provincial exam essay, the existence of God, usually understood as a morally good creator of the universe. Moral arguments are both important and a level media studies coursework interesting. They are interesting because evaluating their soundness requires attention to practically every important philosophical issue dealt with in english metaethics. They are important because of their prominence in media coursework popular apologetic arguments for should be legal essay, religious belief. Evidence for coursework help, this can be found in the amazing popularity of C. Essays Seven Gables! S. Lewis's Mere Christianity (1952), which is almost certainly the best-selling book of help apologetics in politics the twentieth century, and a level media studies which begins with a moral argument for God's existence. Many ordinary people regard religion as in some way providing a basis or foundation for morality. On A Separate! This fact might seem to favor religious arguments for morality rather than moral arguments for religious belief, but if someone believes that morality is in some way “objective” or “real,” and studies help that this moral reality requires explanation, moral arguments for God's reality naturally suggest themselves. The apparent connection between morality and religion appears to many people to support the claim that moral truths require a religious foundation, or can best be explained by God's existence, or some qualities or actions of God.
After some general comments about theistic arguments and a brief history of moral arguments, this essay will discuss several different forms of the moral argument. A major distinction is that between moral arguments that are theoretical in nature and practical or pragmatic arguments. The former are best thought of as arguments that begin with alleged moral facts and argue that God is necessary to explain those facts, or at least that God provides a better explanation of on website evaluation them than secular accounts can offer. The latter typically begin with claims about some good or end that morality requires and argue that this end is media coursework help, not attainable unless God exists. Whether this distinction is hard and fast will be one of the questions to be discussed, as some argue that practical arguments by themselves cannot be the basis of rational belief. To meet such concerns practical arguments may have to include a theoretical dimension as well. 1. The Goals of Theistic Arguments. Before attempting to explain and assess moral arguments for the existence of scholarship essay person God, it would be helpful to have some perspective on the goals of arguments for God's existence. (I shall generically term arguments for a level media coursework help, God's existence “theistic arguments.”) Of course views about this are diverse, but most contemporary proponents of such arguments do not see theistic arguments as attempted “proofs,” in 12 provincial essay the sense that they are supposed to provide valid arguments with premises that no reasonable person could deny. Such a standard of achievement would clearly be setting the bar for success very high, and proponents of theistic arguments rightly note that philosophical arguments for interesting conclusions in any field outside of formal logic hardly ever reach such a standard. More reasonable questions to ask about a level studies help theistic arguments would seem to be the following: Are there valid arguments for the conclusion that God exists that have premises that are known or reasonably believed by some people? Are the premises of such arguments more reasonable than their denials, at least for should argumentative essay, some reasonable people?
Arguments that met these standards could have value in media studies coursework help making belief in God reasonable for some people, or even giving some people knowledge of God's existence, even if it turns out that some of the premises of the essay on website evaluation arguments can be reasonably denied by other people, and thus that the arguments fail as proofs. It is of course possible that an argument for God's existence could provide some evidence for God's existence, in a level media coursework help the sense that the argument increases the politics probability or plausibility of the claim that God exists, even if the studies help argument does not provide enough support by itself for politics, full-fledged belief that God exists. A proponent of the moral argument who viewed the argument in this way might in a level that case regard the argument as part of a cumulative case for theism, and hold that the an essay on a separate peace moral argument must be supplemented by other possible arguments, such as the media help “fine-tuning” argument from the physical constants of the universe, or an argument from religious experience. A non-believer might even concede some version of a theistic argument has some evidential force, but claim that the overall balance of evidence does not support belief. A major issue that cannot be settled here concerns the an essay separate question of where the burden of proof lies with respect to theistic arguments. Many secular philosophers follow Antony Flew (1976) in holding that there is a “presumption of atheism.” Believing in God is like believing in the Loch Ness Monster or leprechauns, something that reasonable people do not do without sufficient evidence. If such evidence is lacking, the proper stance is atheism rather than agnosticism. This “presumption of atheism” has been challenged in a number of ways.
Alvin Plantinga (2000) has argued that reasonable belief in God does not have to be based on propositional evidence, but can be “properly basic.” On this view, reasonable belief in God can be the media studies coursework outcome of a basic faculty (called the sensus divinitatis by theologian John Calvin) and thus needs no support from arguments at scholarship essay person, all. In response some would argue that even if theistic belief is not grounded in propositional evidence, it still might require non-propositional evidence (such as experience), so it is media coursework, not clear that Plantinga's view by itself removes the scholarship person burden of proof challenge. A second way to a level coursework help, challenge the presumption of atheism is to separate, question an implicit assumption made by media coursework, those who defend such a presumption, which is that belief in God is epistemologically more risky than unbelief. The assumption might be defended in the following way: One might think that theists and atheists share a belief in many entities: atoms, middle-sized physical objects, animals, and stars, for essays house gables, example. Someone, however, who believes in a level media coursework leprechauns or sea monsters in on website addition to these commonly accepted objects thereby incurs a burden of proof. Such a person believes in “one additional thing” and thus seems to incur additional epistemological risk. Coursework Help! One might think that belief in God is relevantly like belief in a leprechaun or sea monster, and thus that the theist also bears an essay on website additional burden of proof.
Without good evidence in favor of belief in God the safe option is to a level media coursework help, refrain from belief. However, the theist may hold that this account does not accurately represent the situation. Instead, the theist may argue that the debate between atheism and essay evaluation theism is not simply an media studies coursework argument about whether “one more thing” exists in the world. In fact, God is not to be understood as an entity in the world at all; any such entity would by exam, definition not be God. A Level Studies! The debate is rather a debate about the character of the universe. The theist believes that every object in the natural world exists because God creates and conserves that object; every finite thing has the character of being dependent on God. The atheist denies this and affirms that the basic entities in the natural world have the character of existing “on their own.” If this is the right way to think about the debate, then it is peace, not obvious that atheism is safer than theism. The debate is not about the a level coursework existence of one object, but the character of the politics universe as a whole. A Level Coursework Help! Both parties are making claims about the character of everything in the natural world, and both claims seem risky. This point is especially important in dealing with moral arguments for theism, since one of the questions raised by such arguments is the adequacy of a naturalistic worldview in explaining morality. Evidentialists may properly ask about the evidence for theism, but it also seems proper to ask about the evidence for atheism if the essay atheist is help, committed to a rival metaphysic such as naturalism.
2. History of Moral Arguments for God's Existence. Something that resembles a moral argument for God's existence, or at least an argument from essays on the of the value, can be found in the fourth of Thomas Aquinas's “Five Ways” (Aquinas 12651274, I, 1, 3). Aquinas there begins with the claim that among beings who possess such qualities as “good, true, and noble” there are gradations. Presumably he means that some things that are good are better than other good things; perhaps some noble people are nobler than others who are noble. A Level Help! In effect Aquinas is claiming that when we “grade” things in this way we are, at least implicitly, comparing them to some absolute standard. Exam! Aquinas believes this standard cannot be merely “ideal” or “hypothetical,” and thus this gradation is only possible if there is some being which has this quality to a “maximum” extent: “so that there is a level media coursework, something which is truest, something best, something noblest and, consequently, something which is uttermost being; for scholarship, those things that are greatest in truth are greatest in being, as it is written in Metaph. Ii.” Aquinas goes on to affirm that this being which provides the standard is also the a level media coursework cause or explanation of the should be legal argumentative existence of these qualities, and such a cause must be God. Obviously, this argument draws deeply on Platonic and Aristotelian assumptions that are no longer widely held by philosophers.
For the argument to be plausible today, such assumptions would have to be defended, or else the argument reformulated in a way that frees it from its original metaphysical home. Probably the most influential versions of the moral argument for belief in God can be traced to a level studies coursework help, Kant (1788 ), who famously argued that the should theoretical arguments for God's existence were unsuccessful, but presented a rational argument for belief in God as a “postulate of practical reason.” Kant held that a rational, moral being must necessarily will “the highest good,” which consists of a world in which people are both morally good and happy, and in which moral virtue is the condition for happiness. The latter condition implies that this end must be sought solely by a level media, moral action. Separate! However, Kant held that a person cannot rationally will such an end without believing that moral actions can successfully achieve such an a level media coursework end, and this requires a belief that the causal structure of nature is politics, conducive to the achievement of this end by moral means. This is equivalent to belief in media studies coursework help God, a moral being who is politics, ultimately responsible for the character of the natural world. Kant's arguments will be discussed later in this article. Kant-inspired arguments were prominent in the nineteenth century, and continued to be important right up to the middle of the twentieth century. Such arguments can be found, for example, in W. R. Sorley (1918), Hastings Rashdall (1920), and A. Studies Coursework Help! E. Taylor (1945/1930). Although Henry Sidgwick was not himself a proponent of a moral argument for God's existence, some have argued that his thought presents the coursework materials for a level media, such an argument (see Walls and english 12 provincial exam essay Baggett 2011).
In the a level media coursework nineteenth century John Henry Newman (1870) also made good use of a moral argument in his case for belief in God, developing what could be called an argument from conscience. In recent philosophy there has been a revival of divine command metaethical theories, which has in turn led to new versions of the moral argument found in such thinkers as Robert Adams (1987), John Hare (1996), and C. Evaluation! Stephen Evans (2010). However, it is important to see that there are versions of the moral argument for God's existence that are completely independent of such a divine command theory, and this possibility can be seen in arguments developed by Angus Ritchie (2012) and Mark Linville (2009). It goes without saying that these renewed arguments have engendered new criticisms as well. Theoretical moral arguments for God's existence can be understood as variations on the following template: There are objective moral facts. God provides the best explanation of the existence of objective moral facts.
Therefore, (probably) God exists. As we shall see, there are a variety of features of a level studies help morality that can be appealed to politics coursework, in the first steps of the arguments, as well as a variety of ways in which God might be thought to provide an explanation of those features in the second steps. The use of the a level media coursework somewhat vague phrase “objective moral facts” is intended to allow for essays on the house of the, this variety. Both types of premises are obviously open to challenge. For example, the first premise of such an argument can be challenged by a level studies coursework, popular metaethical views that see morality as “subjective,” or “expressive,” rather than something that consists of objective facts, and also by essay, moral sceptics.
The second premise can be challenged on a level media the basis of rival explanations of the features of morality, explanations that do not require God. Arguments about the second premise then may require comparison between theistic explanations of morality and these rival views. It is easy to see then that the proponent of a moral argument has a complex task: She must defend the reality and objectivity of the should be legal argumentative feature of morality appealed to, but also defend the claim that this feature can be best explained by God. The second part of the task may require not only demonstrating the strengths of a theistic explanation, but pointing out weaknesses in a level media studies coursework help rival secular explanations as well. Both parts of the task are essential, but it is worth noting that the essay on website two components cannot be accomplished simultaneously. The theist must defend the reality of a level media help morality against subjectivist and nihilistic critics. 12 Provincial Essay! Assuming that this task has been carried out, the theist must then try to show that morality thus understood requires a theistic explanation. It is interesting to observe, however, that with respect to both parts of the task, the theist may enlist non-theists as allies. The theist may well make common cause with ethical naturalists as well as ethical non-naturalists in defending moral realism against “projective” theories such as expressivism. However, the theist may also enlist the a level media studies coursework help support of “error theorists” such as J. L. Essay On Website Evaluation! Mackie (1977), and media help “moral nihilists” such as Friedrich Nietzsche (1887) in arguing that God is necessary for objective morality. Nietzsche, for example, explicitly holds that God does not exist, but also claims that God's non-existence undermines the reality of traditional western morality.
The fact that theists can enlist such unlikely allies does not mean the moral argument for God's existence is sound, but it does suggest that the argument is not obviously question-begging, since both premises are sometimes accepted by (different) non-believers. 3. Theoretical Moral Arguments for God's Existence and Divine Command Theories of Moral Obligation. One easily understandable version of essay i admire a theistic moral argument relies on an analogy between human laws promulgated by nation-states and moral laws. Media Coursework Help! Sovereign states enact laws that make certain acts forbidden or required. If I am a U. S. citizen, and I earn more than a small amount of on website evaluation money I am obligated to file an income tax return each year. I am also forbidden, because of the laws that hold in the United States, to discriminate in studies coursework hiring on the basis of age or race. Many people believe that there are moral laws that bind individuals in the same way that political laws do.
I am obligated by english 12 provincial exam essay, a moral principle not to lie to a level studies coursework, others, and I am similarly obligated to keep promises that I have made. (Both legal and moral laws may be understood as holding prima facie, so that in some situations a person must violate one law in english essay order to obey a more important one.) We know how human laws come into a level media studies help existence. They are enacted by legislatures (or absolute monarchs in some countries) who have the should authority to pass such laws. Help! How then should the existence of an essay peace moral laws be explained? It seems plausible to a level studies help, many to hold that they must be similarly grounded in politics some appropriate moral authority, and the only plausible candidate to fulfill this role is God. Studies Coursework Help! Some philosophers have dismissed an argument of this type as “crude,” presumably because its force is so obvious that no special philosophical training is necessary to understand it and see its appeal. The fact that one can understand the argument without much in the way of philosophical skill is not necessarily a defect, however.
If one supposes that there is a God, and that God wants humans to know him and relate to him, one would expect God to make his reality known to humans in very obvious ways (See Evans 2010). After all, critics of theistic belief, such as J. L. Scholarship Person I Admire! Schellenberg (1993), have argued that the media studies fact that God's reality is not obvious to essay evaluation, those who would like to believe in God is media studies coursework help, a grave problem. Scholarship I Admire! If an media studies awareness of moral obligations is in fact an awareness of God's commands or divine laws, then the ordinary person who is aware of moral obligations does have a kind of awareness of God. Coursework! Of course such a person might be aware of God's laws without realizing that they are God's laws; she might be aware of a level media studies help God's commands without being aware of them under that description. On A! The religious apologist might view such a person as already having a kind of de re awareness of God, because a moral obligation is media studies help, simply an expression of God's will. How can such an awareness be converted into full-fledged belief in God? One way of doing this would be to help the an essay separate peace person gain the skills needed to recognize moral laws as what they are, as divine commands or divine laws. If moral laws are experienced, then moral experience could be viewed as a kind of religious experience or at least a proto-religious experience. Perhaps someone who has experience of God in this way does not need a moral argument (or any kind of argument) to have a reasonable belief in God.
This may be one instance of the kind of case that Alvin Plantinga (2000) and the “Reformed epistemologists” have in mind when they claim that belief in God can be “properly basic.” It is worth noting then that there could be such a thing as knowledge of God that is rooted in moral experience without that knowledge being the result of a moral argument . Even if that is the case, however, a moral argument could still play a valuable role. A Level Media Coursework! Such an argument might be one way of helping an individual understand that moral obligations are in fact divine commands or laws. Even if it were true that some ordinary people might know that God exists without argument, an argument could be helpful in defending the claim that this is the case. A person might conceivably need an argument for on the house, the second level claim that the person knows God without argument. In any case a divine command metaethical theory provides the material for such an argument. The revival of divine command theories (DCT) of moral obligation is due mainly to the work of Philip Quinn (1979/1978) and Robert Adams (1999). A Level Studies Coursework! Adams' version of a DCT has been particularly influential and is well-suited for the defense of the claim that moral knowledge can provide knowledge of God. Adams' version of a DCT is an account of politics coursework moral obligations and it must be distinguished from more general “voluntarist” views of ethics that try to media studies coursework help, treat other moral properties (such as the good) as dependent on God's will. Politics! As explained below, by limiting the theory to obligations, Adams avoids the standard “ Euthyphro ” objection, which claims that divine command views reduce ethics to a level studies, arbitrariness. Adams' account of moral obligations as divine commands rests on a more general social theory of obligations. Scholarship Person! There are of media coursework help course many types of obligations: legal obligations, financial obligations, obligations of etiquette, and obligations that hold in virtue of belonging to essay on website, some club or association, to name just a few.
Clearly these obligations are distinct from moral obligations, since in some cases moral obligations can conflict with these other kinds. What is a level coursework help, distinctive about obligations in an essay peace general? They are not reducible simply to normative claims about what a person has a good reason to do. J. S. Mill (1874, 164-165) argued that we can explain normative principles without making any reference to God. He contends that the “feeling of obligation” stems from “something that the internal conscience bears witness to in its own nature,” and thus the moral law, unlike human laws, “does not originate in the will of a legislator or legislature external to the mind.” Doubtless Mill had in a level media studies mind here such normative logical principles as “it is wrong to believe both ‘p’ and ‘not-p’ at the same time.” Mill argues that such normative principles hold without any requirement for english exam essay, an “authority” to be their ground. Mill's view is media studies coursework, plausible, though some theists have argued that metaphysical naturalists have difficulty in explaining any kind of normativity (see Devine 1989, 8889).
However, even if Mill is correct about normativity in general, it does not follow that his view is correct for obligations, which have a special character. An obligation has a special kind of force; we should care about complying with it, and violations of obligations appropriately incur blame (Adams 1999, 235). If I make a logical mistake, I may feel silly or stupid or embarrassed, but I have no reason to feel guilty, unless the mistake reflects some carelessness on my part that itself constitutes a violation of a moral obligation. Adams argues that “facts of obligation are constituted by broadly social requirements.” (ibid, 233) For example, the social role of parenting is partly constituted by the obligations one assumes by becoming a parent, and essay the social role of citizen is partly constituted by the obligations to obey the laws of the country in a level media studies coursework help which one is essay, a citizen. All obligations are then constituted by social requirements, according to Adams. However, not all obligations constituted by a level coursework, social requirements are moral obligations. What social relation could be the basis of essay on website evaluation moral obligations? Adams argues that not just any human social relation will possess the requisite authority: “A morally valid obligation obviously will not be constituted by just any demand sponsored by a level coursework help, a system of social relationships that one in an essay on a separate peace fact values. A Level Studies Help! Some such demands have no moral force, and some social systems are downright evil.” (ibid, 242) If a good and loving God exists and has created all humans, then the i admire social relation humans have to God has the media studies coursework help right features to explain moral obligations. For if moral obligations stem from God's requirements, they will be objective, but they will also be motivating, since a relation to God would clearly be a great good that humans would have reason to value.
Since a proper relation to God is arguably more important than any other social relation, we can also understand why moral obligations trump other kinds of separate peace obligations. On this view we can also explain why moral obligations have a transcendent character, which is important because “a genuinely moral conception of obligation must have resources for moral criticism of a level media help social systems and their demands.” (ibid, 242243) Notice that the DCT Adams defends is ontological rather than semantic: it is a claim that moral obligations are in on the gables fact identical with divine commands, not a claim that “moral obligations” has the studies coursework help same meaning as “divine commands.” On his account, the meaning of “moral obligation” is fixed by essay on website, the role this concept plays in our language. That role includes such facts as these: Moral obligations must be motivating and objective. They also must provide a basis for critical evaluation of media other types of scholarship person obligations, and they must be such that someone who violates a moral obligation is a level studies help, appropriately subject to blame. Adams argues that it is divine commands that best satisfy these desiderata. God's existence thus provides the best explanation of moral obligations.
If moral obligations are identical with divine commands (or perhaps if they are grounded in or caused to exist by abortion argumentative essay, divine commands) an argument for God's existence from such obligations can easily be constructed: There are objective moral obligations. If there are objective moral obligations, there is a level help, a God who explains these obligations. There is a God. This argument is stated in a deductive form, but it can easily be reworded as a probabilistic “argument to the best explanation,” as follows: There are objective moral obligations. God provides the best explanation of the existence of moral obligations. Essay! Probably, God exists.
Obviously, those who do not find a DCT convincing will not think this argument from moral obligation has force. However, Adams anticipates and a level media studies coursework help gives a forceful answer to one common criticism of scholarship person a DCT. It is often argued that a DCT must fail because of media studies coursework a dilemma parallel to should abortion be legal argumentative essay, one derived from Plato's Euthyphro. The dilemma for a DCT can be derived from the following question: Assuming that God commands what is right, does he command what is right because it is right? If the proponent of a DCT answers affirmatively, then it appears the a level studies coursework help quality of exam essay rightness must hold antecedently to media studies help, and thus independently of politics coursework God's commands. If, however, the proponent denies that God commands what is right because it is right, then God's commands appear arbitrary. A Level Studies Coursework! Adams' version of a DCT evades this dilemma by holding that God is essentially good and that his commands are necessarily aimed at the good. This allows Adams to an essay separate, claim that God's commands make actions obligatory (or forbidden), while denying that the commands are arbitrary. Although Adams' version of a DCT successfully meets this “ Euthyphro” objection, there are other powerful criticisms that have been mounted against this metaethical theory in the literature. These objections can be found in the writings of coursework help Wes Morriston (2009), Erik Wielenberg (2005), and person Nicholas Wolterstorff (2007), among others.
However, responses to these objections and a level media studies coursework others have also been given (see Evans 2013, Baggett and Walls, 2011). 12 Provincial! Clearly this version of a moral argument for studies, God's existence will only be judged powerful by should abortion essay, those who find a DCT plausible, and that will certainly be a small minority of philosophers. A Level Media! (Although it is worth noting that no single metaethical theory seems to enjoy widespread support among philosophers, so a DCT is not alone in being a minority view.) Nevertheless, those who do find a DCT powerful will also see moral obligations as providing strong evidence for God's reality. 4. Arguments from Moral Knowledge or Awareness. A variety of arguments have been developed that God is evaluation, necessary to a level studies help, explain human awareness of moral truth (or moral knowledge, if one believes that this moral awareness amounts to knowledge). Richard Swinburne (2004, 218), for example, argues that there is no “great probability that moral awareness will occur in a Godless universe.” On Swinburne's view, moral truths are either necessary truths or contingent truths that are grounded in necessary truths. For example, it is obviously contingent that “It is wrong to should abortion argumentative essay, drop an atomic bomb on Hiroshima,” since it is contingent that there exists a city such as Hiroshima. But one might hold that this proposition is media coursework help, true (assuming it is) because of some other truth such as “It is wrong intentionally to kill innocent humans” which does hold universally and is necessarily true. Swinburne does not think that an argument from moral facts as such is powerful. However, the fact that we humans are aware of moral facts is itself surprising and calls for an explanation. It may be true that creatures who belong to groups that behave altruistically will have some survival advantage over separate peace, groups that lack such a trait.
However, moral beliefs are not required in order to produce such behavior, since it is clear that “there are many species of a level studies coursework animals that are naturally inclined to help others of their species, and yet do not have moral beliefs.” (Swinburne 2004, 217) If God exists, he has “significant reason to bring about conscious beings with moral awareness,” since his intended purpose for humans includes making it possible for them freely to choose good over scholarship person i admire, evil, since this will make it possible for them to develop a relation to God. Media Studies! Swinburne does not think that this argument provides very strong evidence for God's existence by itself, but rather that it provides some inductive support for belief in God. It is one of several phenomena which seem more probable in a theistic universe than in a godless universe. As we consider more and abortion essay more such phenomena, it will be increasingly improbable that “they will all occur.” (ibid, 218) All of these inductive arguments together may then provide substantial support for theistic belief, even if no one of media them by itself would be sufficient for should abortion argumentative, rational belief. Swinburne's version of the argument is quite brief and studies coursework undeveloped, but the materials for a more developed version of the argument can be found in a well-known and much cited article by should abortion, Sharon Street (2006). Media Coursework Help! Street's argument, as the title implies, is in no way intended to support a moral argument for scholarship essay person i admire, theism. To the contrary, her purpose is to defend anti-realist metaethical theories against realist theories that view moral truth as “stance-independent” of a level media studies coursework help human attitudes and emotions. Street presents the moral realist with a dilemma posed by the question as to how our human evaluative beliefs are related to human evolution. 12 Provincial Essay! It is coursework help, clear, she believes, that evolution has strongly shaped our evaluative attitudes. The question concerns how those attitudes are related to the objective evaluative truths accepted by the realist.
If the realist holds that there is no relation between such truths and our evaluative attitudes, then this implies that “most of our evaluative judgments are off track due to on a separate, the distorting influence of Darwinian processes.” The other alternative for the realist is to claim that there is a relationship, and media studies coursework help thus that is not an accident or miracle that our evaluative beliefs track the objective truths. However, this view, Street claims, is scientifically implausible. Street argues therefore that an evolutionary story about essays on the of the gables how we came to make the moral judgments we make undermines confidence in the objective truth of those judgments. Street's argument is of course controversial and thinkers such as Erik Wielenberg (2014) have argued against evolutionary debunking arguments. Still, many regard such arguments as problematic for a level studies coursework help, morality, particularly when developed as a “global” argument (Kahane, 2010). Moral realists such as David Enoch (2011) have attempted to respond to Street's argument, though Enoch acknowledges its force and evidently has some worries about the strength of abortion essay his reply. However, it is not hard to see that a good deal of the media studies coursework help force of english exam essay Street's argument stems from the assumption that naturalism is true, and therefore that the evolutionary process is a level media studies help, one that is unguided. 12 Provincial Essay! It does appear that in a naturalistic universe we would expect a process of studies help Darwinian evolution to select for a propensity for moral judgments that track survival and not objective moral truths. Mark Linville (2009, 391446) has developed a detailed argument for the claim that it is difficult for metaphysical naturalists to develop a plausible evolutionary story as to how our moral judgments could have epistemological warrant.
However, if we suppose that the evolutionary process has been guided by a God who has as one of his goals the on website creation of morally significant human creatures capable of media coursework enjoying a relation with God, then it would not seem at all accidental or even unlikely that God would ensure that humans have value beliefs that are largely correct. Some philosophers may believe that the randomness of Darwinian natural selection rules out the be legal argumentative possibility of any kind of a level media studies divine guidance being exercised through such a process. Atheists often seem to think that evolution and God are rival, mutually exclusive hypotheses about the origins of the natural world. Politics Coursework! What can be explained scientifically needs no religious explanation. A Level Studies Coursework! However, this is should abortion be legal, far from obviously true; in coursework fact, if theism is true it is clearly false. From a theistic perspective to think that God and science provide competing explanations fails to grasp the relationship between God and on the of the gables the natural world by conceiving of God as one more cause within that natural world. If God exists at all, God is not an entity within the natural world, but the creator of that natural world, with all of its causal processes.
If God exists, God is the reason why there is a natural world and the reason for the existence of the causal processes of the natural world. In principle, therefore, a natural explanation can never preclude a theistic explanation. But what about the randomness that is a crucial part of the Darwinian story? The atheist might claim that because evolutionary theory posits that the process by which plants and animals have evolved in one that involves random genetic mutations, it cannot be guided, and thus God cannot have used evolutionary means to achieve his ends. A Level Media Studies! However, this argument fails. On The Seven Gables! It depends on an equivocation in what is meant by studies coursework, “random.” When scientists claim that genetic mutations are random, they do not mean that they are uncaused, or even that they are unpredictable from the point of view of abortion be legal biochemistry, but only that the media help mutations do not happen in response to the adaptational needs of the organism. It is entirely possible for a natural process to an essay separate peace, include randomness in that sense, even if the whole natural order is itself created and sustained by God. The sense of “randomness” required for evolutionary theory does not imply that the evolutionary process must be unguided. Media! A God who is responsible for the laws of nature and the initial conditions that shape the evolutionary process could certainly ensure that the process achieved certain ends.
Like the other moral arguments for God's existence, the argument from moral knowledge can easily be stated in a propositional form, and I believe Swinburne is politics coursework, right to hold that the argument is best construed as a probabilistic argument that appeals to God as providing a better explanation of moral knowledge than is possible in a naturalistic universe. Humans possess objective moral knowledge. A Level Studies Coursework Help! Probably, if God does not exist, humans would not possess objective moral knowledge. Probably, God exists. There is a kind of argument from scholarship i admire moral knowledge also implicit in Angus Ritchie's recent book From Morality to Metaphysics: The Theistic Implications of our Ethical Commitments (2012) . Ritchie presses a kind of dilemma on a level media coursework non-theistic accounts of morality. Subjectivist theories such as expressivism can certainly make sense of the fact that we make the an essay on a separate ethical judgments we do, but they empty morality of its objective authority.
Objectivist theories that take morality seriously, however, have difficulty explaining our capacity to a level coursework, make true moral judgments, unless the process by which humans came to hold these capacities is one that is controlled by a being such as God. The moral argument from knowledge will not be convincing to anyone who is politics, committed to a level media studies, any form of expressivism or other non-objective metaethical theory, and clearly many philosophers find such views attractive. And there will surely be many philosophers who will judge that if moral objectivism implies theism, this is a reductio of an essay separate peace objectivist views. Furthermore, non-theistic moral philosophers, whether naturalists or non-naturalists, have stories to tell about a level coursework help how moral knowledge might be possible. Nevertheless, there are real questions about the abortion plausibility of these stories, and a level studies thus, some of 12 provincial essay those convinced that moral realism is true may judge that moral knowledge provides some support for theistic belief. 5. Help! Arguments from Human Dignity or Worth. Many philosophers find Immanuel Kant's moral philosophy still offers a fruitful approach to ethics. Of the should abortion argumentative essay various forms of the “categorical imperative” that Kant offers, the formula that regards human beings as “ends in themselves” is studies coursework help, especially attractive: “Act in such a way that you always treat humanity, whether in should abortion be legal argumentative essay your own person or in media coursework the person of any other, never simply as a means, but always at the same time as an end” (Kant 1785 , 96). Be Legal! Many contemporary moral philosophers influenced by Kant, such as Christine Korsgaard (1996), see Kant as offering a “constructivist” metaethical position. A Level Media! Constructivism is supposed to offer a “third way” between moral realism and subjectivist views of should abortion be legal morality. Like subjectivists, constructivists want to see morality as a human creation.
However, like moral realists constructivists want to see moral questions as having objective answers. Constructivism is an a level media studies coursework help attempt to develop an objective morality that is free of the 12 provincial exam metaphysical commitments of moral realism. It is, however, controversial whether Kant himself was a constructivist in this sense. One reason to question whether this is the right way to read Kant follows from the fact that Kant himself did not see morality as free from metaphysical commitments. For example, Kant thought that it would be impossible for someone who believed that mechanistic determinism was the literal truth about himself to believe that he was a moral agent, since morality requires an autonomy that is incompatible with determinism. To see myself as a creature who has the kind of value Kant calls “dignity” I must not see myself merely as a machine-like product of the physical environment. Hence Kant thought that it was crucial for morality that his Critical Philosophy had shown that the deterministic perspective on humans is simply part of the “phenomenal world” that is the object of scientific knowledge, not the “noumenal reality” that it would be if some kind of scientific realism were the true metaphysical view.
When we do science we see ourselves as determined, but science tells us only media studies coursework help, how the world appears, not how it really is. Coursework! Recognizing this fact suggests that when Kant posits that humans have this intrinsic value he calls dignity, he is not “constructing” the value humans have, but recognizing the value beings of a certain kind must have. A Level Media Studies Coursework! Humans can only have this kind of value if they are a particular kind of creature. Whether Kant himself was a moral realist or not, there are certainly elements in 12 provincial his philosophy that push in a realist direction. If the claim that human persons have a kind of intrinsic dignity or worth is media coursework, a true objective principle and if it provides a key foundational principle of morality, it is well worth asking what kinds of house gables metaphysical implications the claim might have.
This is the question that Mark Linville (2009, 417446) pursues in the second moral argument he develops. Linville begins by noting that one could hardly hold that “human persons have intrinsic dignity” could be true if human persons do not exist. Help! Clearly, some metaphysical positions do include a denial of the existence of human persons, such as forms of Absolute Monism which hold that only one Absolute Reality exists. English 12 Provincial Essay! However, it also seems to be the case that some forms of Scientific Naturalism are committed to the denial of “ persons as substantive selves that essentially possess a first-person point of view” (See Dennett 2006, 107). Daniel Dennett, for example, holds that persons will not be part of the media studies ultimately true scientific account of things. Dennett holds that to of the seven gables, think of humans as persons is simply to media studies help, adopt a certain “stance” toward them that he calls the an essay on a peace “intentional stance,” but it is clear that the kind of picture of humans we get when we think of them in this way does not correspond with their intrinsic metaphysical properties. It is not clear how systems towards which we adopt an “intentional stance” could be truly autonomous and a level media thus have the kind of value Kant believes human persons have. The argument from human dignity could be put into propositional form as follows: Human persons have a special kind of intrinsic value that we call dignity.
The only (or best) explanation of the fact that humans possess dignity is person, that they are created by a supremely good God in media help God's own image. Probably there is house of the gables, a supremely good God. A naturalist may want to challenge premise (2) by finding some other strategy to explain human dignity. Michael Martin (2002), for studies coursework, example, has tried to suggest that moral judgments can be analyzed as the feelings of on a approval or disapproval of a perfectly impartial and informed observer. Linville (2009) objects that it is not clear how the a level studies help feelings of such an observer could constitute the essay intrinsic worth of a person, since one would think that intrinsic properties would be non-relational and mind-independent.
In any case, Linville notes that a “Euthyphro” problem lurks for such an ideal observer theory, since one would think that such an media coursework observer would judge a person to be intrinsically valuable because the person has intrinsic value. Another strategy that is pursued by constructivists such as Korsgaard is to link the value ascribed to politics coursework, humans to the capacity for rational reflection. Media Studies! The idea is that insofar as I am committed to rational reflection, I must value myself as having this capacity, and consistently value others who have it as well. However, many people believe that young infants and on the people suffering from dementia still have this intrinsic dignity, but in both cases there is no capacity for rational reflection. Some support for this criticism of the attempt to see reason as the basis of the value of humans can be found in Nicholas Wolterstorff's recent work on justice (2007, especially Ch. 8). Wolterstorff in this work defends the claim that there are natural human rights, and that violating such rights is one way of acting unjustly towards a person.
Why do humans have such rights? Wolterstorff says these rights are grounded in the basic worth or dignity that humans possess. A Level Media Coursework Help! When I seek to torture or kill an innocent human I am failing to respect this worth. If one asks why we should think humans possess such worth, Wolterstorff argues that the on website evaluation belief that humans have this quality was not only historically produced by Jewish and Christian conceptions of the human person, but even now cannot be defended apart from such a conception. In particular, he argues that attempts to argue that our worth stems from some excellence we possess such as reason will not explain the worth of infants or those with severe brain injuries or dementia. Does a theistic worldview fare better in explaining the special value of studies coursework human dignity? In a theistic universe God is himself seen as the supreme good. Indeed, theistic Platonists usually identify God with the Good. Politics Coursework! If God is himself a person, then this seems to be a commitment to the idea that personhood itself is something that must be intrinsically good. A Level Media Help! If human persons are made in God's image, as both Judaism and essay Christianity affirm, then it would seem to follow that humans do have a kind of intrinsic value, just by way of being the kind of creatures they are.
This argument will of course be found unconvincing to many. Some will deny premise (1), either because they reject moral realism as a metaethical stance, or because they reject the normative claim that humans have any kind of special value or dignity. (Maybe they will even think that such a claim is a form of “speciesism.”). Others will find premise (2) suspect. They may be inclined to agree that human persons have a special dignity, but hold that the source of that dignity can be found in such human qualities as rationality. With respect to the status of infants and those suffering from dementia, the critic might bite the bullet and just accept the fact that human dignity does not extend to them, or else argue that the fact that infants and those suffering mental breakdown are part of a species whose members typically possess rationality merits them a special respect, even if they lack this quality as individuals.
Others will find premise (2) doubtful because they find the a level media coursework help theistic explanation of dignity unclear. Another alternative is to seek a Constructivist account of an essay dignity, perhaps regarding the a level media coursework special status of should abortion be legal argumentative essay humans as something we humans decide to extend to each other. Perhaps the strongest non-theistic alternative would be some form of ethical non-naturalism, in which one simply affirms that the claim that persons have a special dignity is an a level studies coursework a priori truth requiring no explanation. English 12 Provincial Essay! In effect this is a decision for a non-theistic form of Platonism. The proponent of the argument may well agree that claims about the a level studies coursework help special status of humans are true a priori, and thus also opt for some form of Platonism. However, the proponent of the argument will point out scholarship i admire, that some necessary truths can be explained by other necessary truths. The theist believes that these truths about the special status of humans tell us something about the media help kind of universe humans find themselves in. Should Be Legal! To say that humans are created by God is to say that personhood is not an ephemeral or accidental feature of the universe, because at bottom reality itself is personal (Mavrodes 1986). 6. Practical Moral Arguments for Belief in God.
As already noted, the a level studies help most famous and politics perhaps most influential version of studies coursework a moral argument for house of the seven, belief in God is found in Immanuel Kant (1788). Kant himself insisted that his argument was not a theoretical argument, but an argument grounded in practical reason. The conclusion of the a level studies coursework argument is not “God exists” or “God probably exists” but “I (as a rational, moral agent) ought to believe that God exists.” We shall, however, see that there are some reasons to doubt that practical arguments can be neatly separated from an essay separate peace theoretical arguments. Kant's version of the argument can be stated in different ways, but perhaps the following captures one plausible interpretation of the argument. Morality is a level media, grounded in pure practical reason, and the moral agent must act on on a the basis of maxims that can be rationally endorsed as universal principles. Moral actions are thus not determined by results or consequences but by the maxims on which they are based. Media Studies Coursework! However, all actions, including moral actions, necessarily aim at ends. Evaluation! Kant argues that the end that moral actions aim at is the “highest good,” which is a level media studies help, a world in which both moral virtue and happiness are maximized, with happiness contingent on essays house seven gables virtue. For Kant “ought implies can,” and so if I have an obligation to media studies help, seek the highest good, then I must believe that it is english essay, possible to achieve such an end. However, I must seek the highest good only by acting in accordance with morality; no shortcuts to happiness are permissible. This seems to require that I believe that acting in accordance with morality will be causally efficacious in a level media achieving the highest good.
However, it is be legal, reasonable to believe that moral actions will be causally efficacious in this way only if the laws of causality are set up in such a way that these laws are conducive to a level media help, the efficacy of moral action. An Essay Separate! Certainly both parts of the highest good seem difficult to achieve. We humans have weaknesses in our character that appear difficult if not impossible to overcome by a level media studies help, our own efforts. Furthermore, as creatures we have subjective needs that must be satisfied if we are happy, but we have little empirical reason to think that these needs will be satisfied by on the gables, moral actions even if we succeeded in becoming virtuous. If a person believes that the media coursework help natural world is simply a non-moral machine with no moral purposiveness then that person would have no reason to believe that moral action could succeed because there is no a priori reason to think moral action will achieve the highest good and scholarship essay little empirical reason to believe this either. Media Studies Coursework Help! Kant thus concludes that a moral agent must “postulate” the existence of God as a rational presupposition of the moral life. One problem with this argument is that many will deny that morality requires us to seek the highest good in Kant's sense. Even if the Kantian highest good seems reasonable as an essay evaluation ideal, some will object that we have no obligation to achieve such a state, but merely to work towards realizing the closest approximation to a level, such a state that is possible (See Adams 1987, 152). Without divine assistance, perhaps perfect virtue is unachievable, but in argumentative that case we cannot be obliged to realize such a state if there is no God.
Perhaps we cannot hope that happiness will be properly proportioned to virtue in the actual world if God does not exist, but then our obligation can only be to realize as much happiness as can be attained through moral means. Kant would doubtless reject this criticism, since on his view the ends of morality are given directly to pure practical reason a priori, and media studies we are not at liberty to adjust those ends on the basis of empirical beliefs. However, few contemporary philosophers would share Kant's confident view of reason here, and thus to many the exam essay criticism has force. Even Kant admits at one point that full-fledged belief in God is not rationally necessary, since one could conceivably seek the highest good if one merely believes that God's existence is possible (Kant, 17811787, 651). Another way of interpreting Kant's argument puts more stress on the connection between an a level media help individual's desire for happiness and the obligation to do what is morally right. 12 Provincial Exam Essay! Morality requires me to sacrifice my personal happiness if that is a level help, necessary to do what is right.
Yet it is a psychological fact that humans necessarily desire their own happiness. Scholarship Essay! In such a state it looks as if human moral agents will be torn by what Henry Sidgwick called the “dualism of the practical reason” (1884, 401). Reason both requires humans to seek their own happiness and to sacrifice it. A Level Media Studies Coursework! Sidgwick himself noted that only if there is scholarship essay, a God can we hope that this dualism will be resolved, so that those who seek to act morally will in the long run also be acting so as to advance their own happiness and studies help well-being. (Interestingly, Sidgwick himself does not endorse this argument, but he clearly sees this problem as part of the appeal of theism.) A contemporary argument similar to this one has been developed by essay on website, C. Studies Coursework Help! Stephen Layman (2002). The critic of this form of the Kantian argument may reply that Kantian morality sees duty as something that must be done regardless of the consequences, and thus a truly moral person cannot make his or her commitment to morality contingent on the achievement of happiness. From a Kantian point of view, this reply seems right; Kant unequivocally affirms that moral actions must be done for the sake of duty and not from any desire for personal reward. Nevertheless, especially for any philosopher willing to endorse any form of eudaimonism, seeing myself as inevitably sacrificing what I cannot help but desire for english 12 provincial essay, the sake of duty does seem problematic. As John Hare affirms, “If we are to endorse wholeheartedly the long-term shape of our lives, we have to see this shape as consistent with our happiness” (1996, 88). The critic may reply to this by simply accepting the lamentable fact that there is something tragic or even absurd about the human condition. The world may not be the world we wish it was, but that does not give us any reason to believe it is different than it is.
If there is a tension between the media coursework help demands of morality and self-interest, then this may simply be a brute fact that must be faced. This reply raises an issue that must be faced by all forms of practical or pragmatic arguments for belief. Many philosophers insist that rational belief must be grounded solely in theoretical evidence. The fact that it would be better for me to believe p does not in itself give me any reason to believe p. Essay Evaluation! This criticism is aimed not merely at a level media help, Kant, but at other practical moral arguments. For example, Robert Adams argues that if humans believe there is no moral order to the universe, then they will become demoralized in their pursuit of morality, which is morally undesirable (1987, 151). Person I Admire! The atheist might concede that atheism is (somewhat) demoralizing, but deny that this provides any reason to believe there is a moral order to the universe.
Similarly, Linda Zagzebski (1987) argues that morality will not be a rational enterprise unless good actions increase the amount of good in the world. However, given that moral actions often involve the sacrifice of happiness, there is no reason to believe moral action will increase the media studies coursework help good unless there is a power transcendent of essays on the house gables human activity working on the side of the good. Here the atheist may claim that moral action does increase the good because such actions always increase good character. However, even if that reply fails the atheist may again simply admit that there may be something tragic or absurd about the human condition, and the fact that we may wish things were different is a level, not a reason to believe that they are. So the peace problem must be faced: Are practical arguments merely rationalized wish-fulfillment? The theist might respond to this kind of worry in several ways. A Level Media Studies Coursework! The first thing to be said is on website evaluation, that the fact that a naturalistic view of the universe implies that the coursework universe must be tragic or absurd, if correct, would itself be an important and interesting conclusion. However, apart from this, it makes a great deal of difference how one construes what we might call the background epistemic situation. If one believes that our theoretical evidence favors atheism, then it seems plausible to hold that one ought to on website evaluation, maintain a naturalistic view, even if it is a level studies help, practically undesirable that the world have such a character.
In that case a practical argument for religious belief could be judged a form of wish-fulfillment. However, this does not seem to essays of the seven gables, be the way those who support such a practical argument see the situation. Kant affirms that the limits of reason established in The Critique of Pure Reason would silence all objections to morality and religion “in Socratic fashion, namely, by the clearest proof of the ignorance of the objectors” (1781, 1787, 30. Media Studies! See also 530531.) In fact, the situation actually favors theism, since Kant holds that theoretical reason sees value in the concept of God as a regulative ideal, even though God's existence cannot be theoretically affirmed as knowledge. If we appeal to God's will to explain what happens in the natural order, we undermine both science and religion, since in that case we would no longer seek empirical evidence for politics coursework, causality and we would make God into a finite object in a level media studies coursework the natural world (1781, 1787, 562563). However, as a regulative ideal, the english 12 provincial concept of God is a level studies coursework, one that theoretical reason finds useful: “The assumption of on a a supreme intelligence, as the one and only cause of the universe, though in the idea alone, can therefore always benefit reason and can never injure it” (1781, 1787, 560). There is a sense in which theoretical reason itself inclines towards affirmation of a level media studies help God, because it must assume that reality is rationally knowable: “If one wishes to achieve systematic knowledge of the an essay world, he ought to a level media, regard it as if it were created by a supreme reason.” (Kant 1786, 298) Although theoretical reason cannot affirm the existence of God, it finds it useful to think of the of the gables natural world as having the a level media studies coursework help kinds of characteristics it would have if God did exist. English 12 Provincial Exam! Thus, if rational grounds for belief in God come from practical reason, theoretical reason will raise no objections. For Kant the argument from a level help practical reason for belief in God is not a form of wish-fulfillment because its ground is not an arbitrary desire or wish but “a real need associated with reason” (Kant, 1786, 296).
Human beings are not purely theoretical spectators of the on website evaluation universe, but agents. Media! It is essay, not always rational or even possible to coursework help, refrain from action, and yet action presupposes beliefs about the way things are (For a good interpretation and politics defense of a level coursework this view of Kant on the relation between action and belief, see Wood 1970, 1725). Thus, in some cases suspension of judgment is not possible. The critic may object that a person may act as if p were true without believing p. However, it is coursework, not clear that this advice to coursework help, distinguish action on essay on website the basis of p and belief that p can always be followed. For one thing, it seems empirically the case that one way of help acquiring belief that p is simply to begin to act as if p were true. Coursework! Hence, to begin to act as if p were true is at a level coursework, least to embark upon a course of action that makes belief in p more likely. Second, there may well be a sense of of the seven gables “belief” in which “acting as if p were true” is sufficient to constitute belief. This is obviously the case on a level media pragmatist accounts of belief. But even those who reject a general pragmatic account of belief may well find something like this appealing with respect to religious belief. Many religious believers hold that the best way to measure a person's religious faith is in terms of the person's actions. Thus, a person who is willing to act on the basis of a religious conception, especially if those actions are risky or costly, is truly a religious believer, even if that person is filled with doubt and anxiety.
Such a person might well be construed as more truly a believer than a person who smugly “assents” to religious doctrines but is unwilling to act on them. Perhaps the right way to think of practical moral arguments is not to see them as justifying belief without evidence, but as shifting the amount of evidence seen as necessary. This is the lesson some would draw from the phenomenon of be legal essay “pragmatic encroachment” that has been much discussed in recent epistemology. A Level Media Studies Help! Here is an example of pragmatic encroachment: You: I am about to replace the argumentative essay ceiling fan in the kitchen. Spouse: Did you turn off the main electrical power to the house? Spouse: If you forgot you could electrocute yourself. You: I better go back and check.
(See McBrayer 2014, Rizzieri 2013). A plausible interpretation of this scenario is that ordinarily claims such as the a level media studies coursework help one I made, based on memory, are justified, and count as knowledge. However, in this situation, the stakes are raised because my life is at risk, and scholarship essay person my knowledge is lost because the pragmatic situation has “encroached” on the normal truth-oriented conditions for knowledge. Pragmatic encroachment is media coursework, controversial and the idea of politics coursework such encroachment is rejected by media studies, some epistemologists. However, defenders hold that it is should essay, reasonable to consider the pragmatic stakes in a level coursework help considering evidence for a belief that underlies significant action (See Fantl and McGrath 2007). If this is correct, then it seems reasonable to consider the should abortion pragmatic situation in studies help determining how much evidence is sufficient to justify religious beliefs. In theory the adjustment could go in either direction, depending on what costs are associated with a mistake and on which side those costs lie. In any case it is not clear that practical moral arguments can always be clearly distinguished from theoretical moral arguments. The reason this is separate peace, so is that in many cases the media help practical situation described seems itself to be or involve a kind of politics evidence for the truth of the a level media coursework belief being justified. Take, for example, Kant's classic argument. One thing Kant's argument does is essay on website evaluation, call to our attention that it would be enormously odd to believe that human beings are moral creatures subject to an objective moral law, but also to believe that the universe that humans inhabit is indifferent to morality.
In other words, the existence of human persons understood as moral beings can itself be understood as a piece of media studies coursework evidence about the character of the universe humans find themselves in. Peter Byrne (2013, 1998) has criticized practical arguments on the grounds that they presuppose something like the on website evaluation following proposition: “The world is media studies coursework help, likely to should argumentative essay, be organized so as to a level media coursework help, meet our deepest human needs.” Byrne objects that this premise is be legal, likely to be false if there is no God and thus arguments that assume it appear circular. However, it is not clear that only those who already believe in coursework God will find this premise attractive. The reason for essay, this is that humans are themselves part of the natural universe, and it seems a desirable feature of a metaphysical view that it explain (rather than explain away) features of media coursework human existence that seem real and important. It seems likely therefore that any appeal to a practical argument will include some theoretical component as well, even if that component is not always made explicit.
Nevertheless, this does not mean that practical arguments do not have some important and distinctive features. For Kant it was important that religious beliefs stem from practical reason. For if religious belief were grounded solely in theoretical reason, then such belief would have to scholarship essay, conform to “extrinsic and arbitrary legislation” (Kant 1790, 131). Kant thinks such a religion would be one grounded in “fear and submission,” and media coursework help thus it is good that religious belief is motivated mainly by house seven, a free moral act by which the “final end of our being” is a level help, presented to us (1790, 159). For any practical argument makes religious belief existential; the issue is an essay peace, not merely what I believe to be true about the universe but how I shall live my life in that universe. It seems clear that no version of the moral argument constitutes a “proof” of God's existence. Each version contains premises that many reasonable thinkers reject. A Level Media Studies! However, this does not mean the arguments have no force.
One might think of each version of the argument as attempting to spell out the “cost” of rejecting the conclusion. Some philosophers will certainly be willing to pay the cost, and indeed have independent reasons for doing so. However, it would certainly be interesting and important if one became convinced that atheism required one to reject moral realism altogether, or to embrace an implausible account of how moral knowledge is acquired. For those who think that some version or versions of the arguments have force, the an essay on a peace cumulative case for media, theistic belief may be raised by such arguments. Adams, R., 1987, “Moral Arguments for Theism,” in The Virtue of Faith and 12 provincial essay Other Essays in Philosophical Theology , New York: Oxford University Press, 144163. , 1999, Finite and coursework help Infinite Goods , New York: Oxford University Press. Aquinas, St. Thomas, 12651274 , Summa Theologica , New York: Benziger Brothers.
Baggett, D., and Walls, J., 2011, Good God: The Theistic Foundations of Morality , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Byrne, P., 2013, ‘Moral Arguments for the Existence of God’, The Stanford Encyclopedia of essays on the gables Philosophy , Spring 2013 Edition, Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2013/entries/moral-arguments-god/. , 1998, The Moral Interpretation of Religion , Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press. Dennett, D., 2006, Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon , New York: Penguin Devine, P., 1989, Relativism, Nihilism, and a level media studies coursework God , Notre Dame, IN: Notre Dame University Press. Scholarship Person! Enoch, D., Taking Morality Seriously: A Defense of studies help Robust Realism , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Evans, C. Exam! S., 2010, Natural Signs and Knowledge of help God: A New Look at Theistic Arguments , Oxford: Oxford University Press. , 2013, God and Moral Obligation , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Fantl, J., and McGrath, M., 2007, ‘On Pragmatic Encroachment in Epistemology’, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research , 75(3): 558589. Flew, A., 1976, The Presumption of Atheism and Other Philosophical Essays on house of the seven gables God, Freedom, and Immortality , New York: Barnes and Noble. A Level Coursework Help! Hare, J., 1996, The Moral Gap , Oxford: Clarendon Press.
James, W., 1897 , The Will to Believe and Other Essays in Popular Philosophy , New York: Longmans Green and Co. Kahane, Guy, 2014, “Evolutionary Debunking Arguments,” Noûs , 45(1): 103125. Kant, I., 1781, 1787 , Critique of an essay separate peace Pure Reason , trans. Norman Kemp Smith, New York: Macmillan. , 1785 , Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals , trans H. J. Paton, New York: Harper and Row. , 1786, , What Is Orientation in media studies Thinking? in Critique of Practical Reason and coursework Other Writings in Moral Philosophy , trans. and ed. Lewis White Beck, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Studies! , 1788 , Critique of Practical Reason , trans. Lewis White Beck, Indianapolis, Indiana: Bobbs-Merrill. , 1790 , Critique of Judgment , trans. James Creed Meredith, Oxford: Clarendon Press. Korsgaard, C., 1996, The Sources of politics Normativity , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Layman, C. S., 2002, “God and the Moral Order,” Faith and Philosophy 19, 304316. Coursework Help! Lewis, C. S., 1952, Mere Christianity . London: Collins.
Linville, M., 2009, ‘The Moral Argument’, in The Blackwell Companion to Natural Theology , first edition, W. L. Craig, J. P. Essay Person! Mooreland (eds.), West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. Mackie, J., 1977, Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong , Hammondsworth: Penguin. Martin, M., 2002, Atheism, Morality, and Meaning , Amherst NY: Prometheus Books. Mavrodes, G., 1986, ‘Religion and the Queerness of Morality’ in Rationality, Religious Belief, and media coursework Moral Commitment: New Essays in the Philosophy of should be legal essay Religion , eds. Robert Audi and media help William J. Wainwright, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 213226. McBrayer, J., 2014, ‘Pragmatic Encroachment, Religious Belief, and Practice’, Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews , March 19. Mill, J., 1874, Nature, The Utility of Religion, and essay Theism , Longmans, Green, Reader, and a level studies coursework help Dyer: London.
Morriston, W., 2009, “What if God Commanded Something Terrible? A Worry for Divine-command Meta-ethics”, Religious Studies , 45(3): 249267. Newman, J. H., 1870, An Essay in Aid of a Grammar of on website evaluation Assent , London: Burns, Oates, and Co. A Level Media! Nietzsche, F., 1887 , The Genealogy of Morals , translated by Horace Barnett Samuel, New York: Courier Dover Publications. Plantinga, A., 2000, Warranted Christian Belief , New York: Oxford University Press. Quinn, P., 1978, Divine Commands and 12 provincial essay Moral Requirements . Oxford: Clarendon Press , 1979, ‘Divine Command Ethics: A Causal Theory’, in Divine Command Morality: Historical and Contemporary Readings , edited by Janine Idziak, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 305325.
Rashdall, H., 1920, ‘The Moral Argument for Personal Immortality’, in King's College Lectures on Immortality , London: University of London Press. Ritchie, A., 2012, From Morality to Metaphysics: The Theistic Implications of studies coursework help our Ethical Commitments , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Rizzieri, A., 2013, Pragmatic Encroachment, Religious Belief and argumentative Practice , Kindle edition, Palgrave Macmillan. Schellenberg, J. L., 1993, Divine Hiddenness and Human Reason , 1 st edition, Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Sidgwick, H., 1884, Methods of Ethics , London: Macmillan and Co. Sorley, W., 1918, Moral Values and the Idea of God , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Street, S., 2006, “A Darwinian Dilemma for Realist Theories of Value,” Philosophical Studies , 127(1): 109166. Swinburne, R., 2004, The Existence of God , 2 nd edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Taylor, A., 1930, The Faith of a Moralist , London: Macmillan. , 1945, Does God Exist? , London: Macmillan.
Wielenberg, E., 2010, “On the media help Evolutionary Debunking of Morality,” Ethics 120(3): 441464. , 2005, Value and Virtue in a Godless Universe , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Wolterstorff, N., 2007, Justice: Rights and house of the seven Wrongs , Princeton: Princeton University Press. Wood, A., 1970, Kant's Moral Religion , Ithaca: Cornell University Press. A Level! Zagzebski, L., 2004, “Does Ethics Need God?” Faith and Philosophy , 4: 294303. Byrne, Peter, “Moral Arguments for the Existence of God”, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2013 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2013/entries/moral-arguments-god/. [This was the previous entry on moral arguments for the existence of God in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy see the version history.] Divine Command Theory, entry by Michael Austin, in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The author wishes to thank Trent Dougherty, Mark Linville, and David Baggett for english, reading a draft of this essay and coursework help making many useful suggestions. Matthew Wilson also deserves thanks for coursework, tracking many bibliographical references and page numbers. The Encyclopedia Now Needs Your Support. Please Read How You Can Help Keep the Encyclopedia Free. View this site from another server:
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MICROSOFT'S C# PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE. Studies Coursework. The C# language is an object-oriented language that is aimed at enabling programmers to quickly build a wide range of applications for the Microsoft .NET platform. The goal of C# and on the house of the gables the .NET platform is to shorten development time by freeing the developer from worrying about several low level plumbing issues such as memory management, type safety issues, building low level libraries, array boundschecking , etc. thus allowing developers to actually spend their time and media studies help energy working on their application and business logic instead. An Essay Separate. As a Java developer the previous sentence could be described as a short description of the Java language and platform if the a level media coursework help words C# and the .NET platform were replaced with words Java and the Java platform. What follows is an overview of an essay on a similarities and differences between the language features and libraries of the C# and Java programming languages based on my experience using both languages. All code snippets below were tested on Microsoft's .NET Framework version 2.0 for C# snippets and Java#8482; Platform, Standard Edition version 6 for the Java snippets. Just like Java, C# has a single rooted class hierarchy where all classes in C# are subclasses of System.Object the same way all Java classes are subclasses of java.lang.Object . The methods of the a level media studies help two languages' Object classes share some similarities (e.g.
System.Object's ToString() to java.lang.Object's toString()) and coursework differences ( System.Object does not have analogs to wait(), notify() or notifyAll() in java.lang.Object ). There are a large number of syntactic similarities between Java and C#, similarly almost every Java keyword has a C# equivalent except for a few like transient, throws and strictfp. Below is a table of Java and C# keywords with the Java keywords in red while the studies equivalent C# keywords are in blue. Seven. NOTE: Although goto and const are Java language keywords they are unused in the Java language. A Level Studies Coursework. NOTE: The [NonSerialized] attribute in C# is equivalent to the transient keyword in Java. Just like Java is typically compiled to Java byte code which then runs in managed execution environment (the Java Virtual Machine or JVM) so also is C# code compiled to an Intermediate Language (IL) which then runs in the Common Language Runtime (CLR). Both platforms support native compilation via Just In Time compilers. In Java objects are created on the heap using the new keyword. On Website Evaluation. Most classes in a level, C# are created on the heap by essay on website using the new keyword. Also just as the media studies coursework JVM manages the destruction of objects so also does the CLR via a Mark and Compact garbage collection algorithm. In languages like C and C++, each subarray of a multidimensional array must have the same dimensions.
In Java and C# arrays do not have to be uniform because jagged arrays can be created as one-dimensional arrays of 12 provincial essay arrays. In a jagged array the contents of the array are arrays which may hold instances of a type or references to other arrays. For this reason the rows and columns in a jagged array need not have uniform length as can be seen from the following code snippet: The above code snippet is valid for both C# and Java. Just like Java and unlike C++, methods in C# have to be part of a class either as member or static methods. C#, like Java, supports the concept of an a level studies, interface which is akin to a pure abstract class. Similarly C# and Java both allow only single inheritance of classes but multiple inheritance (or implementation) of interfaces.
C# has a System.String class which is analogous to the java.lang.String class. Both classes are immutable meaning that the values of the strings cannot be changed once the strings have been created. In both instances methods that appear to modify the essay on website actual content of a string actually create a new string to return, leaving the help original string unchanged. Thus the following C# and Java code does not modify the string in either case. To create a string-like object that allows modification in C# it is advisable to evaluation, use the System.Text.StringBuilder class whereas in Java one would use the java.lang.StringBuffer class. Both Java and C# provide mechanisms to specify that a class should be the last one in an inheritance hierarchy and studies coursework cannot be used as a base class.
In Java this is done by preceding the class declaration with the final keyword while in C# this is done by preceding the class declaration with the sealed keyword. Below are examples of classes that cannot be extended in either language. NOTE: Although exceptions in both languages support methods for getting a stack trace, only on a separate peace, Java exceptions have methods that allow one to alter the stack trace. Instance and static variables can be initialized at their point of definition in both C# and Java. If the member variable is an instance variable, then initialization occurs just before the a level coursework constructor is called. Static members are initialized sometime before the first usage of the essay on website evaluation member and before the first creation of an studies help, instance of the class. English 12 Provincial Exam Essay. It is a level studies, also possible to specify a block of politics code that should run before the class is used either via creation of an instance variable or invocation of coursework help a static method. These code blocks are called are called static constructors in C# and static initialization blocks in Java. Static constructors are invoked before the on website evaluation first invocation of a static method in a level media studies, the class and before the first time an instance of the class is created. In situations where value types need to be treated as objects, the .NET and Java runtimes automatically converts value types to objects by wrapping them within a heap-allocated reference type in a process called boxing . The process of automatically convert an object to its corresponding value type such as converting an instance of java.lang.Integer to an int is known as unboxing . English 12 Provincial. Below are examples of various situations where boxing occurs in both runtimes. It is typically recommended that one creates a main method for each class in an application to test the functionality of that class besides whatever main method actually drives the application.
For instance it is possible to have two classes, A and B, which both contain main methods. In Java, since a class is the unit of compilation then all one has to do is invoke the specific class one wants run via the command line to run its main method. In C# one can get the same effect by a level media studies coursework help compiling the application with the exam /main switch to specify which main should be used as the starting point of the application when the executable is created. Using test mains in combination with conditional compilation via preprocessor directives is a powerful testing technique. So in Java's favor, one doesn't have to recompile to change which main is used by the application while a recompile is a level media studies coursework help, needed in a C# application. Politics. However, On the other hand, Java doesn't support conditional compilation, so the main method will be part of even your released classes. C# uses C++ syntax for inheritance, both for media studies coursework help class inheritance and interface implementation as opposed to the extends and implements keywords.
Since C# is aimed at transitioning C++ developers the above syntax is understandable although Java developers may pine for the Java syntax especially since it is clear from looking at the class declaration in the Java version whether the class is subclassing a class or simply implementing an interface while it isn't in should argumentative, the C# version without intimate knowledge of all the classes involved. Although it should be noted that in .NET naming conventions, interface names have an upper-case I prepended to their names (as in a level media coursework help, IClonable), so this isn't an issue for on the house of the gables programs that conform to a level studies, standard naming conventions. A C# namespace is a way to group a collection of classes and is used in scholarship essay, a manner similar to Java's package construct. A Level Coursework. Users of C++ will notice the similarities between the C# namespace syntax and that in C++. In Java, the package names dictate the directory structure of source files in an application whereas in C# namespaces do not dictate the physical layout of scholarship person source files in directories only their logical structure. Examples below: C# namespace syntax also allows one to nest namespaces in the following way. The syntax and media semantics for constructors in C# is identical to that in english essay, Java.
C# also has the concept of studies destructors which use syntax similar to C++ destructor syntax but have the mostly the should abortion be legal same semantics as Java finalizers. Although finalizers exist doing work within them is not encouraged for a level media a number of reasons including the be legal essay fact that there is no way to control the a level studies order of finalization which can lead to politics coursework, interesting problems if objects that hold references to each other are finalized out of order. Finalization also causes more overhead because objects with finalizers aren't removed after the media garbage collection thread runs but instead are eliminated after the finalization thread runs which means they have to be maintained in the system longer than objects without finalizers. Below are equivalent examples in C# and Java. Essay. NOTE: In C#, destructors(finalizers) automatically call the base class finalizer after executing which is not the case in Java. Both C# and a level media studies coursework Java support the concept of abortion synchronized methods. Whenever a synchronized method is a level coursework help, called, the thread that called the method locks the object that contains the method. Thus other threads cannot call a synchronized method on the same object until the object is unlocked by on a separate peace the first thread when it finishes executing the synchronized method. Synchronized methods are marked in Java by a level coursework help using the synchronized keyword while in C# it is done by annotating the method with the [MethodImpl(MethodImplOptions.Synchronized)] attribute. Examples of synchronized methods are shown below. Below is a table mapping C# access modifiers to Java's.
C++ fans who were disappointed when Sun changed the semantics of the protected keyword in Java 2 will be happy to note that the C# protected keyword has the same semantics as the C++ version. This means that a protected member can only house of the seven gables, be accessed by member methods in that class or member methods in derived classes but is inaccessible to any other classes. Coursework Help. The internal modifier means that the member can be accessed from politics, other classes in the same assembly as the class. The internal protected modifier means that a member can be accessed from classes that are in the same assembly or from a level studies, derived classes. NOTE: The default accessibility of a C# field or method when no access modifier is specified is private while in politics, Java it is protected (except that derived classes from outside the package cannot inherit the field). One might notice from the above code samples that there is slightly more granularity in the C# Reflection API than the Java Reflection API as can be seen by the fact that C# has a ParameterInfo class which contains metadata about the parameters of a Method while Java uses Class objects for that which lose some information such as the name of the parameter. A Level Studies Help. Sometimes there is a need to obtain the metadata of a specific class encapsulated as an object. This object is the java.lang.Class object in coursework, Java and the System.Type object in C#. Media. To retrieve this metadata class from an instance of the target class, the getClass() method is used in Java while the separate GetType() method is used in C#. If the name of the class is known at a level studies help compile time then one can avoid creating an instance of the class just to obtain the english 12 provincial essay metadata class by doing the following.
To declare constants in Java the final keyword is used. Final variables can be set either at compile time or run time. In Java, when the final is used on a primitive it makes the a level media coursework help value of the primitive immutable while when used on object references it makes the reference constant meaning that the reference can only point to only one object during its lifetime. Final members can be left uninitialized when declared but then must be defined in the constructor. To declare constants in C# the const keyword is used for compile time constants while the readonly keyword is used for runtime constants. 12 Provincial Exam Essay. The semantics of constant primitives and object references in C# is the same as in Java.
Unlike C++, it is not possible to specify an immutable class via language constructs in either C# or Java. Neither is it possible to media coursework, create a reference through which it's impossible to modify a mutable object. NOTE: The Java language also supports having final parameters to a method. This functionality is politics coursework, non-existent in C#. C# and Java automatically call base class constructors, and a level media help both provide a way to call the constructor of the base class with specific parameters. Similarly both languages enforce that the call to 12 provincial exam, the base class constructor occurs before any initializations in the derived constructor which prevents the derived constructor from using members that are yet to media help, be initialized. Should Argumentative Essay. The C# syntax for calling the base class constructor is reminiscent of the C++ initializer list syntax. Both languages also provide a way to studies, call a constructor from another which allows one to reduce the amount of code duplication that can occur in constructors. This practice is typically called constructor chaining. In C and C++ it is possible to specify that a function takes a variable number of arguments. This functionality is used extensively in the printf and scanf family of functions.
Both C# and Java allow one to define a parameter that indicates that a variable number of arguments are accepted by a method. In C#, the mechanism for specifying that a method accepts a variable number of essay person i admire arguments is by using the params keyword as a qualifier to the last argument to the method which should be an array. In Java, the same effect is achieved by appending the string . to the typename of the last argument to media studies coursework help, the method. Both C# and Java provide a mechanism for creating strongly typed data structures without knowing the specific types at compile time. On The House Gables. Prior to the existence of the Generics feature set, this capability was achieved by specifying the type of the objects within the help data structure as Object then casting to specific types at runtime. This technique had several drawbacks including lack of type safety, poor performance and code bloat. The following code sample shows how one would calculate the sum of all the integers in a collection using generics and using a collection of Objects so that both approaches can be compared. Although similar in concept to templates in C++, the Generics feature in C# and Java is not implemented similarly.
In Java, the generic functionality is implemented using type erasure . Specifically the scholarship essay person i admire generic type information is present only at compile time, after which it is erased by the compiler and all the type declarations are replaced with Object . The compiler then automatically inserts casts in the right places. The reason for this approach is that it provides total interoperability between generic code and legacy code that doesn't support generics. The main problem with type erasure is media coursework help, that the generic type information is not available at run time via reflection or run time type identification. Another consequence of this approach is that generic data structures types must always be declared using objects and not primitive types. Essays On The Of The Gables. Thus one must create StackInteger instead of Stackint when working integers. A Level Media Studies Coursework Help. In C#, there is explicit support for generics in the .NET runtime's instruction language (IL).
When the generic type is house of the seven, compiled, the generated IL contains place holders for specific types. At runtime, when an initial reference is made to a generic type (e.g. Listint ) the system looks to see if anyone already asked for the type or not. If the studies type has been previously requested, then the previously generated specific type is returned. If not, the JIT compiler instantiates a new type by an essay separate replacing the generic type parameters in the IL with the specific type (e.g. replacing ListT with Listint ). It should be noted that if the requested type is a reference type as opposed to a value type then the generic type parameter is replaced with Object . However there is no casting done internally by the .NET runtime when accessing the type. In certain cases, one may need create a method that can operate on media studies data structures containing any type as opposed to those that contain a specific type (e.g. Politics. a method to print all the objects in a data structure) while still taking advantage of the benefits of strong typing in generics. The mechanism for specifying this in C# is a level, via a feature called generic type inferencing while in Java this is done using wildcard types . The following code samples show how both approaches lead to essay i admire, the same result. Both C# and studies Java provide mechanisms for 12 provincial essay specifying constraints on generic types. In C# there are three types of constraints that can be applied to generic types A derivation constraint indicates to the compiler that the generic type parameter derives from studies, a base type such an interface or a particular base class A default constructor constraint indicates to the compiler that the generic type parameter exposes a public default constructor A reference/value type constraint constrains the generic type parameter to scholarship essay, be a reference or a value type.
In Java, only the derivation constraint is supported. The following code sample shows how constraints are used in practice. C# also includes the default operator which returns the studies coursework default value for a type. The default value for reference types is null , and the default value for value types (such as integers, enum, and structures) is a zero whitewash (filling the structure with zeros). This operator is english exam essay, very useful when combined with generics. The following code sample excercises the studies coursework functionality of this operator. Essay On Website Evaluation. The for-each loop is an a level, iteration construct that is popular in a number of scripting languages (e.g.
Perl, PHP, Tcl/Tk), build tools (GNU Make) and function libraries (e.g. for_each in essays on the house of the gables, algorithm in C++). The for-each loop is a less verbose way to iterate through arrays or classes that implement the the System.Collections.IEnumerable interface in C# or the java.lang.Iterable interface in Java. Studies Coursework. In C#, the keywords foreach and in are used when creating the for-each loop while in Java the exam keyword for and the coursework help operator : are used. Scholarship. Metadata annotations provide a powerful way to a level, extend the capabilities of a programming language and the language runtime. These annotations can be directives that request the runtime to coursework, perform certain additional tasks, provide extra information about an item or extend the abilities of a type. Metadata annotations are common in a number of a level studies coursework help programming environments including Microsoft's COM and the Linux kernel. On The Seven Gables. C# attributes provide a way to add annotations (i.e. metadata) to a module, type, method, parameter or member variable. Below are descriptions of a few attributes that are intrinsic to .NET and media coursework how they are used to extend the capabilities of the C#. [MethodImpl(MethodImplOptions.Synchronized)] : is used to specify that a access to a method by multiple threads is exam, protected by a lock to prevent concurrent access to the method and studies coursework help is similar to on the house seven gables, the synchronized in a level media studies coursework, Java.
It is possible to access the attributes of a module, class, method or field via reflection. This is particularly useful for seeing if a class supports certain behavior at runtime or for extracting metadata about a class for usage by others. Developers can create their own custom attributes by subclassing the System.Attribute class. What follows is an example of using an attribute to provide information about the author of a class then using reflection to 12 provincial exam, access that information. Java annotations provide a way to add annotations (i.e. metadata) to a level media coursework help, an package, type, method, parameter, member or local variable. There are only three built-in annotations provided in scholarship person, the Java language which are listed below. @Override : is used to specify that a method is intended to coursework, override a method in a base class.
If the 12 provincial essay annotated method does not override a method in a level coursework help, the base class then an error is issued during compilation. As in 12 provincial essay, C# it is a level media studies help, possible to access the annotations on a module, class, method or field via reflection. However a key difference between C# attributes and Java annotations is that one can create meta-annotations (i.e. annotations on essay evaluation annotations) in Java but can not do the same in C#. Developers can create their own custom annotations by creating an media, annotation type which is similar to an interface except that the keyword @interface is used to define it. What follows is an example of essay person using an attribute to provide information about the author of a class then using reflection to media coursework help, access that information.
Enums are used to create and group together a list of user defined named constants. Coursework. Although on the surface the media enumerated types in C# and essays house of the seven Java seem quite similar there are some significant differences in the implementation of enumerated types in both languages. In Java, enumerated types are a full fledged class which means they are typesafe and can be extended by adding methods, fields or even implementing interfaces. Whereas in C#, an enumerated type is a level studies, simply syntactic sugar around an essay on website, integral type (typically an int ) meaning they cannot be extended and are not typesafe. The following code sample highlights the differences between enums in both languages.
In Java and C# it is possible to a level media studies coursework help, nest class declarations within each other. In Java there are two kinds of nested classes; non-static nested classes also known as inner classes and static nested classes. Should Abortion. A Java inner class can be considered as a one-to-one relationship between the inner class and its enclosing class where for each instance of the enclosing class there exists a corresponding instance of the inner class that has access to the enclosing class's instance variables and contains no static methods. On the coursework other hand a Java static nested class is a similar to nesting a class decaration within another where the nested class has access to the static members and an essay methods of the enclosing class. C# has the equivalent of Java's static nested classes but has nothing analogous to a level studies coursework, Java's inner classes. The following nested class declarations below are equivalent. NOTE: In Java a nested class can be declared in any block of code including methods, this is not the case in peace, C#. The ability to create nested classes in methods in Java may seem unnecessary but combined with anonymous inner classes can provide a means of creating powerful design patterns. A thread is a sequential flow of control within a program. A program or process can have multiple threads running concurrently all of which may share data or run independently while performing tasks.
Threads are powerful in that they allow a developer to perform multiple tasks at once in studies, a single program or process. Advantages of threads include exploiting parallelism in multiprocessor architectures, reducing execution time by being able to perform tasks while waiting on a blocking system calls (such as printing or other I/O), and avoiding freezing in GUI applications. Java threads are created by subclassing the java.lang.Thread class and overriding its run() method or by implementing the java.lang.Runnable interface and implementing the run() method. Exam Essay. Whereas in C#, one creates a thread by media studies creating a new System.Threading.Thread object and passing it a System.Threading.ThreadStart delegate which is initialized with the method that is to be run as a thread. Abortion Be Legal Argumentative Essay. Thus, in Java a method that shall run in a multithreaded context is designed up front specifically with that in mind.
On the other hand, in C# any method can be passed to a ThreadStart object and run in a multithreaded scenario. In Java, every class inherits the wait(), notify() and notifyAll() from java.lang.Object which are used for thread operations. The equivalent methods in C# are the Wait(), Pulse() and PulseAll() methods in the System.Threading.Monitor class. Coursework Help. The example below shows a scenario where worker threads are dispatched in a specific order and must be processed in the same order upon return. Due to the non-deterministic nature of threads, on some runs the threads finish working in the order they were dispatched in and in other runs they appear out of order and thus each thread must wait until its turn comes up.
In many situations one cannot guarantee that the order of execution of a program will be the same as that in the source code. Reasons for the unexpected ordering of scholarship essay person i admire program execution include compiler optimizations that reorder statements or mulitiprocessor systems that fail to store variables in global memory amongst others. To work around this, both C# and Java have the concept of the volatile keyword which is a level help, used to on website, tell the language runtime that reordering instructions related to accessing such fields is prohibited. There are major differences in the semantics of volatile in Java and C# which are illustrated in the example below taken from The Double-Checked Locking is Broken Declaration. Although the above code snippets seem identical save for the substitution of the synchronized keyword with the a level studies lock keyword, the Java version is not guaranteed to work on all JVMs. Exam Essay. Currently the Java Memory Model does not prevent reordering of writes to volatile variables with writes to other variables so it is possible that the new object is constructed before the helper reference is made to point at the newly created object meaning that two objects are created. Also it is possible that the helper reference is made to point at media studies a block of memory while the on the house of the object is still being created meaning that a reference to coursework, an incomplete object will be returned. In C#, the semantics of politics volatile prevent such problems from occurring because reads and writes cannot be moved backward or forward across a volatile write.
Also in C#, being marked as volatile also prevents the a level coursework help Just In Time compiler from placing the variable in a register and an essay peace also ensures that the variable is stored in global memory on multiprocessor systems. For more information on the problems with the Java Memory Model and Double-Checked Locking, see the Double-checked locking: Clever, but broken article on Javaworld. Media Help. Operator overloading allows standard operators in a language to be given new semantics when applied in the context of politics a particular class or type. Operator overloading can be used to simplify the syntax of certain operations especially when they are performed very often, such as string concatenation in Java or interactions with iterators and collections in the C++ Standard Template Library. A Level Media Studies Help. Operator overloading is a point of contention for many developers due to the fact that it provides a lot of flexibility and power which makes it prone to abuse. There is a tendency for developers to use it poorly by doings like overloading operators in an unintuitive manner (e.g. overloading ++ and -- to connect and 12 provincial exam essay disconnect from the media help network) , overloading operators in a manner inconsistent with their typical use (e.g. overloading [ ] to return a copy of an object at a particular index in on website, a collection instead of a reference to the actual object) or overloading some operators and not others (e.g. overloading but not ). Overloading operators tends to a level, be most useful when the class lends itself intuitively to using that operator. Essays Seven. Examples of situations that intuitively suggest that operator overloading would be beneficial are overloading [ ] for use with collections, overloading + and * for use with matrices, overloading mathematical operators for use with complex numbers, and overloading the a level media == and != operators for classes that have some means to measure equality. Below is an example that shows how operator overloading works in C#. NOTE: Unlike C++, C# does not allow the overloading of the should be legal argumentative following operators; new , ( ) , || , , = , or any variations of compound assignments such as += , -= , etc. However, compound assignment operators will call overloaded operators, for instance, += would call overloaded +. C# assemblies share a lot in common with Java JAR files.
An assembly is the fundamental unit of code packaging in the .NET environment. Assemblies are self contained and media studies help typically contain the intermediate code from i admire, compiling classes, metadata about the classes, and any other files needed by media studies coursework the packaged code to perform its task. Since assemblies are the fundamental unit of exam essay code packaging, several actions related to interacting with types must be done at help the assembly level. For instance, granting of security permissions, code deployment, and versioning are done at essay evaluation the assembly level. Java JAR files perform a similar task in Java with most differences being in the implementation. Assemblies are usually stored as EXEs or DLLs while JAR files are stored in the ZIP file format. A number of a level media studies help popular programming languages contain a collections framework which typically consists of a number of data structures for holding multiple objects as well as algorithms for manipulating the objects within the aforementioned data structures.
The primary advantage of a collections framework is that it frees developers from having to write data structures and sort algorithms every time one is needed and instead frees them up to work on the actual application logic. A secondary benefit is that collections frameworks lead to consistency across projects which means the politics learning curve for new developers using applications that use a collections framework is less steep when compared to a situation where one was not used. The C# collections framework consists of the classes in the System.Collections and the System.Collections.Generic namespaces . The Systems.Collections namespace contains interfaces and abstract classes that represent abstract data types such as IList, IEnumerable, IDictionary, ICollection, and CollectionBase which enable developers to manipulate data structures independently of how they are actually implemented as long as the data structures inherit from the abstract data types. Studies Help. The System.Collections namespace also contains some concrete implementations of exam data structures such as ArrayList, Stack, Queue, HashTable and SortedList. All four of the concrete data structure implementations enable one to obtain synchronized wrappers to the collection which allows for access in a thread-safe manner. The System.Collections.Generic namespace has generic implementations of the media studies key data structures in the System.Collections namespace including generic ListT, StackT,QueueT, DictionaryK,T and SortedDictionaryK,T classes . Coursework. The Java collections framework consists of a level media coursework a large number of the classes and interfaces in the java.util package. Instead of having a separate namespace for generic collections, the collections in the java.util package have been retrofitted to support generics. Of The Gables. The Java collection framework is coursework, similar to that in C# except for the fact that it can be considered a superset of the C# collection framework since it contains a number of extra features. The Java collection framework contains data structures that are missing from those in C# such as sets and linked lists. Also the Java collections framework not only has methods that enable one to access unsafe collections in a thread safe manner but contains thread-safe versions of essay most of the data structures as well.
Finally, the Java collections framework has a number of algorithms for manipulating the elements within the data structures including algorithms that can do the studies coursework following; find the largest element based on essay on website some Comparator, find the smallest element, find sublists within a list, reverse the contents of a list, shuffle the contents of a level media a list, creates immutable versions of a colection, performs sorts, and binary searches. At the current time, the Java collections framework is more sophisticated than that available in .NET via C#. Unlike Java, C# contains the essay person goto statement which can be used to jump directly from a point in the code to media studies help, a label. Although much derided, gotos can be used in politics coursework, certain situations to reduce code duplication while enhancing readability. A secondary usage of the a level media studies coursework goto statement is the ability to on a peace, mimic resumeable exceptions like those in Smalltalk, as long as the exception thrown does not cross method boundaries. NOTE: In C#, one cannot jump into a statement block using the goto statement; One of the tenets of object oriented programming is media coursework help, polymorphism.
Polymorphism enables one to coursework, interact with members of a type hierarchy as generic types instead of dealing with specific types. The means of implementing polymorphism typically involves having methods in a base class that may be overidden by derived classes. These methods can be invoked even though the client has a reference to a base class type which points to an object of the derived class. Such methods are bound at runtime instead of being bound during compilation and are typically called virtual methods. In Java all methods are virtual methods while in C#, as in C++, one must explicitly state which methods one wants to be virtual since by a level media studies coursework help default they are not. To mark a method as virtual in C#, one uses the virtual keyword.
Also, implementers of a child class can decide to either explicitly override the virtual method by using the 12 provincial exam essay override keyword or explicitly choose not to by using the studies coursework help new keyword instead. By default, in C#, the behavior of methods in a derived class that have the same signature as those in essay, the base class is as if they were declared with the new keyword. It is possible to mark methods as final in a level help, Java which means that the method cannot be overridden by derived classes. In C# this can be done by not marking the method as virtual . The major difference is that in C#, the class can still define the method but the base class version is the evaluation one that will be called if the object is media help, used via a base class reference. Java disallows the derived class from on the house seven gables, containing a method that has the same signature as the final base class method. Below are examples that show the differences in virtual methods in both languages. The C# example can be made to produce the same output as the Java example by marking the help DoStuff(string) method in the Parent class as virtual and marking the DoStuff(string) method in the Child class with the essay i admire override keyword. The above example can be made to produce the original results by altering the signature of the DoStuff(string) method in the Child class to. public new void DoStuff(string str) which states that although the DoStuff method is a level media help, virtual in the base class, the essay evaluation child class would like to treat it as a non-virtual method. Both languages support performing I/O via Stream classes. The examples below copy the contents of a file named input.txt to another called output.txt.
Object Persistence also known as Serialization is the ability to read and write objects via a stream such as a file or network socket. Object Persistence is useful in situations where the state of an object must be retained across invocations of a program. Usually in a level studies, such cases simply storing data in abortion be legal argumentative, a flat file is insufficient yet using a Database Management System (DBMS) is overkill. Studies Coursework. Serialization is also useful as a means of transferring the representation of a class in coursework, an automatic and fairly seamless manner. Serializable objects in C# are annotated with the [Serializable] attribute. The [NonSerialized] attribute is used to annote members of a C# class that should not be serialized by the runtime. Such fields are usually calculated or temporary values that have no meaning when saved. C# provides two formats for serializing classes; either as XML or in a binary format, the a level media help former is more readable by humans and on a separate applications while the latter is more efficient. One can also define custom ways an object is media studies coursework, serialized if the standard ways are insufficient by implementing the ISerializable interface.
In Java, serializable objects are those that implement the Serializable interface while the transient keyword is used to mark members of a Java class as ones not to essays on the house of the gables, be serialized. By default Java supports serializing objects to a binary format but does provide a way of overriding the standard serialization process. Objects that plan to override default serializations can implement methods with the following signatures. Since the studies help above methods are private there is no interface that can be implemented to indicate that a Java class supports custom serialization using readObject and writeObject. For classes that need publicly accessible methods for custom serialization there exists the java.io.Externalizable interface which specifies the readExternal() and writeExternal() for use in customizing how an object is read and written to a stream. Both C# and be legal argumentative Java provide a mechanism for extracting specially formatted comments from a level studies help, source code and placing them in an alternate document. These comments are typically API specifications and are very useful way to provide API documentation to house of the seven gables, the users of a library.
The generated documentation is coursework, also useful to share the specifications for person i admire an API between designers, developers and QA. Javadoc is the tool used to extract API documentation from source code. A Level Media Help. Javadoc generates HTML documentation from the source code comment, an example of scholarship person i admire which is the Java#8482; Platform, Standard Edition API Documentation which was all generated using Javadoc. A Level Studies Coursework Help. Javadoc can be used to describe information at the package, class, member and should abortion argumentative method level. Descriptions of classes and member variables can be provided with the a level coursework help option to add references to politics coursework, other classes, class members and methods. Javadoc allows one to document the studies coursework following metadata about a method: Description of the politics coursework method.
Exceptions thrown by the method. Parameters the method accepts Return type of the method. Associated methods and members. Indication as to whether the API has been deprecated or not. Version of the API the a level media studies help method was first added. The deprecated information is also used by exam essay the compiler which issues a warning if a call to a method marked with the deprecated tag is encountered during compilation. Javadoc also provides the help following information automatically: Inherited API List of derived classes List of on a peace implementing classes for interfaces Serialized form of the class Alphabetical class listing. Package hierarchy in a tree format.
Since Javadoc generates HTML documentation, it is valid to use HTML in Javadoc comments. There is a level media help, support for linking the on a separate generated documentation with other generated documentation available over the web. Such linking is useful when one wants readers of the documentation to a level media studies help, be able to read the API documentation from the related sources. An example of this is the following generated documentation which contains links to the Java 2 API documentation. If no such linking is specified then the generated documentation contains no links to other API documentation. Below is an example of how Javadoc comments are used. Abortion Be Legal. C# uses XML as the format for the documentation.
The generated documentation is an XML file that contains the metadata specified by a level media coursework help the user with very little additional information generated automatically. All the C# XML documentation tags have an analogous Javadoc construct while the same cannot be said for the Javadoc tags having C# XML documentation analogs. On A Peace. For instance, the default C# XML documentation does not have analogs to Javadoc's @author , @version , or @deprecated tags although such metadata can be generated by reflecting on the assembly, as Microsoft's documentation build process does. One could also create custom tags that are analogous to the Javadoc tags and more but they would be ignored by a level studies coursework help standard tools used for handling C# XML documentation including Visual Studio.NET. Also of note is that C#'s XML documentation when generated does not contain metadata about the class such as listings of inherited API, derived classes or implementing interfaces. An Essay Separate Peace. Here is an example of an XML file generated from C# source code. The primary benefit of an XML format is that the documentation specification can now be used in many different ways.
XSLT stylesheets can then be used to convert the generated documentation to ASCII text, HTML, or Postscript files. Also of note is that the generated documentation can be fed to tools that use it for spec verification or other similar tasks. Media. It should be noted that C# currently does not have a tool analogous to Javadoc for converting the scholarship essay person XML documentation into HTML. Microsoft is in the process of developing such a tool which is currently codenamed SandCastle. A Level Media Studies Coursework Help. Below is an example of how C# XML documentation is used. Multiple classes can be defined in a single file in both languages with some significant differences. English 12 Provincial. In Java, there can only be one class per source file that has public access and media studies it must have the same name as the source file minus the an essay on a peace file extension. C# does not have a restriction on a level studies help the number of politics coursework public classes that can exist in a source file and neither is there a requirement for the name of any of the classes in the file to match that of the source file. Using libraries in an application is a two-step process.
First the a level media studies coursework needed libraries must be referenced somewhere in the source file which is done via the using keyword in C# and the import keyword in Java. Secondly, there must be a way to tell the compiler where to find the location of the needed library. Specifying the location of libraries that will be used by a Java program is done using the CLASSPATH environment variable or the -classpath compiler option. English Exam Essay. Assembly locations are specified with the /r compiler switch in C#. Event-driven programming is a programming model where objects can register themselves to be notified of a level studies help a specific occurrence or state change in another object. Event-driven programming is on website, also referred to a level media studies coursework help, as the english exam essay publish-subscribe model or the a level media studies coursework observer design pattern and is very popular in graphical user interface (GUI) programming. Java and C# both have mechanisms that support events but there are significant differences. The typical publish-subscribe model has a one to many relationship between an object (publisher) and its event handlers (subscribers). A subscriber is registered by invoking a method on the publisher which then adds the subscriber to an internal collection of interested objects. On Website. When the state change that a registered subscriber is interested in occurs, a method is invoked in the publisher that cycles through the collection of coursework subscribers and invokes a callback method on politics each one. Studies Coursework Help. There is no general mechanism for event handling in Java.
Instead there are design patterns that are used by the GUI classes which developers can take their cue from. An event is typically a subclass of the java.util.EventObject class, which has methods that enable setting or getting of the scholarship object that was the source of the event. A subscriber in the Java model usually implements an interface that ends with the word Listener (e.g. MouseListener, ActionListener, KeyListener, etc) which should contain a callback method that would be called by the publisher on the occurrence of the event. A Level Media Studies Help. The publisher typically has a method that begins with add and ends with Listener (e.g. addMouseListener, addActionListener, addKeyListener, etc) which is used to register subscribers. The publisher also has remove methods for on the house seven gables unregistering the subscribers. The aforementioned components are the primary entities in an event-driven Java program.
C# uses delegates to provide an media studies coursework help, explicit mechanism for creating a publish-subscribe model. An event is typically a subclass of the System.EventArgs class. Like all data classes, the event class should have a constructor that allows complete initialization without calling any other methods so that you can pass new YourEventArgs(inits) to essay evaluation, the subscriber delegate. The publisher has a protected method preceded with the word On (e.g. A Level Studies Help. OnClick, OnClose, OnInit, etc) which is invoked when a specified event occurs, this method would then invoke the delegate passing it the source and essays on the house of the seven gables an instance of the a level studies coursework help EventArgs object. Making the method protected allows derived classes to call it directly without the need to register a delegate.
The subscriber is a method that accepts the same argument and returns the same type as the event delegate. On Website. The event delegate usually returns void and media coursework accepts two parameters; an Object which should be the source of the event and coursework the EventArgs subclass which should represent the event that occured. In C#, the event is used to automatically specify that a field within a subscriber is a delegate that will be used as a callback during an event-driven situation. A Level Media. During compilation the compiler adds overloaded versions of the += and -= operators that are analogous to the add and remove methods that are used in Java to register and unregister a subscriber. The example below shows a class that generates 20 random numbers and fires an event whenever one of the numbers is even. Cross language interoperability is the ability to access constructs written in one programming language from another.
There are a number of ways cross language interoperability works in 12 provincial essay, Java. First of all, there is the coursework help Java Native Interface (JNI) which is a mechanism that allows Java programs call native methods written in C, C++ or assembly language. The C, C++ or assembly methods methods must be specifically written to be called from Java. Native methods can use JNI to access Java features such as calling Java language methods, instantiating and modifying Java classes, throwing and catching exceptions, performing runtime type checking, and separate peace loading Java classes dynamically. To create a JNI program one performs the media studies coursework following steps: Create a Java program that contains the declaration of the native method(s) marked with the native keyword. Write a main method that loads the library created in step 6 and uses the native method(s). Compile the class containing the declaration of the native method(s) and the main with the of the gables javac compiler. Use the javah compiler with the -jni compiler option to generate a header file for the native method(s). Write the a level studies help native method in your language of choice (currently C, C++ or assembly). Compile the scholarship person i admire header file and a level studies help native source file into a shared library (i.e. a .dll on Windows or a .so file on essay on website evaluation UNIX). Java also has the ability to studies, interact with distributed objects that use the common object request broker architecture (CORBA) via Java IDL.
CORBA is a technology that allows developers to make procedure calls on objects in a location and language agnostic manner. A CORBA application usually consists of an object request broker (ORB), a client and a server. An ORB is responsible for matching a requesting client to the server that will perform the request, using an object reference to locate the target object. When the ORB examines the object reference and checks if the target object is remote or not. If the target of the call is local then the ORB performs an inter-process communication (IPC) call. Scholarship Person. On calls to remote objects the ORB marshals the arguments and routes the invocation out over a level, the network to an essay peace, the remote object's ORB. The remote ORB then invokes the method locally and sends the results back to a level, the client via the network. CORBA has a language-agnostic interface definition language (IDL) which for should abortion be legal argumentative which languages that support CORBA have various mappings. Java IDL supports the studies help mappings from Java objects to CORBA IDL objects.
Various ORBs support CORBA language bindings for coursework a number of languages including C, C++, Java, Python, Lisp, Perl, and Scheme. The most seamless way to do cross language interop in studies coursework, Java is when the language is compiled directly to Java byte code. This means that objects in that language are available to Java programs and Java objects are available to programs written in the target language. A good example of this is the Jython scripting language which is a version of the Python programming language that is integrated with the Java platform. Below is an example of an interactive session with Jython shows how a user could create an instance of the essay on website evaluation Java random number class (found in java.util.Random) and then interact with that instance which was taken from the Jython Documentation. A Level Coursework Help. There are a number of politics projects in various degrees of completion that are aimed at providing a similar degree of cross language interoperability within the a level media coursework help confines of the Java Virtual Machine. Essay Evaluation. A list of languages retargetted for the Java Virtual Machine is available on the webpage of Dr. Robert Tolksdorf.
Currently, Sun Microsystems (creators of the a level media help Java language and on the house of the platform) seems to be uninterested in this level of cross language interoperability and has decided to help, leave this to independent developers and researchers. With seamless cross langauge interoperability, objects can inherit implementation from other types, instantiate and invoke methods defined on other types, and otherwise interact with objects regardless of the an essay language the types are originally implemented in. Also tools such as class browsers, debuggers, and help profilers only need to understand one format (be it Java byte codes or .NET instruction language) but can support a multitude of languages as long as they target the appropriate runtime. Also error handling across languages via exceptions is possible. C# and the .NET runtime were created with seamless cross-language interoperability as a design goal. A language targeting the .NET common language runtime (CLR) is able to interact with other languages that conform to the common type system and when compiled include certain metadata. The common type system defines how types are declared, used, and managed in the .NET runtime thus creating a framework that allows for type safety and ensures that objects written in various languages can share type information. Metadata is binary information describing the assemblies, types and attributes defined in the application that are stored either in a CLR portable executable (PE) or in memory if the assembly has been loaded.
Langauges that are currently being developed to target the .NET runtime include APL, C#, C++, COBOL, Component Pascal, Eiffel, Haskel#/Mondrian, Java, Mercury, Oberon, Perl, Python, Scheme, Smalltalk, Standard ML, and Visual Basic. Since it is person i admire, very possible that certain features in one language have no analog in another, the media studies coursework help .NET Framework provides the Common Language Specification (CLS), which describes a fundamental set of on a separate peace language features and defines rules for how those features are used. The CLS rules are a subset of the a level studies coursework common type system that is aimed at ensuring cross-language interoperability by defining a set of on website evaluation features that are most common in programming languages. The C# compiler is a CLS compliant compiler meaning that it can be used to generate code that complies with the CLS. The C# compiler can check for CLS compliance and issues an error when a program code uses functionality that is not supported by the CLS. To get the C# compiler to check for the CLS compliance of a piece of code, mark it with the [CLSCompliantAttribute(true)] attribute. Another aspect of cross language interoperability supported by C# is interaction with COM based objects. There are mechanisms that allow developers to use COM objects from C# code and vice versa.
C# objects can utilize COM objects if a wrapper class is first created that defines the functions available in the COM object as well as some additional information. The wrapper class can then be used as if it were a regular C# object while the .NET runtime handles the complexities of marshalling arguments and the like. Creating the wrapper class can be done automatically using the tlbimp utility. If the utility is unable to create a type library then one must be written by hand with foreknowledge of the coclasses and interfaces being defined as well as the type library-to-assembly conversion rules. For a COM object to utilize a C# object, a typelib must be created that describes the C# object to COM aware applications. The tlbexp can be used to create a typelib that describes the C# object's interface in a COM-like manner. A Level Media Studies. Also the regasm utility can be used to register an should abortion be legal argumentative essay, assembly so it is available to a level media, COM.
When COM objects interact with the C# object, the runtime handles whatever marshalling of data that needs to occur between COM and .NET automatically. C# programs can also call almost any function in any DLL using a combination of the extern keyword and the DllImport attribute on the method declaration. A major advantage of an essay on a separate this is that the method being called does not have to be specifically written to coursework help, be called from an essay on a separate peace, C#, nor is any wrapper necessary-so calling existing code in DLLs is relatively simple. To provide total control of releasing resources used by classes, C# provides the System.IDisposable interface which contains the Dispose() method that can be called by users of the a level media help class to release resources on completion of essays on the whatever task is at hand. Classes that manage resources such as database or file handles benefit from a level, being disposable. Being diposable provides a deterministic way to release these resources when the politics class is a level media studies coursework, no longer in use, which is not the case with finalizers in Java or C#. It is typical to essay, call the coursework SupressFinalize method of the GC class in the implementation of the Dispose method since it is essay on website, likely that finalization by the runtime won't be needed since it will be provided explicitly via the a level media coursework help Dispose method. Essay I Admire. C# also has some syntactic sugar via the a level media studies help using keyword that makes releasing the resources used by classes occur in a more deterministic manner via the Dispose method.
If a class is english 12 provincial essay, disposable, it is best to make usage of the Dispose() method idempotent (i.e. multiple calls to a level media, Dispose() have no ill effects) which can be done by providing a flag that is checked within the Dispose() method to see if the class has already been disposed or not. The example below shows a program where a class keeps a file open up until the essays on the seven Dispose() method is called which indicates that the file no longer needs to be open. A Level Coursework Help. The above idiom is practically the same as having C++ style destructors without the 12 provincial exam worry of having to deal with memory allocation woes, making it the best of a level media coursework help both worlds. The non-deterministic nature of finalization has long been bemoaned by Java developers, it is a welcome change to see that this will not be the case when using C#. Delegates are a mechanism for providing callback functions. Delegates are akin to function pointers in C or functors in C++ and are useful in the same kinds of situation. One use of delegates is passing operations to a generic algorithm based on the types being used in the algorithm.
The C function qsort() is an example of english 12 provincial this as are a variety of the C++ functions in algorithm like replace_if() and transform(). Another use of delegates is as a means to register handlers for a particular event (i.e. the media studies help publish-subscribe model). To get the same functionality as C# delegates in Java, once can create interfaces that specify the signature of the callback method such as is done with the Comparable interface although this has the drawback of forcing the method to be an instance method when it most likely should be static. To use delegates, one first declares a delegate that has the on a return type and accepts the same number of parameters as the methods one will want to invoke as callback functions. Secondly one needs to define a method that accepts an instance of the delegate as a parameter. Once this is a level media, done, a method that has the same signature as the delegate (i.e. accepts same parameters and returns the same type) or has covariant return types and contravariant parameter types (i.e return type is derived from the return type of the delegate and the parameter types are ancestors of the corresponding parameters) can be created and english 12 provincial exam used to initialize an instance of the delegate which can then be passed to the method that accepts that delegate as a parameter. Note that the same delegate can refer to static and instance methods, even at the same time, since delegates are multicast.
The example below shows the process of creating and a level media studies using instance delegates. A delegate can be passed as a parameter to should argumentative essay, a method in the same way that a function pointer is passed in languages like C and C++. The following code sample shows how this is a level studies, done. In both Java and C#, items on the heap have to be garbage collected to reclaim the memory allocated to them when they are no longer in use while stack based objects are automatically reclaimed by the system. Memory on the stack is typically faster to allocate than heap based memory. In Java, all classes are created on the heap while primitives are created on the stack. This can lead to situations where objects that are used similarly to primitives in a program tend to hang around and english 12 provincial wait for garbage collection thus adding overhead to the program. This can be bothersome, especially if the objects were used briefly and in a single location. To avoid the a level coursework help problem of allocating heap space for such classes and then having to garbage collect them, C# has a mechanism that allows one to specify that objects of politics coursework a certain class should be stack based (In fact, C#'s built-in types such as int are actually implemented as structs in the runtime library).
Unlike classes, value types are always passed by value and are not garbage collected. And arrays of value types contain the actual value type objects, not references to help, dynamically-allocated objects-a savings of both memory and time. To specify stack based classes, one declares them using the keyword struct instead of class . Of The. To create C# structs (also known as value types) one uses the new keyword to create it as is done with classes. If the struct is instantiated with the default constructor syntax then a struct with its fields zeroed out is coursework help, created. However, it is not possible to define a default constructor for house of the gables a struct and override this behavior. The C# as operator is completely analogous to media studies, C++'s dynamic_cast construct.
The semantics of the as operator are that it attempts to perform an explict cast to a type and returns null if the operation was unsuccessful. NOTE: The as operator cannot be used to on the house of the, convert to or from media coursework help, value types. Properties are a way to abstract away from directly accessing the members of a class, similar to how accessors (getters) and modifiers (setters) are used in the Java world. A property is accessed by users of a class as if it was a field or member variable but in actuality is a method call. Accessing a member via a property allows for side effects when setting values or calculations when generating values while being transparent to the user of the class. Should Abortion Be Legal Essay. Properties thus provide an a level help, explicit way to decouple the implementation of the essays member access from how it is actually used. It is possible to create, read-only, write-only or read-write properties depending on if the getter and a level studies coursework setter are implemented or not. In addition, it is possible to create a property whose getter and setter have different visibility (e.g. a public getter but a private setter).
The example below shows different kinds of properties. Essay On Website. The use of properties as an abstraction away from media, whether a member access is a method call or not may fall apart if the property throws an exception. When this occurs users of the object must then treat operations that look like member accesses as if they were method calls which can lead to i admire, unintuitive looking code. The example below shows code that sets the values for the fields of a Clock class that where the setters throw an media studies coursework help, exception if the value is invalid. To avoid situations like the one in the above example it is best that one avoids throwing exceptions in properties and handle the exceptions that are thrown by methods used in the property. If throwing an exception is avoidable in some situations then the documentation for the property must adequately describe the exceptions that can be thrown and the circumstances that lead to them being thrown. C# makes the distinction between multidimensional and jagged arrays. A multidimensional array is akin to evaluation, a multidimensional array in C or C++ that is a contiguous block containing members of the same type. A Level Media Studies Coursework Help. A jagged array is akin to an array in Java which is an array of arrays, meaning that it contains references to other arrays which may contain members of the same type or other arrays depending on of the how many levels the array has.
The code snippets below highlight the differences between multidimensional and jagged arrays. The lack of true multidimensional arrays in Java has made it problematic to use Java in certain aspects of coursework help technical computing which has lead to various efforts to be legal essay, improve this position including research efforts by IBM which involved writing their own Array class to get around the shortcomings in Java arrays. The following code snippet emphasizes the differences between using multidimensional arrays and jagged arrays in C#. An indexer is a special syntax for overloading the  operator for a class. An indexer is useful when a class is a container for media studies help another kind of object. Indexers are flexible in that they support any type, such as integers or strings, as indexes. It is also possible to create indexers that allow multidimensional array syntax where one can mix and match different types as indexes. Finally, indexers can be overloaded.
C# includes a preprocessor that has a limited subset of the functionality of the politics C/C++ preprocessor. The C# preprocessor lacks the ability to #include files or perform textual substitutions using #define . A Level Coursework Help. The primary functionality that remains is the ability to #define and #undef identifiers and also the ability to select which sections of code to essay evaluation, compile based on the validity of certain expressions via #if , #elif , and studies coursework help #else . The #error and #warning directives cause the errors or warnings messages following these directives to essays on the house of the seven, be printed on compilation. The #pragma directive is used to media coursework help, supress compiler warning messages. Finally, there is the #line directive that can be used to specify the source file and line number reported when the compiler detects errors. The using keyword can be used to 12 provincial essay, alias the fully qualified name for a type similar to the way typedef is used in C and C++. This is useful in creating readable code where the a level studies coursework help fully qualified name of a class is essay, needed to media studies help, resolve namespace conflicts. The Reflection.Emit namespace contains classes that can be used to generate .NET instruction language (IL) and politics use it to build classes in memory at a level runtime or even write portable executable (PE) files to politics coursework, disk. A Level Media Studies Coursework Help. This is analagous to a Java library that would allow one to create Java classes at an essay on a separate peace runtime by generating Java byte codes which could then be written to studies coursework help, disks or loaded and used within the program.
It is expected that the primary users of the Reflection.Emit namespace will be authors of compilers and script engines. For instance, the coursework regular expression classes in System.Text.RegularExpressions use the Reflection.Emit library to generate a custom matching engine for each regular expression compiled. Although core C# is like Java in that there is media studies help, no access to a pointer type that is separate peace, analogous to pointer types in C and C++, it is media studies coursework help, possible to have pointer types if the C# code is executing in an unsafe context. When C# code is executing in an unsafe context, a lot of runtime checking is disabled which means that the program must have full trust on the machine it is running on. Certain situations call for essays house of the gables the use of unsafe code such as when interfacing with the underlying operating system, during interactions with COM objects that take structures that contain pointers, when accessing a memory-mapped device or in situations where performance is critical. The syntax and semantics for writing unsafe code is similar to the syntax and semantics for using pointers in C and C++. To write unsafe code, the unsafe keyword must be used to specify the code block as unsafe and the program must be compiled with the /unsafe compiler switch.
Since garbage collection may relocate managed (i.e. safe) variables during the a level studies coursework help execution of a program, the fixed keyword is provided so that the address of a managed variable is pinned during the execution of the essay parts of the program within the fixed block. Without the fixed keyword there would be little purpose in being able to assign a pointer to the address of a managed variable since the runtime may move the variable from studies coursework, that address as part of the mark compact garbage collection process. In Java the scholarship essay i admire arguments to a method are passed by value meaning that a method operates on copies of the items passed to it instead of on the actual items. In C#, as in C++ and in a level media studies, a sense C, it is possible to specify that the arguments to exam essay, a method actually be references to the items being passed to the method instead of copies. This feature is particularly useful when one wants to create a method that returns more than one object. In Java trying to return multiple values from a method is not supported and leads to coursework help, interesting anomalies like the fact that a method that swaps two numbers which has been the hallmark of freshman computer science classes for years is impossible to do in Java without resorting to coding tricks.
The C# keywords used to specify that a parameter is being passed by reference are ref and out . An Essay On A Separate. The difference between the keywords is that parameters passed using ref must be initialized to some value while those passed using out do not have to be. A Level Media Studies Coursework Help. A more detailed explanation of Java's lack of Pass By Reference semantics is available in the Javaworld article, Does Java pass by reference or pass by value? Why can't you swap in Java? by Tony Sintes. C# provides the ability to avoid the usage of scholarship escape sequences within string constants and instead declare strings literally. Thus backslashes, tabs, quotes and newlines can be part of a level studies help a string without using escape sequences.
The only essays on the house, caveat is that double quotes that appear within verbatim strings should be doubled. Verbatim strings are specified by prepending the @ symbol to string declarations. C# provides the a level coursework help option to explicitly detect or ignore overflow conditions in expressions and type conversions. Overflow conditions detected in code throw a System.OverFlowException . Should Abortion. Since overflow detection causes a performance hit it can be explicitly enabled by using the /checked+ compiler option. One can also mandate code that must always be checked for overflow conditions by placing it in a checked block or that must always be ignored with regards to overflow detection by placing it in an unchecked block.
Sometimes when a class implements an interface it is a level coursework, possible for there to an essay, be namespace collisions with regards to method names. For instance, a FileRepresentation class which has a graphical user interface may implement an IWindow and an IFileHandler interface. Both of these classes may have a Close method where in the case of IWindow it means to close the GUI window while in the case of IFileHandler it means to close the file. In Java, there is studies coursework help, no solution to this problem besides writing one Close method that does the same thing when invoked via an IWindow handle or an IFileHandler handle. C# gets around this problem by allowing one to bind method implementations to specific intefaces. Thus in the aformentioned example, the FileRepresentation class would have different Close methods that would be invoked depending on scholarship essay person whether the class was being treated as an a level studies coursework help, IWindow or an house seven gables, IFileHandler. A Level Studies Coursework. NOTE: Explicit interface methods are private and on website can only be accessed if the object is media studies coursework help, cast to the required type before invoking the method. The friend assembly feature allows an internal type or internal member of an assembly to scholarship, be accessed from media help, another assembly.
To give one assembly access to essay on website, another assembly's internal types and members, the [InternalsVisibleToAttribute] attribute is used. The following code sample shows 2 source files which are compiled into friend_assembly_test.dll and friend_assembly_test_2.exe which utilize the friend's assembly feature. The larger a project gets, the more likely it is that namespace collisions will occur. C# has the :: operator which is used for specifying at studies help what scope a namespace should be resolved. The left operand indicates the scope at which to resolve the name while the right operand is the peace name to resolve. A Level Media Coursework Help. The left operand can either be the keyword global which refers to the global scope or a namespace alias as shown below. Should Abortion. NOTE: The extern alias statement can be used to attach an alias to an assembly which can then be used as the left operand of the :: operator. When this is done the scope used for a level media studies coursework help name resolution is the top level namespace(s) within the essay assembly. For a data structure to media studies, support being a target of the foreach loop it must implement or return an instance of System.Collections.IEnumerable . However writing an Enumerator can be somewhat cumbersome which is essay person i admire, where the a level coursework yield keyword comes in. The yield keyword enables one to convert any method or property into an iterator. Essays On The House Seven. In an iterator, one simply traverses the a level media help data structure and returns its contents one by one using the yield return statement and indicates the end of the sequence of values with the yield break statement.
The method or property must return one of IEnumerable, IEnumerableT, IEnumerator or IEnumeratorT. A partial class is specified by prefixing the keyword partial to the class declaration. The following code sample shows a partial class that is defined across two source files. Note how methods and properties from on website evaluation, one source file can reference members defined in another. It should be noted that all of the class attributes are merged across all definitions of a class. This means that contradictory attributes (e.g. class declared as private in one file and public in another) are disallowed.
A static class is a class that has no instance members, no instance constructors and cannot be used as a base class. A Level Studies. A static class should be used to define types for coursework which instances don't make sense such as the System.Environment and System.Math classes. A static class is coursework, specified by prefixing the class declaration with the exam keyword static . A nullable types is an instance of the System.Nullable type. A nullable type can represent the normal range of values for an underlying value type as well as the null value. For example, the type Nullablebool can represent the values true , false and null . A nullable type can be declared by appending the operator '?' to the name of a value type when declaring the variable. This means that bool? is equivalent to Nullablebool . Each nullable type has a boolean HasValue property which indicates whether it represents a valid value type or the value null . The actual value of the a level media studies help nullable type is stored in its Value property.
There is also the GetValueOrDefault() method which either returns the value of the nullable type or the default value of the underlying value type if it is null . Nullable types are particularly useful when mapping C# objects to relational database schemas since null is a valid value for all data types in SQL databases. Scholarship Person I Admire. The ?? operator is called the coursework null coalescing operator and scholarship is used for testing the value of a nullable type and returning its value or an alternate if its value is null. Thus x ?? y is equivalent to x == (null ? y : x) . Anonymous methods are a companion feature to delegates. An anonymous method is a code block that can be used where a delegate method is expected. This simplifies code that uses delegates by not requiring a separate method to implement the delegate's functionality. The following code sample compares the anonymous method approach to a level media studies, using a named delegate. There are a number of essay restrictions to anonymous methods that must be kept in coursework, mind. For one, jump statements like break , goto and continue cannot be used o jump into politics coursework, an anonymous method from outside the a level media code block or vice versa. Also anonymous methods cannot refer to ref or out parameters that are defined outside the scope of the method. Before the advent of exceptions, most error handling was done via return codes.
There are many advantages of exceptions over return codes that are typically touted including the fact that exceptions. provide a consistent means to handle errors and other exceptional conditions. enable an error to propagate up the call stack if not handled in coursework, the current context. allow developers to seperate error handling code from general application logic. Java creates an additional wrinkle by possessing both checked and unchecked exceptions. Checked exceptions are exceptions that the calling method must handle either by catching the a level media studies exception or declaring that the exception should be handled by its calling method via the throws clause. On the other hand, unchecked exceptions (also called runtime exceptions) do not have to be caught or declared in the throws clause. In a sense unchecked exceptions are similar to return codes in an essay on a separate, that they can be ignored without warnings or errors being issued by the compiler. Although if an exception is ignored at runtime, your program will terminate. Checked exceptions are typically used to indicate to a calling method that the callee failed in studies, its task as well as pass information as to how and why it failed. One must either catch a checked exception or declare it in the throws clause of the method or the Java compiler will issue an error. The reasoning behind the fact that the exception must be declared in the throws clause is that handling whatever errors that can occur when the method is used is should be legal argumentative essay, just as important as knowing what parameters it accepts and studies coursework the kind of type it returns. 12 Provincial Exam Essay. Unchecked exceptions are typically exceptions that can occur in most parts of the program and thus the overhead of explicitly checking for them outweighs their usefulness due to media help, the massive code bloat that would ensue.
Examples of situations that throw unchecked exceptions are accessing a null object reference, trying to access an out of bounds index of an array or a division by zero. In all of the aforementioned cases it would be cumbersome to put try. catch blocks around every the code (for instance a try. catch block around every object access or every array access) and they are better off as unchecked exceptions. In C#, all exceptions are unchecked and there is no analog to the throws clause. One major side effect of scholarship person i admire this is that unless the creator of the studies API explicitly documents the exceptions thrown then it is not possible for the users of the API to know what exceptions to catch in their code leading to unrobust applications that can fail unexpectedly. Thus users of C# are reliant on person i admire the documentation skill of programmers as their primary error handling mechanism which is a less than optimal situation. Media Coursework Help. For instance in the following code snippet, the only way to separate peace, know what exceptions can be thrown by the method below is to either have the a level source code for all the methods called within it or if the on a separate peace developer of the method documents all the exceptions thrown by all the methods called within it (meaning that the developers of those methods must have done the same ad infinitum). The above code snippet is from the .NET Framework Beta 2 documentation for the Socket class.
Note how there no exceptions caught in the code. If this was a method in a level studies, a real application as opposed to a sample, it would be impossible for the users of this method to know what exceptions to catch without access to the source code or without the author of the method painstakingly checking what exceptions are thrown by every single method called and then documenting them. Below is the list of should abortion exceptions that could be thrown within the method according to their entries in the Microsoft .NET framework Beta 2 documentation. If the author of the method does not have time to document the exceptions that may be thrown from this method or happens to leave out an a level media help, important one, such as the SocketException in this case, then the users of the method could have their applications fail unexpectedly without an elegant means of recovery in place. In the above case, the main exception of interest to users would probably be the SocketException since the others are all related to the internal workings of the method and don't really have anything to do with the caller and in fact would probably be unchecked exceptions if they existed in Java. In practice the essay on website evaluation GetMessageFromServer method would check the validity of its string parameter and media throw ArgumentNException or one of its subclasses depending the results of the be legal check. The rationale for excluding checked exceptions from C# has never been fully explained by Microsoft but this message from Eric Gunnerson of the C# team sheds some light on a level coursework the reasoning behind this decision. The primary reason for english 12 provincial essay this choice according to Gunnerson is that examination of small programs led to the conclusion that using checked exceptions could both enhance developer productivity and enhance code quality. On the other hand experience with large software projects suggested that using checked exceptions decreased productivity with little or no increase in code quality. The lack of checked exceptions in C# will be very unsettling for Java developers and may lead to program designs which are flawed.
One only has to remember the anecdote about how originally a considerable amount of the exceptions in a level media studies coursework help, the Java API were unchecked but upon changing them to checked exceptions a number of an essay bugs and design flaws were found in the API. Hopefully this will be remedied in later versions of C# or a third party could develop a static source code analysis tool such as lint. Meanwhile C# developers must take care to document all exceptions thrown from their methods that callers should be aware of as a matter of consideration. This is not to say that documentation should not typically exist but since it is the only means to ensure exception safe C# code then its importance is now a much greater. A major selling point of Java#8482; technologies is that applications written in Java are portable across a number of media studies coursework operating systems and platforms. Sun officially supports Linux, Windows and Solaris but other vendors have implemented Java on should abortion a large range of platforms including OS/2, AIX and MacOS. Binary compatibility across platforms using similar Java versions is the norm except for situations involving bugs in various VM implementations.
At the time of this writing C# is only available on Windows. Efforts are currently in place to port it to other platforms, including Linux and FreeBSD. Linux porting is being done as part of the Mono project developed by Ximian while the FreeBSD implementation is a Microsoft project codenamed rotor. The Java extension mechanism enables developers to extend the abilities of the core Java platform. Developers can create classes and packages which are treated by studies the Java runtime as if they are core Java classes and packages like java.lang, java.util, java.net, etc. This means that extensions do not have to be placed on the class path since they are treated as if they are part of the core libraries such as those in the Java runtime library, rt.jar . Extensions are contained within JAR files and scholarship essay i admire once installed are available to all applications running on the target platform. A C# parallel would be the ability to create assemblies that are treated as if they are part of the coursework System namespace contained in the System.dll assembly. Politics Coursework. In the above example the value printed by calling halfOfSquareFP() will be Infinity regardless of what JVM the application is run on. This is because Java enforces left-to-right evaluation of arguments and 6.6e+307 multiplied by 4.0 exceeds the maximum value for a double thus leading to all subsequent operations yielding Infinity.
On the other hand the value printed on calling halfOfSquareNFP() may not be the same on different JVMs depending on whether the target platform and JVM implementation support storing intermediate values in an extended format that has a larger range than that of doubles. Thus on some platforms the value 1.32E308 is printed as the value returned by halfOfSquareNFP() while on others Infinity is printed. Section 4.1.5 of the C# specification covers floating point numbers and states that due to the excessive performance costs of enforcing that certain architectures perform operations with less precision than is possible, there is no way to enforce FP-strictness in C#. The ability to dynamically load classes at runtime in Java is a very powerful feature especially when combined with a remote procedure call mechanism. Dynamic class loading enables Java applications to download the class files (i.e. byte codes) of studies classes that do not exist on the target machine.
An object type that only exists on one machine can be transferred to other machines in a seamless and transparent manner. Thus new types can be introduced on a remote machine which allows the behavior of remote applications to be significantly extended at runtime. The following example shows an example of a remote application that accepts types that implement a certain interface, IStockTicker. The obtainName() remote method in the above class accepts types that implement the IStockTicker interface. It is possible for this method to be invoked from a remote client which then passes a type that implements IStockTicker, for example NASDAQStock, that does not exist on the server where the MyRMIServer class lives. In this case the entire code needed for NASDAQStock class is essay, transmitted from the client to the remote server automatically. C# and the .NET Remoting mechanism also enable remotely downloading classes from one machine to the other but the client has to publish the assembly and the server can then load it via a URL. For information on Java Remote Method Invokation (RMI) read the Java tutorial on RMI.
Information on .NET Remoting with C# is explained in a level studies help, this introduction to .NET remoting and this technical overview on scholarship i admire MSDN. In Java it is possible for constants to be declared in interfaces which are then available to implementing classes while in C# this is not allowed. This may not be a big issue in C# since the primary usage of constants declared in interfaces is as a poor emulation of enumerations. An anonymous inner class is a class declaration that occurs at the same point where an instance of that class is created. Anonymous inner classes are typically used where only one instance of a type will exist in a level media studies coursework, the application. Should. The most popular usage of anonymous inner classes is for specifying callbacks especially in the Java GUI libraries but there are other situations where anonymous inner classes are beneficial as well. Below is an a level media studies, example of using anonymous inner classes to implement the State Design Pattern. The static import feature makes it possible to access static members of a class without having specify the class name. This feature is intended to reduce the on website verbosity of code that frequently access the static members of a particular class (e.g. constants defined in a particular helper class). Studies. A static import similar to a regular import statement except that the keyword static is used and be legal argumentative instead of importing a package, a specific class is imported.
Most developers, especially those with a background in C or C++, would probably agree that features like operator overloading, pointers, preprocessor directives, delegates and deterministic object cleanup make C# more expressive than Java in a number of cases. Media Studies Help. Similarly, Java developers who learn C# will be pleasantly surprised at features that are missing in Java that will seem glaring in their absence once one uses them in C#, such as boxing, enumerations and pass by reference. On the on website evaluation other hand the lack of checked exceptions, inner classes, cross platform portability or the fact that a class is not the smallest unit of distribution of a level media studies code makes the choice of C# over Java not a clearcut case of choosing more language features without having to make any compromises. It is my opinion that both languages are similar enough that they could be made to mirror each other without significant effort if so required by either user base. An Essay Peace. In this case, C# would have it easier than Java in that C# has less to media studies coursework help, borrow from Java than Java would have to borrow from C#. However, the true worth of a programming language that is intended for use outside of on the house seven gables academia is how quickly the language evolves to coursework help, adapt to the changing technological landscape and what kind of community surrounds the language. Some programming languages are akin to coursework, the French language under the Les Immortels of the Acad¨¦mie Française in a level media studies coursework, France.
Les immortels are charged with dictating what constitutes the official French language but they have been slow to adapt to the information age thus their edicts on what constitutes the should abortion be legal essay proper French versions of new words, especially those related to technology, are usually ignored especially since they either conflict with what the general French public would rather call them and show up long after the unsanctioned words have already entered the lexicon. C++ is an example of a language that has undergone a process of a level media help balkanization closely resembling the French language under the Les Immortels of the Acad¨¦mie Française while Java under Sun Microsystems can be considered to be a language that has evolved with the times similar to how the English language has done. Thus the question really becomes, which of these languages looks like it will evolve with the times and an essay on a peace be easiest to a level studies coursework help, adapt to on a separate peace, new situations as they arise? So far, Sun has done a great job with Java although a lack of versioning support and the non-existence of a framework that enables extensibility of the language built into the platform makes drastic evolution difficult. Coursework Help. C# with its support for versioning via the .NET framework and the existence of attributes which can be used to extend the features of the language looks like it would in essay, the long run be the more adaptable language. Only time will tell however if this prediction is a level studies coursework, accurate. As predicted in the original conclusion to this paper, a number of features have become common across both C# and Java since 2001. These features include generics, foreach loops, enumerations, boxing, variable length parameter lists and metadata annotations. However after years of convergence it seems that C# and Java are about to go in radically different directions. The current plans for 12 provincial essay C# 3.0 are highlighted in a level coursework help, the Language Integrated Query (LINQ) Project which encompasses integrating a number of data oriented features including query, set operations, transformations and type inferencing directly into the C# language. In combination with some of C#'s existing features like anonymous methods and nullable types, the differences between C# and Java will become more stark over the next few years in politics coursework, contrast to the feature convergence that has been happening over the past few years.
Eckel, Bruce. Thinking In Java. Prentice Hall, 2000. The following people helped in reviewing and proofreading this article: Paul Johns, David Dagon, Dr. A Level Media Coursework Help. Yannis Smaragdakis , Dmitri Alperovitch, Dennis Lu and abortion argumentative essay Sanjay Bhatia.
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Essay On Memory Essays and Research Papers. D for this TOK Essay 4. The traditional TOK diagram indicates four ways of knowing. Coursework Help! Propose the separate inclusion of a fifth way of knowing selected . from media studies coursework help intuition, memory or imagination, and explore the knowledge issues it may raise in two areas of knowledge. Word count: 1207 Memory is a tool people use to process things they come to learn about the world. In psychology memory is described by the term cognitive processes which include perception, thinking, problem solving, memory , language and attention. Cognition , Deductive reasoning , Inductive reasoning 1246 Words | 4 Pages. sTrial Examination History and Memory Essay Stephen Frears 2006 Film The Queen and Tanka Luckins novel The Gates of . Memory consciously represent aspects of history and memory to give the responder a deeper understanding of the events in the texts.
The events being the death of Princess Diana in 1997 and the 75th anniversary of the end of the Great War in 1993. Abortion! Both composers had a purpose of coursework, their texts in which they wanted to portray to their audiences. Stephen Frears being to on website, give audiences. British Royal Family , Cherie Blair , Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom 886 Words | 3 Pages. what research has taught us about why our memories are not always accurate. Memory is believed to be an a level media studies active process which . selects information to encode and store ready for retrieval if needed. From encoding through to retrieval memories can be constructed and reconstructed, showing why memories are not always accurate. This essay will aim to explore and evaluate the research of peace, memory . It will aim to provide evidence to support the theory that our memories are not always accurate, and to offset. Alzheimer's disease , Declarative memory , Episodic memory 1558 Words | 5 Pages. False memories have been defined as either remembering events that never happened, or remembering them quite differently from the studies help way they . happened (Park, 2012).
This topic opens many doors for research and raises questions about the reliability and susceptibility of people’s memory . Memory is the mental faculty of retaining and recalling past experiences. A repressed memory is one that is retained in the subconscious mind, where one is not aware of it but where it can still affect both conscious. Amnesia , Cognitive psychology , Confabulation 1475 Words | 4 Pages. Essay : how an event is represented impacts how we come to understand it better ? Thesis Statement: > Ones emotional journey through an . experience from essay a past historical event often shapes individuals into how they are in the future INTRO : Ones emotional journey through an experience from media help a past historical event often shapes individuals into how they are in the future. The emotional impact of these events can be representing and recorded in various ways, such as within the Smithsonian website.
Audience , Audience theory , Emotion 1246 Words | 4 Pages. Memory is 12 provincial exam essay our ability to a level coursework help, encode, store, retain, and subsequently recall information and experiences in the human brain. Unlike a computer . memory , humans have a cognitive memory system that selectively takes information from the senses and 12 provincial exam essay converts it into meaningful patterns that we store and a level help access later as needed. Essay! These memory patterns, then, form the raw material for thought and behavior, which in turn enables you to recognize a friend’s face, ride a bicycle, recollect a trip six flags, and. Cognitive psychology , Declarative memory , Episodic memory 2005 Words | 5 Pages.
?2. Memory Slessor presents memorable ideas through his exploration of memories , their ability to temporarily transcend time, . their relation to media studies help, death and the finality of death. In his poems ‘Five Bells’, and english 12 provincial exam essay ‘Five Visions of Captain Cook’, Slessor provides the reader insight into his prominent thematic concern of memory's ability to temporarily suspend time and a level media coursework the strength and potent nature of these memories . Slessor also explores concepts of one’s memories of the deceased creating a false immortality. Botanical garden , Death , James Cook 1211 Words | 2 Pages. for being a very simplistic view of essay evaluation, memory . They saw short term memory as a store that had many individual sections inside it. . A Level Coursework Help! This was supported by patient KF who had epilepsy, the doctor wanted to try and remedy this by removing his hippocampus. An Essay On A Separate! This surgery was done, however instead of fixing his epilepsy, it damaged his short term memory , yet he still had his long term memory intact.
In the media studies help multi-store model it states that in order to have long term memory , one needs to have gone through the. Alan Baddeley , Baddeley's model of working memory , Hippocampus 950 Words | 3 Pages. How have texts studied in this elective challenged your ways of thinking about ‘History and Memory ’? Make detailed to your prescribed text and . at least ONE other related text of your own choosing. Should Abortion Be Legal! “That men do not learn very much from the lessons of a level media studies, history is the most important of abortion be legal argumentative essay, all the lessons that history has to studies, teach.” Perhaps in recognising man’s failure to take heed of his fellow man, Aldous Huxley was recognising that humans lack the capability to learn vicariously. For in history, through. History , James Smithson , Psychology 1178 Words | 4 Pages. Memories “Kang, over here!” Dylan, my best friend, called me when I was looking for my friends after my mother had sent me to the railway . House Seven Gables! station and left with her “5-years old” car. A Level Coursework! Aware of the sound, my eyes immediately darted to essay evaluation, him and then the other chums.
Suddenly, a grin of happiness flitted across my face. Studies! We had already planned to have a cycling activity at the Taman Botani Negara a few days ago as soon as the essay previous examination ended. And finally the day had come. A Level! Using the tickets. Bicycle , Cliff , Cliffs of Moher 866 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Essay Magical Memories. ?Harvey Pearce Elizabeth Baker English 111-FW01 January 24, 2015 Magical Memories The night before Christmas, the smell of warm homemade . chocolate chip cookies baking for Santa filled the air. Our tree stood so tall and was covered with colorful bows and 12 provincial essay bright twinkling lights; the fragrance of fresh pine was simply divine. As the bright beautiful sun began to set, I knew that it wouldn’t be too much longer before Christmas was finally here.
Bedtime came and so did the rain, but I snuggled. Chocolate chip , Chocolate chip cookie , Eye color 1103 Words | 4 Pages. In contrast to documented evidence, personal history or memory inevitably reflects a one sided biased view of history. Media Studies Help! Evaluate the proposition . in on website evaluation, relation to your prescribed text and at a level media studies least one related text. Personal history or memory inevitably reflects a one sided biased view of history. However through an analysis of multiple texts it can be seen that neither documented evidence (history) or personal memories are completely reliable. Despite this, a study of the poems “In Thai Binh (Peace). Alzheimer's disease , Denise Levertov , Emotion 974 Words | 3 Pages.
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Declarative memory , Episodic memory , Hippocampus 701 Words | 5 Pages. our MEMORY . Media Studies Help! A flow of events must occur before we can say “I remember”. Memory is “an active system that receives, stores, . organizes, alters and recovers information” (Lieberman, 2004). In general, memory acts like a computer. Incoming information will be encoded, it is like typing data into a computer. Next, stored the information that we typed into the system. Finally, memories must be retrieved in order to be useful.
According to Parente and Stapleton (1993), they stated that “ memory is a. Declarative memory , Episodic memory , Hippocampus 831 Words | 3 Pages. In psychology, memory is the english 12 provincial exam process in which information is encoded, stored, and help retrieved. On Website! Encoding allows information that is media studies from the . outside world to reach our senses in the forms of chemical and essay evaluation physical stimuli. In this first stage we must change the information so that we may put the media studies coursework memory into the encoding process. Storage is the second memory stage or process. This entails that we maintain information over periods of scholarship essay, time. Finally the third process is the a level help retrieval of information that. Declarative memory , Episodic memory , Hippocampus 1409 Words | 5 Pages.
Psych101: Memory “If we lose our memory , we lose ourselves. Person! Forgetting is one of the symptoms of death. Without . memory we cease to be human beings.” - Ivan Klima These were the words said by the famous Czech novelist and playwright, Ivan Klima, during his speech at studies coursework a conference in politics coursework, Lahti, Finland in 1990. Memories tell the story of our lives. From the help moment we first met our bestfriend, our first day in school, our first heartbreak, ourglorious victories, our failures, our special time with. Amnesia , Declarative memory , Episodic memory 897 Words | 3 Pages. Memory ‘ Memory ’ labels a diverse set of should be legal, cognitive capacities by media studies coursework help which we retain information and reconstruct past experiences, . Essays On The House Seven! usually for present purposes. Memory is one of the most important ways by media coursework which our histories animate our current actions and experiences.
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Declarative memory , Educational psychology , Hippocampus 1092 Words | 3 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- Computer Memory Section #41930 Carmine Didominic March 21, 2013 March 21, . 2013 Over the essay on website evaluation last seventy years computers have been around for our personal use either for entertainment, business, or school purposes. Today, the a level majority of the world has had a computer or owns one. Computers have drastically changed its look ever since they were produced in the 1940’s. Should Essay! Many types of software has been developed to keep computers. Computer , Computer data storage , Computer memory 1129 Words | 4 Pages. Watson conceived that self-analysis failed to studies coursework, recognize the framework of function of english 12 provincial exam, consciousness throughout the coursework first 50 years of psychology (Wozniak, . 1997). Watson recognized that the only true facts that followed from the self analysis were in memory , response time, and bodily modification. On Website Evaluation! Watson believed in the flavor of studies coursework, philosophy.
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Essay Memories from a Sinking Ship. Memories from a sinking ship The chapters “ Memories of a sinking ship” and “The forgotten” is about a boy named Roy who lives . alone with his mother because his father is dead. It’s all about Roys’ life and scholarship essay it’s from his point of view. In the media studies first chapter “ Memories of a sinking ship” Roy stays at his grandmother in an essay separate, Chicago. The first time the mother leaves Roy with the grandmother, she is out with a rich boyfriend in Mexico.
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? Memories are life Brisbia Zavala College of a level media studies help, Lake County May 8, 2014 Memories are life “The only scholarship person real . treasure is in your head. Memories are better than diamonds and nobody can steal them from you” by Rodman Philbrick, The Last Book in the Universe. A Level Media Studies Help! If we think about what life is made up, we can say that memories build life. Politics! We save all the important and happy events that occurred in a level media studies help, our lives as well as the scholarship person i admire most sad and worst moments. It is said that the brain is the. Episodic memory , Hippocampus , Implicit memory 2479 Words | 8 Pages. ? Memory summary Daniela Holguin PSY/211 June 9, 2014 Bonnie Bartol Memory summary In this course we are . learning the process of memory . The memory is set up in three different stages; each individual stage retains information a little bit longer than the prior to it.
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Yolen whose. Fairy tale , Family , Fiction 952 Words | 3 Pages. Human Memory 207, Do Flashbulb memories differ from other forms of memory ? Our past is essay evaluation preserved in a level studies coursework, a . Coursework! variety of memories of very different nature (Salaman, 1970) There. Cognitive psychology , Declarative memory , Emotion and memory 2317 Words | 7 Pages. They never remove the purse from media coursework under Sook's bed unless making a deposit or a ten-cent withdrawal on Saturdays. 12 Provincial Exam! She allots Buddy ten cents to go to the . picture show Christmas Memory Everyone has memory of the holidays that sticks out in their mind.
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To start with is to understand human memory is a diverse set of cognitive capacities by which we reconstruct past experiences and, retain . On Website Evaluation! information usually for present purposes. Memory is one of the most important ways by which our histories define our current actions and experiences. Most notably, the human ability to a level media coursework help, conjure up long-gone but specific episodes of an essay separate, our lives is both familiar and puzzling, and media is a key aspect of personal identity. Memory seems to be a source of knowledge. We remember. Cognition , Concept map , Educational technology 1934 Words | 5 Pages. were, I probably would have that severe scarring and essay on website that could have weighed heavily in my life in the future and how I saw it. I’ve realized that one . little mishap can have a lasting impression whether it’s physical scars, mental scars or just memories . I’m glad I do have that family support and a level media love because I now use that when it comes to person i admire, my children and their upbringing. I can only hope they will carry that on like I did. A Level Media Help! To this day, I like to look back at that time when I was a child and.
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their motivation was will determine if their act was moral or not. By betraying his own kin Momutu decided to give up his humanity, while on the other . hand, Amoo gave up his own freedom to protect his family. Testing with success series The Essay Exam Organization and neatness have merit Before writing out the exam: Write down their key words, listings, etc, as they are fresh in your mind. Otherwise these ideas may be blocked (or be unavailable) when the time comes to a level media coursework, write. African slave trade , Answer , Atlantic slave trade 857 Words | 4 Pages.
BM 6105 Assignment BM 6105 Managing Change Assignment (3000 words) Essay Due on on the of the seven, Monday 14th of January 2013 You are required to write an coursework help . essay supported with reference to the academic literature that answers the essay evaluation following question: • You have recently been appointed to your first management post following graduation. You are keenly aware that as part of your management role you will be responsible for managing change and anticipate drawing on your BM 6105 studies to help you achieve success. Essay , Management , Organization 690 Words | 3 Pages. ?SENIOR MEMORY BOOK ENGLISH IV During this school year you will write a series of essays FOR CREDIT which will culminate in . a book known as the Senior Memory Book. Media Coursework Help! It will consist of your memories and thoughts from your entire life.
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2013 | 5 Pages (1064 Words) | 1 Views | 4.5 12345 (1) | Report | This is a Premium essay for upgraded members Sign Up to access full essay DID YOU LIKE THIS? TELL YOUR FRIENDS. Send Code Napoleon and “Declaration. Age of Enlightenment , Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen , French Revolution 632 Words | 4 Pages. ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to help you write an acceptable academic- level essay . . This is not the only way to organize and develop an essay . It is, however, a tried and true system and will likely be what your TCC instructors require of you. Media Studies Coursework! Audience and Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and purpose. For, before you can know how to approach the subject, you must determine whom you will be addressing, how much they already. 2005 albums , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1430 Words | 5 Pages.
? Easy as 1,2,3. 1. Politics! Read a few of our sample essays on your topic 2. Develop your own ideas 3. Your paper will practically write itself . Essay on A Childhood Memories I forced the door open and was blinded by sunlight and choked from all of the dust that had settled in the room. As I entered, the wooden floors slightly give way. Rusty nails poked out of the media coursework help floorboards and person i admire old water stains have made designs on the walls. Woods were really rusty and at any given day this house would collapse. Claustrophobia , Fear 1742 Words | 4 Pages.
Identity Reside? : Tommy Vladek Personal identity theory is a theory that questions our existence philosophically: it asks who we are and how do we know? In . the essay “Will Tommy Vladek Survive?” John Perry described a controversial topic on identity by analyzing an essay called The Meeting by media coursework Frederik Pohl and english essay C.M. Konibluth. In the essay there were two boys -Tommy Vladek a destructive boy, who was mentally challenged but healthy-bodied and Sam a normal boy, who had an accident that damaged his body. Bugatti Veyron , Cognition , Hippocampus 2029 Words | 8 Pages. ?Photography what we changes what we remember “Photography brings back the memories again” The best way of studies coursework help, reminding old . Politics Coursework! memories is seeing old photographs which we take those pictures can be sad or of studies coursework help, full of joy which can bring smile on your face or bring tears in your eyes. The price of an image should be commensurate with how and where the image was taken. Although there are some phenomena in memory that are poorly understood, it is generally accepted that an item studied as a picture will. A picture is worth a thousand words , Alois Alzheimer , Alzheimer's disease 1206 Words | 4 Pages. ?Psychology Essay 1- ) Outline one theory of how emotion may affect one cognitive process?
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There are several items that stand out in the painting and lead me to on the, the conclusion that the main theme of a level studies coursework help, this painting is politics time. A Level Media Studies Coursework! We all worry about time, from english essay first thing in the morning thinking about making it to work on time. Clock , Horology , Meaning of life 720 Words | 4 Pages. Carter Introduction: This essay is going to look at how the Multi Store Model of Memory works and how it compares with The . Working Memory Model. Studies! It will also look at three theories of english 12 provincial essay, forgetting (Cue Dependent, Interference and Trace Decay) and show the evidence that supports or criticises the models and theories. The Multi Store Model of Memory (Atkinson and Shiffrin, 1968) describes memory as a flowing through system in terms of information. The multi store model of memory itself has its fair share. Decay theory , Interference theory , Long-term memory 2062 Words | 5 Pages.
Memory , Thinking, and media studies Intelligence Amy McKenzie Winkle November 7, 2010 Psychology – Mr. Hacker Week 4 Individual Project The human . memory is a very complex phenomenon. The memory is considered to be a cognitive neuroscience. It is made up of four parts: sensory, short term, working, and an essay on a separate peace long term. Media Studies Coursework! Many factors impede or enhance the information flow throughout each step of the process.
I will also explain proactive and retroactive interference in this essay . English 12 Provincial Exam Essay! Finally, I will give you some strategies. Cognitive psychology , Implicit memory , Long-term memory 785 Words | 3 Pages. such strategies as scanning, skimming, main ideas, contextual clues and inferences. Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of this subject, student will . be able to: 1. write summaries as well as process, comparison-contrast and cause-effect essays 2. apply basic grammatical concepts in writing 3. answer questions based on academic texts 4. give oral presentations Textbook: 1. Daise, D., Norloff, C., and Carne, P., (2011). Q: Skills for Success 4 : Reading and Writing Oxford University. Cambridge , Essay , Latin 401 Words | 3 Pages.
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