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Business Process Outsourcing essay. Business process outsourcing is a component of outsourcing, which involves contracting operations of a given business functions or processes to a third party service provider (Tas Sunder, 2004). It describes the outsourcing of a business processing service to statement heroes an outside firm with the school days your life, aim of replacing in-house services and labor from an outside firm or firms. Various companies have been involved in business process outsourcing. One of such firms is Tecnovate Company that is located in India, though it operates internationally (Long, 2005).
A successful closure of outsourcing deals is the thesis statement on epic heroes, first step in effective management in the transitioning of services from an in-house team to a selected outsourcing service provider. Most managers tune-off when an tabakov thesis, outsourcing deal is struck, especially, to thesis on epic the detriment of that process. These managers fail to remain vigilant during the phases of scholarship person i admire transition management. It is crucial to translate an outsourcing deal into a viable operational process (Tas Sunder, 2004). Managing the transition is not only the responsibility of the service provider. Managers need to understand that the transition is a joint effort which requires a lot of thesis statement on epic commitment and involvement of scholarship essay i admire both the service provider and the client’s organization. There are several instances whereby the client’s managers feel that their job has been completed after the deal is signed. The reason they give is that the thesis on epic, onus shifts entirely to the service provider once the deal is struck.
However, the christmas eve descriptive, key impetus in effecting smooth transitions hinges to a certain extent on the competence and experience of the service provider. A transition from an in-house processing to an outsourcing provider is thesis doomed to fail if it is viewed as a one-way-street. For a transition to business lesson be successful there should be an active involvement and a joint commitment by thesis heroes, both parties. Days Best Your Life Essay! Transition processes encounters a host of hurdles that need to be quickly resolved after being identified (Lacity, Willcocks Feeny, 1999). There is a need to recognize that each transition is unique even if the vendor may possess a past experience in doing many transitions. The reason why any transition process is unique is that there are two different parties who are involved, and challenges differ in every transition. There are some key issues that must be addressed to have a successful outsourcing relationship.
One of the statement heroes, issues is having the right team in tabakov thesis, place. For a successful transition process to happen there should be the right people at the right time and on the right place. It is crucial to ensure that the transition management team comprises of individuals who possess the required seniority and expertise to manage the change process. Also, when the right team is in place, besides having the technical expertise, it helps if the team members possess a prior international experience together with direct customers’ interactive experience. The second issue that lies with the transition management is the facilitation of interactivity.
The transition management team should not make the thesis statement on epic heroes, transition process to be a one-way-street, whereby the incumbent team is left alone to share knowledge (Tas Sunder, 2004). They should encourage the new incoming team to share their learning experiences or knowledge at regular intervals so as to gauge the effectiveness of the learning process. Playback sessions may be developed whereby the incoming team makes a presentation on application, flow, operations, use cases and business processes among others. In such way, the management can establish a clear relationship in the transition process. The transition management should address the issue of cross-cultural aspects and communication to deian tabakov ensure a successful outsourcing process (Lacity, Willcocks Feeny, 1999).
These issues are one of the most overlooked and the hardest during transitioning services to the outsourcing service provider. These issues give rise to communication challenges and breed mistrust in the entire engagement. Statement On Epic Heroes! The management should arrange a cross-cultural training for customer teams and essay i admire vendor. Statement! This can be done at the initial stages of the transition process so as to lessen the risks while reaping more benefits. The transition management should perform reviews diligently. Inspection or reviews should be done regularly on business english plans every stage of transition. This will ensure that there is clear and prompt communication during the process. Regular reviews and inspections also ensure a quick corrective action and problem identification during the transition process.
The transition management should also foster a positive work environment. In any transition process, there must be hostility from segments in the client’s operational environment. Regular team building activities should be conducted to promote a better understanding, an excellent working environment and thesis statement heroes open communication. Open communication of the proposed plans and team building help also to reduce inherent hostility and, at the same time, build a strong team (Long, 2005). Teaching English Plans! Once the outsourcing decision has been made, there are about four steps involved. The first step involves scoping. Thesis Statement! Scoping involves the definition of high level objectives of the process.
Also, in this step, there is the development of high level and robust understanding of scope together with the key constraints. The outsourcing management should understand the deian, implication of human resource after outsourcing. The second step involves feasibility study. This step focuses on building on the initial scope and constraints. In this stage, a delivery framework is set together with the implications of the business case. Supporting risk management activities and commercial agenda are set through drawing out thesis statement on epic heroes key parameters of services delivery. The third step involves preparation of the transition process. This step focuses on moving to the definition of services, which can be laid out in a contract. The step also involves due diligence so as to confirm the essay person, assumptions and assets in the transition process. Preparation is built on inputs from the diligence phase in order to plan for differences in geography.
It also helps in determining when and how to move assets, responsibilities, human resources and accountabilities. Thesis Statement! The last step is known as transition, or as process migration (Reuvid et al. 2005). It involves handing over scholarship essay person, the process to the supplier, who is the third party or the captive unit from the client. This step is the moment of truth that involves the transfer of assets and staff members together with their responsibilities to the outsourcing partner. This step can take a long or short time depending on the efforts required to affect it. From this stage on, the outsourcing of business processes becomes operational. From these four steps, the last step, which is the transition, is the most challenging and difficult. The four steps in the process will determine whether the process will be smooth or not.
For any company to have a business process outsourcing, these steps should be followed in order to ensure that a successful outsourcing relationship is established. A strong outsourcing relationship is heroes vital for the survival of the new firm (Long, 2005). Tecnovate Growth Strategy. Scholarship Person! Tecnovate is heroes one of the companies in the world that has been involved in the outsourcing of business processes (Mishra, 2003). The company has established several growth strategies . For any organization to survive in the market there must be growth strategies to ensure survival.
At the end of 2003, Technovate was a captive of business process outsourcing facility for ebookers. This means that ebookers was its one and only client. Since 2002, the company took on responsibility for a myriad of healing papers support functions and back office for each Ebookers’ European offices together with the group management company. Prashant Sahni was made the chief executive officer of thesis on epic heroes Technovate after its formation (Sample, 2004). One of his first orders in the company was to find a space for his team to presentation who wants to be work. This was an urgent task to undertake, since temporary space that had been acquired overflowed. This situation forced part of his team to work under rented structures that were placed on the roof of the existing offices. On Epic Heroes! Prashant dismissed cheap and remote offices and business english chose to build the offices at thesis heroes an industrial estate that was closer to Delhi in India. The choice was made so as to deian tabakov thesis attract more people and heroes retain the customers.
If the company had chosen an isolated location, it could have been forced to invest in transportation. Being close to Dehli ensured that the extra costs were avoided. On the other hand, the christmas eve descriptive essay, rent of thesis on epic heroes these offices was higher than it would have been in a less attractive property. Prashant was able to tabakov thesis negotiate the rates to around 60 % of the market rates for a period of nine years. The other key saving that was made by the company was in computer and telecommunications bandwidth. In the agreement, there was a favorable discount that stipulated that any fall in price over 5 % would be reflected in the Tecnovate rates (Sample, 2004). This logic can be proven over and over, as these services are becoming increasingly commoditized. Thesis On Epic Heroes! Now, having a solid connection and a new office space, Tecnovate was ready to grow and expand. It only required one million dollars worth of healing research capital to start operations.
Knowing that any failures would lead to thesis statement on epic heroes a disaster, Prashant together with his team opted to start with a simple and non-core processes. They also overstaffed the first processes so as to ensure safety would anything go wrong. This was one of the survival tactics that were initially applied by the Tecnovate management (Sample, 2004). Before being involved in any new processes, Tecnovate was much careful to agree on detail service level deals with ebookers. This included MIS specifications and workflows agreements. There was also a solid project management to track the progress of the company and any other issue that arose. Each of the processes was assigned to a function owner who would assume responsibility after completion of the migration. The two companies agreed on the financial model that would have a favorable rate of christmas eve descriptive return for ebookers, together with a reasonable margin for Technovate. Prashant knew that the on epic heroes, move to proceed with business process outsourcing was a risky decision, following the air crisis and the doomed-laden morale in 2002.
Tecnovate Company was a key element in presentation desk to be a millionaire, the ebookers strategy, since it provided a range of thesis on epic heroes crucial services (Mishra, 2003). Tecnovate was the captive BPO facility of Ebookers Company in healing research, 2003 having been valued at thesis heroes $160 million at India’s business process outsourcing space (Ebookers Tecnovate announcement 2004). The company was now providing a whole range of BPO services, contact centre services and IT services to ebookers, being its only client. The company started spreading its wings in a bid to acquire more customers. The company also established a travel business process outsourcing centers in Montreal and India. It had certified courses in the centers for individuals who had a vision of developing their own careers in the business process outsourcing travel industry (Ferro, 2006).
At the end of the year 2005, Technovate was performing well. It started taking on school days best days your additional services and functions. Thesis Statement On Epic! In the company, there were new processes that were moving in help desk to be a millionaire, together with recruitments taking place. It was during this stage of growth that Myron Ferro became the director of operations in June 2005. Thesis! He took over scholarship essay i admire, from Goa which was a famous travel destination in India. Ferro was far sighted in this sector since he had a great experience in the field. Ferro had been the associate vice president in the voice of operations at WNS global Services Company before joining Technovate. As seen earlier in the discussion, an thesis heroes, experienced staff is essential in business process outsourcing. He had also worked at various global majors such as EFunds and Stream Solectron (Sample, 2004). Ferro had also worked with Raheja group of hotels in India, Taj group of hotels and Inn hospitality group of hotels.
The experience possessed by Ferro helped much in the growth of Technovate. He was far-sighted and, at the same time, aware of the challenges that were present in the dynamic business process outsourcing industry. It is evident that in teaching business english plans, every stage of the business process outsourcing cycle, there are some challenges. But once a deal is complete, the statement heroes, transition process turns to be a testing ground. Ferro had a difficult task ahead of eve descriptive essay him, especially the thesis on epic heroes, Cendant’s processes at the pipeline, which were to be migrated into the facility that he was handling. There were also the essay person, growth of low costs outsourcing destinations in some countries, which included Philippines and statement Manila among others. The low-cost outsourcing destinations posed a tough competition to India’s process outsourcing facilities (Mishra, 2003). Tecnovate Fusion Philosophy. Tecnovate has adopted fusion philosophy or policies that are observed. Eve Descriptive! The outsourcing services that were offered by Technovate were in three categories (Sample, 2004).
These categories are IT services, contact center services and business process outsourcing services in thesis statement heroes, the travel domain. The IT services were website design, maintenance and development. Also, the IT services included website content management systems, support for JD Edwards that was an enterprise management package, and ticketing engine used by Technovate and its clients. Contact center services included post-sales and pre-sales services. Customer support services were given to clients through emails and telephone calls that were in the caller’s native language. The business process outsourcing services were in a form of financial services and essay person i admire back-office administrative services (Long, 2005). There was a multilingual support model that was developed by Technovate Company so as to service both voice and non-voice processes (Sample, 2004). Thesis Heroes! The company had a multicultural staff that comprised of over 1000 individuals, 10 % of them were Europeans. The staff came from more than 11 countries in eve descriptive essay, the European countries. Thesis Statement Heroes! They offered a unique opportunity for the cross-cultural knowledge transmission among the staff. Deian! Technovate clients recruited and trained the expatriate staff.
This was done through advertisements posted in the Internet and employees referral in on epic, their native countries. According to Prashant, who was the chief executive officer of the company, it was not about dealing in India, but delivery from best your life India using people everywhere from anywhere. From this description, it is evident that Tecnovate has evolved the thesis heroes, philosophy of fusion BPO, which offered a seamless integration of IT services, contact center and BPO services in the travel domain. The fusion philosophy is presentation desk to be a millionaire facilitated by the company’s multicultural staff. This philosophy was defined by Tecnovate business development head as a unique example of globalization, in which different processes and statement cultures fuse. The cultures and teaching plans processes are merged together so as to release energy in the form of on epic heroes high revenues and worker’s enthusiasm. This philosophy provides Tecnovate with a unique value proposition (Long, 2005). Having a cross cultural management helps the company to achieve such kind of unique value proposition.
Several outsourcing providers have tried to school days days your adopt a similar philosophy in their approach. The philosophies adopted by these companies may not be exact copies of that of Technovate, but they have similarities. The philosophy adopted by thesis, an outsourcing provider may determine its survival in christmas eve descriptive essay, the market, especially at this competitive era with increased information and communication technology (Reuvid et al. On Epic! 2005). IBM is an outsourcing provider that has a philosophy that is presentation help who wants to be a millionaire almost similar to Technovate Company. IBM business process services for learning and human resource can help one to get to the next level of business transformation, achieved through human resource outsourcing. Statement On Epic Heroes! IBM has a cost effective human resource approach that is english lesson designed to consolidate human resource and learning services together with providers into a single outsourced environment (Pertz, 2007). IBM philosophy goes a step further. Thesis! It does not only entail taking things out, but it is about bringing a holistic approach to human resource, including talent advisers and customers. The IBM fusion philosophy also brings about integrated technology solutions and processes together with actionable analytics and strong governance. The company has many human resource experts around the world together with technology solutions that help in consolidating all human resource services, such as recruiting, learning, payrolls and benefits among others.
With this integrated approach, the employees have easy access to human resources services. The approach also helps to improve the best days your life, customers’ experience, hence, leading to high productivity and low employee turnover. On Epic Heroes! In other words, IBM is committed to activities that help to build a world class workforce (Pertz, 2007). The company also reduces the total cost of human resource and learning processes through the provision of high quality service levels. This is similar to healing papers Technovate Company, whereby there is the thesis statement heroes, use of modern technology in their services. Wipro-Sectramind is eve descriptive also an outsourcing company just like Tecnovate. It was one of India’s largest companies and was formed in 1945 (Lacity, Willcocks, Feeny, 1999).
The first foray for Wipro ltd into the IT industry was in 1980. By the year 2003, the thesis statement on epic, IT service division in Wipro ltd had a total number of 26, 000 individuals in more than 54 dedicated development centers, including 30 sales offices. Their customers included big names such as Toshiba, Ericson, Boeing, Cisco and Seagate among others. The company provided a wide range of teaching business lesson plans IT services, like IT consulting, package implementation, systems integration and application development among others. The company has a dedicated travel industry practice, which provided solutions for operation management, customer management and statement on epic heroes administration. The ravel industry practice in the company also deals with issues such as flight information, fare searching, travel internet portals, reservation and booking among others. Thesis! The business process outsourcing (BPO) services in Wipro ltd were provided by Spectramind arm.
The services included email management, outbound and inbound voice processing, claims and orders processing, accounting and Human Resource processing. One of the largest BPO clients for Wipro ltd was Delta airlines in early 2003. The Wipro Sectramind was handling general sales enquiries, rejects and queue handling, frequent flyer program reporting and support and baggage service centers in-bound calls for the Delta. Another company that has a fusion philosophy almost similar to Technovate is Accenture Company. Accenture is an outsourcing provider company that deals with network security among other services. The company is thesis statement a global management consultant, technology service provider and an outsourcing company. It is committed to the delivery of innovation through collaborating with clients, who make them achieve high performances in help who wants to be a millionaire, business.
Having deep business processes and industry expertise, a proven track record and broad global resources makes Accenture able to mobilize skills and technology, rights of thesis on epic people and helps clients to improve their performance. The company has more than 123, 000 individual employees in more that 48 countries. Teaching English! This means that the company is able to operate with employees from different cross cultural backgrounds, just like Technovate. Accenture offers high quality performance through delivery capabilities and unparalleled sources. Accenture’s fusion philosophy is to partner with the best breed vendors. The philosophy applies also to the security offering which makes a strong business case. The speed of operation in the company is maximized by the use of thesis statement mature and repeatable architecture and methodologies (NASSCOM, 2004). A functional pilot implementation may be executed for a reduced investment. This is papers also similar to Technovate Company. The initial investment and ongoing investment in the network security in the company is justified, measurable and demonstrable value. Risks in the company are limited through trusted suppliers for the case of end-to-end enterprise security.
Lastly, in the Accenture Company, a clear knowledge transfer is provided through transition activities and predefined training activities. Thesis Statement! The fusion philosophy held by Accenture Company is comparable to Technovate, as seen from the description of Accenture (Long, 2005). Challenges Faced by Technovate in school days life, BPO Transition and how They are Overcome. There have been several reports in the press about the thesis, failure of some companies during the transition phase. Many companies fail to understand that, in the transition process, the essay, same process is never transferred.
The process may be perceived to be straight forward, because all what is needed is to perform the same task in the outsourced location. However, the process is never so straight forward as it may look. Heroes! This may be illustrated by a situation in which an healing research, individual is creating a similar environment (Ferro, 2006). Here, one needs to find out the type of on epic soil that is needed. There were two forces during the transition at Technovate, according to school days your essay Ferro. These forces came from the transition team and the due diligence report. For a company to statement attain a successful transition, the essay person, due diligence of client’s processes is statement heroes of much importance. A solution design or a cross functional team at days best days essay Technovate company was established to on epic deal with this task. This came after a request for proposal was submitted to the company after summarizing the deal (Ebookers Tecnovate announcement 2004). Transition team at Technovate Company dissected each of the processes.
The dissecting of each and every process by the transition team at Technovate was done in depth, as every process was broken down into presentation help a millionaire, sub-processes that were studied comprehensively. Process flow was created afterwards. While revealing this, Ferro indicated that “in any business, one would wish to move not only numbers in the business but also the ‘how’ in thesis on epic heroes, the business.” At Technovate, the transition team had to research papers embrace the multidisciplinary expertise in the areas of quality, operations, IT and finance (Ferro, 2006). The operations individuals in the transition team handled planning and scheduling, while the IT people dealt with the thesis statement on epic heroes, technology bid value and determination of some issues, such as how much bandwidth is required. Individuals at the finance department dealt with the costing bid and other issues, like how margins can be looked at business english in terms of costing and pricing. For Technovate Company, the transition team set the expectations of the company straight, according to Ferro (Sample, 2004). The other challenge in the transition is concerned with the transfer of knowledge. This challenge was even more relevant in the outsourcing process. When the outsourcing process is thesis heroes moved to low-cost destination countries, individuals performing the task do not move along with the teaching plans, process.
This means that a new team must take over the outsourced process. Documentation in any company can be easily transferred, but the expertise and knowledge of thesis heroes individuals involved in the transition process cannot be easily transferred. The other key challenge that was faced by Technovate was the issue of service quality (NASSCOM, 2004). From the fact that an school best days your life, outsourcing process takes time to stabilize, the quality of services is statement on epic heroes affected. Healing Research! To deal with this challenge, Technovate joined with Cendant Company in the establishment of service-level agreement (SLAs) together with formal task-level details for the purpose of statement defining and person managing the transitioned process. A service pilot and review processes were enacted by Technovate, whereby a group of individuals had to perform functions before going live. This was then followed by a delivery that was based on thesis statement SLA agreements. There were several interfaces that were to be dealt with in the transition process. Business processes are not stand-alone entities; they are interfaced with the other business processes in the parent company (Reuvid et al.
2005). It is because of this, for eve descriptive example, when the thesis statement heroes, process was being transitioned from Cendant Company to Technovate, that the interfaces and dependencies were clearly specified. Christmas Eve Descriptive Essay! The several failures in the transition process in Technovate were mainly caused by the inaccuracies in the process flows created by the transition team. The whole planning process was requiring a close supervision and thesis on epic examination. When the transition is over, the managers should be able to tell if the process looks like a six year, one year or even five years down the line. After the process is mapped on the original process flow, timelines should be revisited. The acquisition of research papers ebookers by Tecnovate Company had a lot of impacts on the relationship between Tecnovate and the clients. The services provided by thesis heroes, the Tecnovate Company after the acquisition of ebookers were beneficial to the clients of the company.
The first benefit was obtained from the contact center services, established after the scholarship person i admire, acquisition. Contact center services included response and call center services (Sample, 2004). Thesis! There were also outbound and inbound services, enjoyed by clients of Tecnovate Company after acquiring ebookers. Person! They include telesales, customer services and thesis on epic support, telemarketing, database updating, loyalty program administration, product support, activations and collections. Also, under contact center services, there are email sales, email support and english lesson email management. Technical helpdesks and web chat support services are useful in ensuring that clients’ problems are quickly attended at the shortest time possible. Thesis On Epic! In such way, the relationship between Tecnovate Company and i admire the clients is strengthened. Regarding the IT services, the relationship between the company and clients has also improved. These services include designing, implementing, integrating and managing e-business together with strategy development and web solutions. Heroes! The company is papers also able to on epic heroes perform internet marketing, hence, ensuring search engine optimization.
There is presentation to be a millionaire also the application software development that is meant to ensure that customers are much satisfied. Other services, such as enablement of legacy application, application maintenance and support, software services in the enterprise’s application integration help to improve the services offered to customers, thus, ensuring a strong relationship between the clients and thesis Tecnovate. Business solutions in hospitality and travel domain are essential services provided to clients after the scholarship essay i admire, acquisition of statement heroes ebookers by Tecnovate (Sample, 2004). Healing Papers! The integration of on epic heroes enterprise’s portal design with knowledge is also useful in creating a strong customer relationship. The other reason why the acquisition of ebookers by Tecnovate Company led to improved relationship with clients is the BPO services.
The services are divided into two groups. There are back office administration services and finance and accounting services. The services are meant to enhance the operations of the company, hence, attract as many clients as possible. Back office administration services include data processing, digitization, products and packet details entry and scholarship essay person content creation. There is also rules-based processing that involves claim processing and underwriting. Statement Heroes! Online processes are also available, and they entail online transaction processing, online sales processing, ticketing and school days best your reservation. The last services under back office administration are issuing of forms and other related activities, such as the order forms generation and heroes invoice generation. The second category of research papers BPO services is accounting and finance (NASSCOM, 2004). Thesis Statement! Services under this category are banks reconciliation, involving accounts payable and account receivable. There are also supplier reconciliation services under finance and accounting. These are some of the healing research, reasons that have made Tecnovate company to improve its relationship with its clients.
If an in depth analysis of these services can be done, it could be evident that the services ensure that there are no delays while serving customers. In conclusion, Tecnovate Company can be regarded as a pioneer in providing multilingual offshore business process outsourcing services, especially in the Indian BPO space. Currently, the company has clients in more than 11 countries that speak more than 9 different languages (English, German, French, Swiss, Finnish, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian and Spanish). This is an immense achievement by Tecnovate Company. The company employs expatriates at the entry and mid-level management positions. The expatriates are recruited on the clients’ base to serve their native markets. Lastly, the expatriate staff is issued with a free fully-furnished accommodation, have a caretaker, free local transport, free global travel, subsidized meals, and special leave structure and health coverage among other benefits.
Other outsourcing providers have a leaf to borrow from Tecnovate Company.
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Las leyendas armenias de origen III. Las leyendas de origen combinan historia con mito. Thesis Statement On Epic! La genealogía que va desde Hayk hasta Ará constituye el período “mítico” en el que se produce el establecimiento del primer centro “sagrado” alrededor del lago Van y su traslado posterior a la llanura de Ayrarat. Essay Person I Admire! La muerte de Ará inicia el tiempo “real”. El combate entre Hayk y Bel, que termina con la muerte de éste, es un rito de fundación. Thesis Statement! Así como el combate de Vahagn y el dragón tiene como implicancia el origen de la creación 1 , la organización del caos en un ordenamiento cósmico, de igual manera la victoria de Hayk es un triunfo de las fuerzas creadoras sobre el elemento destructor. Christmas Eve Descriptive! El cuerpo de la víctima es, a su vez, la base de la fundación. Thesis! “El establecimiento en una región nueva, desconocida e inculta, equivale a un acto de creación. Healing Papers! (. Statement On Epic Heroes! ) Aún más: una conquista territorial sólo se convierte en real después del (más exactamente: por el) ritual de toma de posesión, el cual no es sino una copia del acto primordial de la creación del mundo” 2 . Tabakov Thesis! En nuestro caso, la muerte de Bel significa la fundación de Armenia ( Hayk’ ): Hayk y sus descendientes serán quienes denominen (“dar nombre”, es decir, ordenar e identificar) montañas, ciudades y ríos; el patriarca fundador será el creador del calendario y sus hijos e hijas, los nombres de los meses. On Epic Heroes! En una palabra, el acto guerrero constituye la creación del espacio y del tiempo propios. Healing Research Papers! Todo comienza desde el centro, el monte Nemrut’, donde fue enterrado el cadáver de Bel, cuyo sacrificio implica la toma de posesión (la “cosmización”) del nuevo territorio, luego habitado.
El concepto de “mito” entre los autores armenios se aproximaba al modelo griego. On Epic! Una parte de ellos había perfeccionado sus conocimientos en distintos centros del saber helénico y sin dudas el estudio de los clásicos influenció sus concepciones. Person! Así, la historicidad de Hayk y sus sucesores se consideraba indiscutible y la presencia del elemento irracional (el mito, en la idea platónica) no la invalidaba. El manuscrito 2544 del Matenadarán (archivo de códices de Ereván) ha conservado el siguiente testimonio sobre la divinización de Hayk y Bel: Nebrot. Thesis On Epic! fue el primer coronado y se consideró dios; y todos los príncipes se le sometieron, a excepción de Hayk.
Y con todo su poderío Bel atacó a Hayk y fue muerto por él. Christmas Eve Descriptive Essay! La imagen de este Bel erigió Nabucodonosor, rey de los caldeos, que tenía 60 codos, y de Hayk dicen 36 codos 3 . La versión griega de la Biblia, fuente de la traducción armenia, escribe Orión donde el original hebreo dice k‘sil (“gigante, constelaciones”) (Job 38:31, Isaías 13: 10). Thesis Statement On Epic Heroes! La traducción armenia es Hayk 4 . Teaching Business English Lesson Plans! Orión era un apuesto cazador que había excitado el amor de Artemisa, quien, despechada por no haber sido correspondida, hizo que lo picara un escorpión. On Epic Heroes! Pero luego, desconsolada, lo transformó en la constelación más brillante del firmamento. El nombre Hayk ha sido usado con el sentido de “gigante” en la obra atribuida a Agathangelos (siglo V) y en las traducciones de Filón de Alejandría y Teón (siglos V-VI) 5 . Essay! En el siglo XVII, Eremiá Meghretsí glosa hayk' (“armenios”) como “gigantes” 6 . La lucha entre Hayk y Bel enfrenta a dos dioses supremos: “Bel es Dios [Zeus] en griego, Aramazd en armenio y Ormizd en persa”, escribió Ananiá Shirakatsí 7 . On Epic Heroes! Bel (sem. Teaching English! bel “señor”) es el apelativo de Marduk, protector de Babilonia desde la III dinastía de Ur y divinidad suprema desde el siglo XVIII a.C. Thesis Heroes! Su culto entró en Asiria (siglo XIV a.C.) y en Urartú (siglos VIII-VII a.C.), este último como posible resultado de la reubicación de población de las zonas septentrionales de Babilonia 8 . Presentation! Bel debió reemplazar a una divinidad armenia que desempeñaba su rol arquetípico. La constelación de Orión se conoce como Hayk en los textos armenios.
Los habitantes de Armenia tal vez le dieran ese nombre al observarla con sus dos “perros”, el Can Mayor y el Can Menor. Statement On Epic! La importancia desigual de Orión y Hayk en sus entornos mitológicos excluye una identificación que produjera el préstamo del nombre. Deian Thesis! Algunos estudiosos han planteado que los nombres de las constelaciones habrían surgido en la meseta de Armenia. Statement On Epic Heroes! Al respecto y sobre la base de que el mapa primitivo de la esfera celeste sólo comprende una pequeña parte del hemisferio sur, el astrónomo Maunder escribió a principios del siglo pasado: “Las imágenes del aspecto de las constelaciones más antiguas son interesantes; ocupan sólo una parte del cielo y un amplio dominio del hemisferio sur, que tiene forma de esfera irregular, ha quedado vacío. Christmas Eve Descriptive! Para descubrir este hecho, Schwartz fue el primero en hacer una suposición muy ingeniosa: dijo que esa extensión quedó vacía porque los hombres que imaginaron las constelaciones con aspecto de animales vivieron tan hacia el norte que era imposible ver esa parte del cielo. Statement! Los hombres que dividieron el cielo en constelaciones vivían con toda seguridad entre los paralelos 36º y 42º N., por lo que el lugar original de denominación de las constelaciones no puede ser Egipto ni Babilonia. Eve Descriptive! Al calcular la coincidencia del centro de esta zona vacía con el Polo Sur obtenemos 2800 a.C., que muy probablemente es la fecha de culminación de la antigua tarea de dar nombres a las constelaciones” 9 . Por ese entonces, en complemento, W. Statement! Alcott señaló que “entre las figuras representativas de las constelaciones faltan los siguientes animales: elefante, camello, hipopótamo, cocodrilo y tigre, por lo que podemos afirmar que ni la India, ni Arabia, ni Egipto pueden ser el lugar donde nació la idea de la esfera celeste. Teaching Business Plans! Podemos excluir a Grecia, Italia y España, ya que entre las constelaciones existe la imagen del león.
Por lo tanto, en una aproximación puramente lógica a la cuestión, podemos afirmar que la patria de las figuras estelares podía ser Asia Menor y Armenia, o sea, el espacio limitado por los mares Negro, Mediterráneo, Caspio y Egeo” 10 . Los hallazgos arqueológicos han determinado una antigüedad destacable de la cosmografía en Armenia. Statement Heroes! Durante las últimas décadas se ha descubierto un observatorio astronómico orientado hacia Sirio, datado en el III milenio a.C. Deian! y ubicado en los montes de Gel'am, aledañas al lago Sewán. On Epic Heroes! En las mismas montañas, en una fortaleza ciclópea a más de 3.000 metros, se han encontrado pictogramas que representan, entre otras, a las constelaciones de Tauro y de Orión 11 . English! Otro observatorio formado por tres plataformas de 2.5 mts. Thesis! de altura, orientadas según los meridianos, se halló en Metzamôr (ca. School Days Best Days Your Life! 2800) 12 . Hayk tiene un estrecho vínculo con el tiempo. Thesis On Epic Heroes! Según los libros de calendarios y festividades religiosas, cada patriarca habría ordenado celebrar el retorno a su país tras el fracaso de Babel: “Nuestro patriarca Hayk, dicen, entró en el país de Ayrarat o en la tierra habitada por su padre T'orgom el 11 de agosto y ordenó que se considerara el mismo día principio de año” 13 . Days Your Life Essay! El testimonio es poco fiable, pues esos libros fueron compilados tras la reforma de Hovhannés Imastaser (siglo XII), quien había establecido un calendario armenio fijo 14 . En el siglo VII, Ananiá Shirakatsí escribió: “Porque cierto gigante arquero llamado Hayk, del linaje de Jafet hijo de Noé, venido de Babilonia, dominó Armenia. Thesis! Habitó Armenia y por su nombre se llamaron los armenios; los armenios tomaron los nombres de sus hijos e hijas y los dieron a los meses, como homenaje al padre y a los hijos, y son estos. Person! Navasardí, Horí, Sahmí y Mahekí, Areg, Marerí eran las hijas de Hayk. Statement On Epic Heroes! Tré, Kal'óts, Aráts y Hrodíts eran hijos de Hayk” 15 . Christmas Eve Descriptive! Hovhannés Imastaser le hizo eco: “(. Heroes! ) Hayk, el primer patriarca de los armenios, ordenó los meses y los llamó con los nombres de sus hijos e hijas” 16 . Según Alishán, Hayk fue el creador del primer calendario, conocido como bun tëvakán hayóts (“verdadera fecha armenia”), con inicio el 11 de agosto de 2492. Essay I Admire! Tomó como punto de partida 428 d.C., cuando el Año Nuevo armenio (1 de Navasard) coincidía con el 11 de agosto; Hovhannés Imastaser había comenzado su calendario con esta ecuación 17 . Thesis Statement! La fecha ha sido adoptada y mantenida por la Iglesia Apostólica Armenia; así, 2005 equivale a 4498.
Ese calendario es solar y móvil. Best Your Life! Los calendarios solares duraban 365 días, es decir, ¼ de día menos que el real. On Epic! Se sumaba un día cada cuatro años; el Año Nuevo se adelantaba un día y volvía a su lugar 1461 años después (365 x 4 + 1, sumado al finalizar el lapso). School Days Best! En Egipto el período se regía por el orto helíaco de Sirio (aparición en la aurora), que en la latitud de Menfis coincidía con el inicio de las inundaciones del Nilo y el solsticio de verano (19 de julio). Thesis Statement On Epic! Esta señal para el comienzo de las tareas agrícolas cada 1461 años coincidía con el principio del año oficial (“ciclo sotíaco”; Sothis, nombre egipcio de Sirio). Christmas Essay! Los armenios conocían el período como “ciclo de Hayk”, lo que significa que se basaron en la observación de Orión (Hayk) y no de la vecina Sirio.
Por este motivo, además de las diferencias estructurales (el mes egipcio se organizaba en décadas y péntadas; el mes armenio, en semanas), no tomaron en préstamo el calendario 18 , sino que desarrollaron uno propio. Alishán había arribado a 2492 retrocediendo dos “ciclos de Hayk” desde 428 d.C. Thesis On Epic Heroes! Los matemáticos L. Best Your! Semyonov y H. Statement! Badalián han aceptado ese año, pero con la fecha 20 de marzo, equinoccio de primavera. Eve Descriptive Essay! Sin embargo, éste parece basarse en las fuentes medievales armenias y las interpretaciones bíblicas, derivadas del calendario luni-solar hebreo, tomado del babilonio en el siglo VI a.C. Thesis Statement! 19 . Tabakov! Por su parte, el lingüista Eduard Aghayán ha calculado el 20 de marzo de 457 a.C. Thesis Statement Heroes! como fecha inicial 20 . Business Lesson! No ha aceptado 1917 a.C. Thesis Statement On Epic! con el argumento de que el cinturón hallado en una tumba en Sanahín (noreste de Armenia) de principios del I milenio a.C. Teaching Business Lesson Plans! representa un calendario luni-solar que debió preceder al calendario solar 21 . No obstante, según el arqueólogo Hamazasp Jachatrián, los símbolos del cinturón no prueban un calendario luni-solar; en dicho objeto “el uso simultáneo del calendario lunar y del calendario solar podía permitir verificar la pertinencia de las fechas de las fiestas religiosas, como fue el caso de los egipcios” 22 . Thesis Heroes! Por lo tanto, es plausible la existencia de un calendario solar en el III milenio a.C., cuya base debía ser una estrella de Orión. Eve Descriptive! Es razonable que fuera Betelgeuse ( alfa de Orión), aunque sea menos brillante que Rigel ( beta de Orión). Statement On Epic! Con esta hipótesis --el año dura 365,25 días-- y mediante series de cálculos matemáticos (trigonométricos, geométricos y tabulaciones), el astrónomo Grigor Brutián ha determinado que la “fecha verdadera” se habría iniciado el 4 de julio de 2341, ocho días antes del solsticio de verano 23 . Según la tradición, los sucesores de Hayk organizaban la festividad de Navasard y reunían al ejército para desarrollar justas deportivas. Essay! Sin embargo, la fiesta de Navasard no tenía relación directa con Año Nuevo; se desarrollaba en un momento determinado del verano, definido por observaciones astronómicas, con probables características solares. Thesis Statement! El material etnográfico obtenido en los siglos XIX y XX confirma el carácter estival de la celebración 24 . La dominación irania a partir del siglo VI a.C. Deian Tabakov Thesis! representó el inicio de un proceso de interacción cultural que, interrumpido por la influencia helenística en los últimos dos siglos antes de Cristo, se prolongó hasta la adopción del cristianismo en Armenia y siguió hasta principios del siglo VI d.C. Statement Heroes! Hayk pudo ser el ancestro de la tribu de Azzi-Hayasa y luego, la divinidad suprema, hasta que esa función fue asumida por Aramazd, el equivalente del Ahura Mazda iranio, tras la iranización del panteón armenio. Deian Thesis! Djahukián ha sugerido buscar los orígenes de la leyenda de Hayk “en los tiempos de Hayasa” 25 . On Epic Heroes! En las localidades de Til-Hayasa, Arniya y Pahhuteia había santuarios del dios de la tormenta de Azzi-Hayasa, reemplazado por Aramazd 26 . Teaching Business English Lesson Plans! Arniya, como hemos visto, ha sido identificada con Aní (distrito de Daranal’í), centro del culto de Aramazd en la época clásica.
El apelativo de Sirio (“estrella de Aramazd”) 27 parece indicar que, por la proximidad de Can Mayor a Orión, su estrella más brillante fue considerada parte de éste, cuyo nombre posiblemente se identificó con Aramazd en la época de influencia irania. Thesis On Epic Heroes! El nombre Hayk pasó a la constelación de las Pléyades 28 como consecuencia de este reemplazo tardío. Un comentario de la festividad cristiana de Vardavar --la Transfiguración de la Virgen--, fechado en 992 y de autor anónimo, indica de manera implícita que la festividad de Navasard estaba dedicada a Hayk, ya reemplazado por Aramazd: (. Days Best Days Your Essay! ) Porque el 1 de Navasard celebraban a Aramazd y el 15 a Anahit, y el 5 de Sahmí a Vahián y Vahagn, y en época de verano celebraban a Afrodita. On Epic! 29 . En la época helenística el panteón armenio fue asociado a las divinidades griegas. Teaching Business Lesson Plans! Así se formaron las parejas Aramazd-Zeus, Vahagn-Hércules, Anahid-Artemisa, Astl'ik-Afrodita, Mihr-Hefestos, etc. On Epic Heroes! El sincretismo Aramazd-Zeus reafirma el carácter soberano de Hayk.
No obstante, en un edicto previo a su conversión al cristianismo, Terdat III de Armenia declaraba: Salud y prosperidad llegue con la ayuda de los dioses: abundancia de fertilidad del noble Aramazd, protección de la señora Anahit y valentía del valeroso Vahagn a todo el país de Armenia 30 . Aramazd aparece aquí como divinidad de la tercera función indoeuropea, lo que puede probar el carácter original de la tríada armenia 31 . Life! Sin embargo, existen dos opciones: la mutación de funciones entre Aramazd y Anahit se produjo después de la época helenística o, simplemente, la declaración de Terdat expresa rasgos no dominantes en sus figuras divinas. Los sucesores de Hayk se establecen en la llanura del Ararat. Heroes! Su vinculación etiológica con los puntos geográficos habla de la continuidad fundacional, y “son miembros de un complejo unificado, con los que se han codificado los montes limítrofes de la llanura del Ararat” 32 . Presentation Help! Estos son el Haykakán Par (Hayk), el Aragatz (Aramaneak), el Masís (Amasiá), los montes de Gel’am (Gel’am) y el monte Ará (Ará Gel’etsik). La opacidad de los sucesores deja poco margen para vinculaciones mitológicas. Thesis Statement Heroes! La relación entre Aramaneak y Aragatz no muestra similitud fonética que justifique la etimología popular, pero trasluce la divinización del primogénito de Hayk, ya que su descendiente Anushawán aparece como sacerdote del culto al bosque de sôs en Armawir, consagrado a Aramaneak. Days Life Essay! Según una leyenda armenia, el sôs es sagrado porque había ofrecido refugio a Jesús cuando lo perseguían sus enemigos, lo que justifica la tradición precristiana de esa sacralidad 33 . Statement On Epic! Las excavaciones han corroborado la importancia de Armawir como centro religioso. I Admire! El culto del dios de la tormenta urartiano, Teisheba, incluía árboles sagrados. Kadmós, hijo de Aramaneak y nieto de Hayk, se relaciona con el arameo kadum (“primero”) 34 . Thesis On Epic Heroes! Es el epónimo de Kadmuhi y hereda de Hayk su dominio de Ararad, la “primera tierra” en la que su abuelo se establece tras salir de Babilonia. Days Essay! La similitud de su nombre con el de Cadmo , el legendario fundador de Tebas e inventor del alfabeto griego, no parece casual; Cadmo era originario de Fenicia, ámbito característicamente semítico, lo que indica la identidad de las raíces de ambos nombres. Shará posiblemente personificara un culto agrícola 35 . La narración de Aram encierra elementos mitológicos.
Se equipara con una divinidad guerrera; fue tardíamente asimilado al planeta Marte y se lo adoraba los días martes 36 . Statement On Epic Heroes! Su combate con Payapis ha sido considerado versión local de la lucha entre Zeus y Tifón. Healing Papers! Su oponente asirio, Barsham, nos remite a Baal Šamin , dios del cielo fenicio 37 . El escenario de las acciones de los sucesores de Hayk pasa a la llanura del Ararat. Thesis! Como dice el historiador rumano Mircea Eliade, “todo territorio que se ocupa con el fin de habitarlo o de utilizarlo como ‘espacio vital’ es previamente transformado de ‘caos’ en ‘cosmos’’ es decir, que, por efecto del ritual, se le confiere una ‘forma’ que lo convierte en real. Deian Thesis! Evidentemente, la realidad se manifiesta, para la mentalidad arcaica, como fuerza, eficacia y duración. Thesis Statement On Epic Heroes! Por ese hecho, lo real por excelencia es lo sagrado; pues sólo lo sagrado es de un modo absoluto, obra eficazmente, crea y hace durar las cosas” 38 . Person! Así, el mito inicial (el combate de Hayk y Bel) es reconfigurado a través del combate de Ará Gel’etsik y Shamiram. Statement On Epic Heroes! Esto significa el traslado del centro sagrado del sur hacia el noreste y el reemplazo del “monte sagrado” (Nemrut, Sip’án) por el Ararat. Las versiones de Movsés Jorenatsí y de Sebeós sobre el mito de Ará y Shamiram difieren de manera notable en la extensión y en los detalles. Research Papers! Encierra el mito del dios que muere y renace, del que hay numerosos paralelos orientales: en Sumer, Inanna y Dumuzi; en Asiria, Istar y Tammuz; en Asia Menor, Cibele y Atis 39 . On Epic Heroes! La muerte de Ará es un cambio de autores cristianos, pues sólo Cristo podía resucitar. Lesson! Platón refiere que Er, hijo de Armenio y natural de Panfilia, murió en batalla y resucitó, tras lo cual narró su visión del más allá 40 . Un altorrelieve del siglo IV d.C. Thesis! hallado en Al'ts, necrópolis de la dinastía Arsácida de Armenia, representa a un hombre desnudo armado con lanza que lucha contra un jabalí o un cerdo auxiliado por dos perros. Research Papers! El bajorrelieve parece estar ligado con las creencias en la muerte y resurrección divina 41 , lo que lo relaciona con Ará. Tres funciones básicas, cósmicas y sociales, habrían constituido la ideología fundante indoeuropea: soberanía, fuerza y producción-reproducción.
La soberanía aparece en dos aspectos: uno mágico y cósmico, y el otro, jurídico y humano. Thesis Statement Heroes! La fuerza se expresa sobre todo en la guerra. Essay! La función de la fecundidad (producción y reproducción) se trasluce en la belleza y sexualidad, la abundancia, la paz, etc. On Epic Heroes! Esta trifuncionalidad enunciada por Dumézil se transmite desde los dioses a los héroes para revelarse en las epopeyas y leyendas indoeuropeas, donde se manifiesta en grupos de personajes contemporáneos o en sucesiones (dinásticas o no). Los elementos del ciclo de los orígenes de Armenia parecen encerrar una representación de las tres funciones indoeuropeas. Christmas Eve Descriptive! Según Haudry, “además de la ‘guerra de fundación’, ilustración dramática de la concepción orgánica de la comunidad, la tripartición se expresa en una cantidad de esquemas narrativos utilizados por los historiadores antiguos para construir una historia de los primeros tiempos de su ciudad” 42 . Statement! El conflicto de Hayk y Bel parece conservar restos de una guerra de fundación con una narración trifuncional. Scholarship Essay Person I Admire! Ambos desempeñan el rol de soberanos, pero la encarnación de la violencia tiene en Bel un papel mucho más acentuado. Statement On Epic! En tal caso, los tres protagonistas serían Hayk, el soberano que se opone a la tiranía; Bel, el guerrero que lo combate; Kadmós, el nieto pacífico de Hayk. Stephan Ahyán ha ensayado un análisis que se resume de la siguiente manera:
1) Función soberana: a) Hayk es el fundador de Armenia como entidad. School Days Life! Es un jefe sobrehumano: su flechazo mortal tiene una cualidad milagrosa. Thesis! Es el personaje “mágico” (del “tipo Varuna”); b) Aramaneak secunda a su padre y es quien realiza la distribución de los territorios entre sus hermanos y descendientes. Best Days Your Life Essay! Es el personaje “racional” (del “tipo Mitra”). 2) Función guerrera: Aram es el guerrero por excelencia. Thesis Statement On Epic Heroes! Su relación con el exterior se establece por la fuerza. Healing! Sus oponentes son guerreros (Niwk'ar `Madés) o divinidades belicosas (Barsham, titán Payapis). Thesis Statement On Epic Heroes! Cumple ambos aspectos de la función guerrera: el más salvaje (“tipo Vayu”: empalar a Niwk'ar con un clavo en la frente) y el más civilizado (“tipo Indra”: acción de general). 3) Función de la fecundidad: Ará Gel'etsik representa la belleza, enfrentado con la voluptuosidad de Shamiram. Eve Descriptive Essay! Su hijo Ará (Kardós) es un calco simétrico. Statement! El terceto padre-hijo vs. Scholarship Essay Person I Admire! amante libidinosa (Ará I-Ará II-Shamiram) tiene paralelo en los Vanes escandinavos (Njördr-Freyr-Freyja) 43 . El ciclo de las leyendas tiene lagunas en relación a este modelo indoeuropeo.
El análisis omite, por ejemplo, la presencia de Ará Gel'etsik como figura de la muerte y la resurrección, y su connotación de tercera función más relevante que el rol asexuado que le reserva la narración. Heroes! A. Teaching Business English Lesson Plans! Petrosián también ha propuesto una interpretación alternativa de base indoeuropeo a partir de la leyenda “fundamental” reconstituida por Ivanov y Toporov: “(. Heroes! ) El dios de la tormenta o el héroe nacido de él vence en combate singular a la serpiente-dragón --a causa de la relación amorosa que éste mantiene con su esposa--. Healing Papers! Por violar cierto tabú claramente definido, el hijo del dios es castigado por éste y sacrificado, pero luego resucita y trae consigo justicia, fecundidad y abundancia. Statement On Epic Heroes! (. Research Papers! ) En armenio reciben el nombre de Hayk las constelaciones de Orión y las Pléyades, que en ciertas lenguas indoeuropeas portan el nombre de héroes de la leyenda de la tormenta, y el planeta Marte, conocido en Asia Anterior por el nombre del dios de la guerra; es decir, Hayk era un dios de la tormenta y de la guerra del tipo del eslavo Perun y el indio Indra. Heroes! Los nombres de los sucesores de Hayk, Aramaneak --que estableció su residencia en la llanura del Ararat, el centro histórico de Armenia-- y Aramaís --que fundó la capital Armawir--, se parecen entre sí, como el de muchos otros gemelos míticos y es posible que tuvieran raíz igual a la del nombre de los gemelos romanos. English Lesson! También puede suponerse un esquema similar para este ciclo: Hayk (dios de la tormenta) -- Aramaneak y Aramaís (transformación de los gemelos míticos)-- Aram (héroe principal, segunda personificación del dios de la tormenta Hayk, según Abeghián)-- Ará Gel'etsik (figura renaciente)” 44 . Sin embargo, el ciclo del origen encaja de manera menos definida en este esquema. Thesis Heroes! La diferencia esencial reside en la interpretación de Hayk. Research Papers! Su identificación con las Pléyades y Marte son tardías, sin vinculación directa con los tiempos del origen. Thesis On Epic! Orión se observa mejor en el hemisferio norte durante el invierno, cuando no hay tormentas 45 , lo que quizás signifique que la asociación con la divinidad atmosférica es tardía.
Hayk presenta rasgos propios de divinidades atmosféricas, como el uso del rayo para matar a Nemrod, pero esto también es propio de Zeus, cuya función esencial era la soberanía. Teaching English Plans! Finalmente, sus características guerreras no son el atributo más destacado. Thesis On Epic Heroes! El triángulo dios de la tormenta/esposa/serpiente-dragón está ausente. Scholarship Person! También falta el motivo del tabú y el castigo paterno en el relato de Ará Gel'etsik. Es posible que Aramaneak y Aramaís representaran a los gemelos míticos fundadores de una ciudad (cf. Statement! Rómulo y Remo), luego desdoblados en padre e hijo, lo que no excluye su pertenencia a la función de soberanía. Business English Lesson Plans! Sobre la presencia de los “soberanos mayores” (Hayk-Aramaneak) y los “menores”, del tipo Aryaman-Bhaga, Ahyán se ha preguntado si los cuatro sucesores de Hayk y Aramaneak, que continúan la instalación de familias, de atribución y de bautismo de tierras, no son las versiones primaverales de transposición uniformada de los “soberanos menores” 46 . Por otra parte, desde principios de siglo se ha tratado de aparejar los nombres y las funciones de Hayk y Haldi, el dios supremo urartiano, y demostrar el pasaje Haldi Hayk 47 . Thesis! Esa identidad presume que armenios y urartianos adoraban al mismo dios.
Es cierto que ambas deidades tienen roles de dios-padre y de guerrero, pero esta similitud funcional no implica una identidad. Research Papers! De la misma manera, en Babilonia se adoraba a ciertas deidades sumerias, a las que se consideraba esencialmente idénticas a los dioses semitas. Las leyendas de origen suelen remontarse a un tiempo fuera de la historia y sus protagonistas tienen una naturaleza cósmica. Statement Heroes! La estructura toma cuerpo en determinadas épocas históricas, dando forma a la narrativa. Best Days Your Life! En nuestro caso, los nombres de Hayk y sus descendientes primogénitos hasta Ará tienen origen armenio; se remontan a las etapas fundacionales de la etnia, cuando los hablantes del armenio se separaron del tronco indoeuropeo. Statement On Epic Heroes! La narración básica se refiere al momento en el cual el caos dio paso al cosmos, la anarquía abrió camino al orden. Las leyendas de origen armenias y su continuación son esencialmente indoeuropeas; la época urartiana sólo les ha provisto su pátina histórica.
No se han descubierto huellas de la literatura urartiana; por lo tanto, la especulación sobre la existencia de una epopeya urartiana de tema afín al de Hayk y Bel, “nacionalizada” tras amalgamarse con la leyenda armenia 48 , no puede considerarse fundada. Who Wants! El ciclo de los orígenes, con sus raíces indoeuropeas, se entroncó en los seis siglos de surgimiento, consolidación y colapso del reino de Urartú, que representaron el período formativo del pueblo armenio. 2 Mircea Eliade, El mito del eterno retorno, Barcelona, 1985, p. Statement On Epic Heroes! 17. 3 Citado por Asatur Menatsakanián, “Acerca de la cuestión de las conexiones armeno-urartianas” [en armenio], Garún , 9, 1969, p. Thesis! 51. Statement On Epic! Cf. Eve Descriptive! Daniel 3:1: “El rey Nabucodonosor hizo una estatua de oro, de sesenta codos de alto por seis de ancho, y lo erigió en el llano de Dura, en la provincia de Babilonia”.
Hay paralelos de la divinización de Bel (Naram-Sin y Ur-Nammu de Ur) y de reyes caídos en batalla cuyos cuerpos no se hallaron (Ur-Nammu y Sargón II de Asiria) (Edward Gulbekián, “The Significance of the statement heroes, Narrative Describing the healing research papers, Traditional Origin of the on epic heroes, Armenians”, Le Muséon, 3-4, 1973, p. Research Papers! 366-367). 4 N. Thesis Statement On Epic Heroes! Dzovagán, “Hayk = Orión’’ [en armenio], Sión, enero de 1960, p. Days Days Your Life! 61. Statement On Epic! Aunque k‘sil reaparece en Job 9:9 y Amós 5:8, Orión no figura en la traducción griega ni Hayk en la armenia. Scholarship! Sin embargo, en Job 9:9 aparecen Orión en la versión latina, Esperón en la griega y Gisheravar en la armenia. On Epic Heroes! Estos dos últimos términos significan el lucero vespertino. Deian Tabakov! Gisheravar también se identifica con el planeta Júpiter (Grigor Brutián, “Acerca de ciertas cuestiones del calendario armenio: la adivinanza cronológica de Grigor Magistros y el fragmento de la épica de Artashés” [en armenio], Echmiadzín , 4-5, 1992, p. Statement On Epic! 102). 5 Cf.
Manuk Abeghián, Obras [en armenio] , vol. Desk To Be! VIII, Ereván, 1985, p. On Epic! 129-130; H. Help To Be A Millionaire! Zhamkochián, S. Thesis! Melik-Bajshián y A.G. Scholarship I Admire! Abrahamián, Historia del pueblo armenio, vol. Thesis Statement On Epic! I, Ereván, 1963, p. Healing Research! 107. 6 Eremiá Meghretsí, Léxico armenio [en armenio], edición crítica y notas de Hayk Amalián, Ereván, 1975, p. Thesis On Epic Heroes! 179. 7 Citado por Ghevont Alishán, Antiguas creencias o religión pagana de los armenios [en armenio] , Venecia, 1895, p. Days Best Days Your Life! 51. Statement On Epic Heroes! Sin embargo, Bel ha sido identificado con el padre de Aramazd: “Porque dicen que el primero de los antiguos dioses es un tal Bel, padre de Dios, a quien en armenio llaman Aramazd (. Eve Descriptive Essay! )” (Tovmá Artzruní y Anónimo, Historia de la casa de los Artzruní [en armenio] , versión al armenio moderno de V. Thesis! Vardanián, Ereván, 1985, p. Teaching Plans! 36-37).
8 Georges Roux, Mesopotamia. Statement On Epic! Historia política, económica y cultural , Madrid, 1990, p. Days Best Days Life! 277; Simón Hemayakián, La religión oficial del reino de Van [en armenio], Ereván, 1990, p. Thesis On Epic Heroes! 64. 9 Citado por B. English Lesson Plans! Tumanián y H. Statement! Menatsakanián, El cinturón-calendario de la edad de bronce [en armenio], Ereván, 1965, p. Research! 15. 10 Citado por idem, p. Thesis! 15-16. 11 A. Healing Research Papers! Savayán, “El enigma de los antiguos astrónomos”, Armenia de hoy, 3, 1983, p. On Epic! 32-33. 12 Cf. Scholarship! Elma Parsamián, “Armenia and thesis the Origins of christmas, Astronomy”, Journal of on epic heroes, Armenian Studies, Winter/Spring 1995-96, p. Scholarship Essay Person I Admire! 5-7. 13 Ghevont Alishán, Recuerdos de la patria armenia [en armenio] , Venecia, 1920, p. Thesis Statement Heroes! 89. 14 Cf. Essay I Admire! Rafael Vardanián, Grigor Karajanián y Hovhannés Vardanián, “Las festividades del panteón armenio” [en armenio], Sión, 1-3, 1995, p. Thesis Statement On Epic! 59. 15 Ananiá Shirakatsí, Cosmografía y calendario [en armenio], edición en armenio clásico de A. Teaching Business English! G. Statement On Epic! Abrahamián, Ereván, 1940, p. Tabakov Thesis! 77.
16 Las obras de Hovhannés Imastaser [en armenio], edición en armenio clásico de A. Heroes! G. School Days Best Days Life! Abrahamián, Ereván, 1956, p. Heroes! 224. Healing! Según una tradición popular, Hayk tuvo tres hijos y tres hijas que se volvieron estrellas y representan la constelación de Libra, con el nombre de jek (Alishán, Antiguas creencias, p. Thesis Statement On Epic! 124). Who Wants! En el diccionario de Eremiá Meghretsí, hayk significa “Libra” (Eremiá, Léxico, p. On Epic Heroes! 178). 17 Alishán, Recuerdos, p. Healing Research Papers! 84-90. Statement! Jacques de Morgan ( Histoire du peuple arménien, París-Nancy, 1919, p. School Days Days Your Life! 48) fechó la derrota de Bel en 2350. Thesis Statement! Según Jacques Santrot, Hayk habría vivido cuatrocientos años y muerto en 2265 (Hamazasp Khatchatrián, “De l'ancien calendrier arménien”, en Jacques Santrot (ed.), Arménie. Healing Research Papers! Trésors de l'Arménie ancienne, París-Nantes, 1996, p. Statement Heroes! 78), pero ignoramos su fuente. 18 Cf. Days Best Your Life Essay! L. Thesis! Semyonov, “Acerca de algunas cuestiones del calendario armenio” [en armenio], Gitakán niwterí zhoghovatzú, vol. Healing Papers! I, Ereván, 1941, p. Thesis! 22-25. 19 Idem, p. Teaching English Lesson Plans! 26; Hayk Badalián, 1963.
64. Statement On Epic Heroes! Cf. Business Plans! Grigor Brutián, “Acerca de ciertas cuestiones del calendario armenio: la festividad principal de los antiguos armenios” [en armenio], Echmiadzín, 10-11-12, 1995, p. Heroes! 139. 20 Eduard Aghayán, Ensayos sobre la historia de los calendarios armenios [en armenio], Ereván, 1986, p. Teaching Business English Lesson Plans! 42-47. 21 Tumanián y Menatsakanián, El cinturón-calendario, p. Thesis! 34-41. Presentation Help Desk Who Wants A Millionaire! Cf. Thesis Statement On Epic! Aghayán, Ensayos, p. Healing Research! 42-48. 23 Grigor Brutián, “Acerca de ciertas cuestiones del calendario armenio: la fecha verdadera armenia” [en armenio], Echmiadzín, 1, 1985, p. Thesis Statement! 56-57, y 2, 1985, p. School Days Best Life Essay! 73-76. Heroes! La lucha de Hayk y Bel, vista como un combate entre un héroe astral y la divinidad solar, ha sido interpretada como la muerte del Sol (Bel) al entrar en la constelación de Escorpio, vecina de Orión, tras el solsticio de verano, con el fin de impedir el recalentamiento de la meseta de Armenia (H. Deian Tabakov Thesis! Kalayán, “The Armenian Aspects of the thesis on epic heroes, Hayk-Orion Tradition”, Hask Hayagitakán Taregirk, vol.
4-5, 1983-84, p. Presentation Desk Who Wants To Be A Millionaire! 266-271). 24 Brutián, “Acerca de ciertas cuestiones del calendario armenio: la festividad principal”, p. On Epic Heroes! 132-138. Research! Cf. Statement Heroes! también Vardanián, Karajanián y Vardanián, “Las festividades”, p. Days Best Essay! 156-158. Statement! Hayk ha sido comparado con Apolo Hecatebolos (“arma que alcanza a lo lejos”); sus migraciones recuerdan las de Apolo-Helios y también es una divinidad cíclica (Sirarpie Der Nersessián, The Armenians, Londres, 1969, p. A Millionaire! 72). 25 Guevorg Djahukián, “Las fuentes lingüísticas de los antropónimos del primer libro de la 'Historia de los armenios' de Movsés Jorenatsí” [en armenio], Patma-banasirakán handés, 3, 1981, p. Thesis Statement! 52. 26 Gohar Vardumián, “La clasificación del panteón armenio antiguo” [en armenio], Lraber hasarakakán gitutiunnerí, 8, 1976, p. Help Desk Who Wants A Millionaire! 72. 27 Nazaret Daghavarián, Las antiguas creencias de los armenios [en armenio] , Constantinopla, 1909, p. On Epic! 30. 28 Alishán, Antiguas creencias, p. Teaching English! 124. Thesis Heroes! También son tardías las identificaciones de Saturno con Hayk y de Júpiter con su esposa (anónima) (Daghavarián, Las antiguas creencias, p. Scholarship Person! 37), al igual que la de Marte con Hayk (Stepanós Maljasiánts, Diccionario explicativo de la lengua armenia [en armenio], vol. Thesis On Epic Heroes! II, Ereván, 1944, p. School Days Life Essay! 38). 29 Citado por Vardanián, Karajanián y Vardanián, “Las festividades del panteón armenio” [en armenio], Sión, 10-12, 1994, p. Thesis Heroes! 322.
30 Agathangelos, Historia de los armenios [en armenio] , texto crítico en armenio clásico de Galust Ter-Mekertichián y Stepán Kanayán, versión en armenio moderno y notas de Aram Ter-Ghevondián, Ereván, 1983, p. To Be! 80. 31 Jean Haudry, Les indoeuropéens, París, 1985, p. Thesis Statement! 85. 32 Armén Petrosián, El mito de Aram en el contexto de la mitología indoeuropea y la cuestión de la etnogénesis armenia [en armenio], Ereván, 1997, p. Healing! 144. 33 Aram Ghanalanián, Colección de leyendas [en armenio], Ereván, 1969, p. Thesis Heroes! 321. Desk To Be! Cf. On Epic! James Russell, Zoroastrianism in school best your life, Armenia, Cambridge (Ma.), 1987, p. Statement On Epic! 52. 35 Sarguís Petrosián, “El reflejo del cultivo y el culto de los cereales en la tradición legendaria de Shará” [en armenio], Patma-banasirakán handés, 3, 1981, 187-190. Business! La relación entre Shará y el iranio shará (“glotón”) es fonéticamente improbable (cf. Statement Heroes! Djahukián, “Las fuentes”, p. School Days Your! 56). 36 Daghavarián, Las antiguas creencias, p. Thesis On Epic Heroes! 37.
37 Cf. Eve Descriptive! Petrosián, El mito de Aram, p. On Epic! 9-22 y ss., quien a partir del combate de Aram y Payapis en el monte Argeos y de los datos suministrados por la mitología comparada reconstruye un mito indoeuropeo de la lucha entre el “héroe negro” ( Aram i.e. Healing Research! * re-mo “oscuro, negro”) y el “blanco” (i.e. Thesis On Epic Heroes! *arg “blanco, plata”). 39 Cf. School Days Essay! Ghapantsián, El culto de Ará Gel’etsik’ [en armenio], Ereván, 1945, p. Statement! 41-68 y ss.; Nicolás Adóntz, Investigaciones históricas [en armenio] , París, 1948, p. Healing Papers! 236-266. 40 Platón, Diálogos, Buenos Aires, 1980, p. Thesis! 530-536. Presentation Help Who Wants To Be! Son textos adicionales el Romance de Nino, relato griego conservado en un papiro egipcio del siglo I a.C., y tradiciones armenias que han perdurado hasta nuestros días (cf. Thesis Statement! Giovanni Pettinato, Semiramide, Milán, 1985, p. Days Days Life Essay! 114-118; Alexander Madikián, Ara Gel’etsik [en armenio], Viena, 1930, p. Thesis! 245-255; Karekín Servantzdiánts, Obras [en armenio], vol.
I, Ereván, 1978, p. Person I Admire! 52). 41 Asatur Menatsakanián, “Wild-Boar Motif in thesis statement on epic heroes, Armenian Mythology and best your Art”, II International Symposium of statement heroes, Armenian Art, Ereván, 1978, p. Deian! 8. Thesis! Una identificación anterior lo vinculaba con Hayk (Babkén Arakelián, “Hayk-Orión” [en armenio], Teghekagir, 8, 1941, p. Christmas! 30-31), cuya adoración habría sobrevivido siglos después de su reemplazo. 42 Haudry, Les indoeuropéens, p. Thesis Heroes! 20-21. 43 Cf. Teaching Business Plans! Stepán Ahyán, “Les débuts de l’histoire d’Arménie et les trois fonctions indoeuropéennes”, Revue d’Histoire des Religions, 3, 1982, p. Thesis Statement On Epic Heroes! 261-269. 44 Armén Petrosián, “El esquema genético básico de la mitología armenia”, copia mecanografiada, Ereván, 1989. 45 Petrosián, El mito de Aram, p. I Admire! 61-62.
47 Menatsakanián, “Acerca de la cuestión”, p. Thesis Statement On Epic Heroes! 50-53; Maksim Katvalián, “Hayk” [en armenio], Haykakán Sovetakán Hanragitarán, vol. Best Days Life Essay! VI, Ereván, 1980, p. Statement Heroes! 166; Martirós Gavukchián, El origen del pueblo armenio [en armenio], Montreal, 1982, p. Healing! 64-65; Rafael Ishjanián, Cuestiones del origen y la historia antigua de los armenios [en armenio], Ereván, 1988, p. Thesis Statement Heroes! 71-73. Teaching Business Lesson! Se basa en el parecido de Hal-di y Hay-k, y el pasaje ly en ciertos dialectos ( galis em gayis em, “yo vengo”). Statement On Epic! El pasaje hal hay no responde a las leyes fonéticas del armenio, y el reemplazo de -di por -k no tiene explicación; si * di significara “dios”, k debería ser sinónimo. Presentation Help! Este último puede ser una huella del sufijo gentilicio ik ( parsik y parsi “persa”, gel‘nik y gel‘ni “armenio”, djëhudik y djëhud “judío”) (Armén Petrosián, “Armyanskie etnonimii v svete mifologicheskij dannij”, en Mezhdistsiplinarniye isspegovanniia kulturogeneza i etnogeneza Armyanskogo nagoryu i sopredelnij oblastei , Ereván, 1990, p. Heroes! 236). Presentation Desk Who Wants To Be A Millionaire! Según Maxim Katvalián ( Protzess obrazovaniia perbogo edinogo gosudarstva na Armyanskom nagorye i sliyaniya aborigenniaj plemen v IX-VI vekaj do n.e., síntesis de tesis de doctorado, Universidad de Ereván, Ereván, 1980, p. Statement On Epic Heroes! 31-32), * Hay-di significa “dios armenio” (* di, singular de dik‘, “dioses”), pero no hay casos de que una deidad haya tenido un apelativo similar. 48 Gaguik Sargisián, “El orden socioeconómico, la estructura estatal y la cultura de la Armenia antigua” [en armenio], en M. Healing Papers! Nersisián (ed.), Historia del pueblo armenio , Ereván, 1985, p. Thesis Heroes! 85.
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The rise and fall of thesis heroes, nokia Essay Sample. NOKIA was the most successful European company of the 1990s. The Finnish mobile-phone manufacturer captured the emerging market for mobile phones and built the healing, industry’s most powerful brand. Its handsets virtually defined the industry from the time it launched its first GSM phone, the 1011, in heroes, 1992. From 1996 to 2001 its revenues increased almost fivefold, and by 1998 it was the world’s biggest mobile manufacturer. In 2005, it sold its billionth handset, an 1100 to a customer in Nigeria. Despite being the market leader in the mobile phone market since 1998, the healing research, company saw a decline in its brand value since the early 2000.
It was once a firm with turnover exceeding the tax revenue of the country it was based in. However, the company not only first lost its number one ranking, a position it had held for 14 years but reach to sell-off in statement heroes, less than 10 years. So the most valid question from all is eve descriptive essay, what happened to Finland’s most beloved company? This case is all about analysis of NOKIA’s strategies responsible for its market domination to sell-off . Snapshot of NOKIA’s History. To understand the Rise and Fall of statement heroes, NOKIA, it is presentation help desk who wants to be, important to thesis on epic, track the history of NOKIA on a single canvas. The same is attempted through following short liners in this regard: A wood pulp mill was set up by a mining engineer named Fredrik Idestam at the Tammerkoski Rapids in south-western Finland. 1871: The name NOKIA was born based on the name of Nokianvirta river on christmas the on the banks of thesis on epic heroes, which Idestam opens a second mill. 1898: Eduard Polon founds Finnish Rubber Works, which later becomes NOKIA’s rubber business, making everything from rubber boots to presentation help who wants to be, tyres.
1912: Arvid Wickstrom sets up Finnish Cable Works, the foundation of statement, NOKIA’s cable and electronics business. 1967: The official merger of NOKIA Ab, Finnish Cable Works and Finnish Rubber. 1979: NOKIA creates radio telephone company Mobira Oy as a joint venture with leading Finnish TV maker Salora. 1981: Launch of the Nordic Mobile Telephone service, the world’s first international cellular network, and the first to desk who wants, allow international roaming. 1982: NOKIA introduces the first car phone – the Mobira Senator – to the network. That same year, the NOKIA DX200, the heroes, company’s first digital telephone switch, goes into operation.
1984: NOKIA launches the Mobira Talkman portable car phone – a chunky piece of kit but a start. 1987: NOKIA introduces the Mobira Cityman, the first handheld mobile phone. It weighs in at 800g and comes with a price tag of 24,000 Finnish Marks (about ?3,400). The Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, is pictured using one to school best days your life, make a call from statement on epic Helsinki to his communications minister in Moscow. 1991: The Finnish prime minister, Harri Holkeri, makes the world’s first “global system for deian tabakov mobile communications” call, using NOKIA equipment. 1992: NOKIA launches its first digital handheld GSM phone, the thesis statement heroes, NOKIA 1011.
The NOKIA president and chief executive, Jorma Ollila, decides to focus on mobile phones and telecommunications, and scholarship i admire, the process begins of selling. off its rubber, cable and consumer electronics divisions. 1994: NOKIA launches the 2100 series, the first phones to feature the statement on epic, NOKIA Tune ringtone. It goes on to sell 20m phones worldwide in the 2100 series. NOKIA’s target had been 400,000. Business Lesson Plans! 1998: NOKIA becomes the world leader in the mobile phones market. NOKIA’s turnover increases almost fivefold from ˆ6.5bn to ˆ31bn. NOKIA launches the NOKIA 7110, a phone capable of rudimentary web-based functions, including email. It uses the Orange network to access the internet using Wireless Application Protocol (WAP).
2000: NOKIA does a deal with music publisher EMI enabling users to choose their favourite tunes as their ringtones. 2001: NOKIA launches its first phone with a built-in camera, the NOKIA 7650. But a profits warning, blamed on a slowdown in the mobile market, stuns investors. It announces plans to cut 1,000 jobs, but things start to thesis statement, look up by the end of the year. 2002: NOKIA launches its first video capture phone, the NOKIA 3650. It also launches its first 3G phone, the NOKIA 6650. With 3G technology, phones can now be used to browse the school your essay, web, download music, watch TV on the move, and more.
2004: NOKIA reveals that although it is still the market leader it is losing share to its rivals, with its 35% share comparing with a target of 40% as it falls behind with its new product range. Thesis Heroes! 2005: NOKIA sells its billionth phone – a NOKIA 1100 – in Nigeria, and global mobile phone subscriptions pass 2bn. 2007: NOKIA is forced into one of the world’s largest product recalls after it admits the thesis, batteries in statement on epic heroes, 46m phones could be faulty. Meanwhile, a longer-term problem emerges: Apple launches the iPhone. 2008: NOKIA reports a 30% fall in third-quarter profits.
NOKIA smartphone sales fall by 3.1% during the quarter, while sales of Apple iPhones grow by 327.5%. 2009: NOKIA announces plans to cut 1,700 jobs worldwide as the recession hits mobile phone sales. English Lesson! NOKIA admits it was slow to react to the rise of new devices such as the iPhone and statement on epic heroes, plans to fight back. But it is too late to best, avoid the first loss in more than a decade. 2010:
Competitors such as the thesis heroes, iPhone and Android-based devices are posing a serious challenge to NOKIA’s future. It appoints former Microsoft man Stephen Elop as president and chief executive. NOKIA cuts a further 1,800 jobs despite a rise in deian tabakov, profits. 2011: CEO of NOKIA warns staff “we are standing on a burning platform”, and announces a strategic partnership with Microsoft days later to compete with Apple and Google’s Android platform. NOKIA cuts a further 4,000 jobs worldwide from its 65,000-strong workforce. Thesis Statement Heroes! Elop denies it is in talks about a takeover by Microsoft. NOKIA is eve descriptive, overtaken by statement on epic Samsung and presentation help who wants to be a millionaire, Apple in the smartphone sector as profits and sales dwindle. NOKIA launches new smartphones.
2012: NOKIA cuts 4,000 jobs and moves smartphone manufacturing to thesis statement, Asia. Shares fall following a profits warning and it slumps to a ˆ1.3bn loss. Analysts foresee a possible takeover by Microsoft as it cuts 10,000 more jobs and announces its last factory in Finland will close. Scholarship Person I Admire! 2013: NOKIA returns to statement on epic, profit after an 18-month spell of presentation help desk to be a millionaire, losses. Microsoft buys NOKIA’s handset business for ˆ5.44bn (?4.6bn).
NOKIA’s Business Approaches. Whenever we turned on one of NOKIA’s legendary handsets, we always got the same thing:- that famous signature logo, holding hands. And for more than one generation, it was hand-holding NOKIA did best – carrying people through, bit by bit, the mobile revolution. NOKIA were by no means the first company to thesis on epic heroes, release a commercially available mobile phone, but it was the lesson, first to statement, do it really well, and thesis, with true mass appeal. Back in the 1990s there weren’t any other big brands parallel to NOKIA. NOKIA were so dominant that people didn’t talk about what brand? it was just about the number, 3210, or whatever you had. NOKIA took users on a journey. So far, so good – but then one presentation changed everything. Complacency had kicked in as they felt they could do no wrong. Then all of thesis statement on epic heroes, a sudden, in January 2007, Steve Jobs walked on to a stage and pulled an iPhone out of his pocket and changed the world forever. The fall was swift.
According to figures from analyst firm Gartner, NOKIA’s smartphone market share in 2007 was a dominant 49.4%. In subsequent years, it was 43.7%, then 41.1%, then 34.2%. School Your Essay! In the first half of year 2013, it had plummeted to just 3%. Many blame this decline, at least in the initial stages, on Symbian, the firm’s mobile operating system. It was, to paraphrase a welter of expert opinion, simply not up to the job. They missed the importance of software, this was experts feeling. NOKIA make great phones, they still do. Heroes! They went through this incredible decade of innovation in eve descriptive, hardware, but what Apple saw was that all you needed was a rectangle with a screen, and the rest was all about the heroes, software. It took just a few years for NOKIA phones to go from being the healing research, must-have handset in your pocket, to being the thesis on epic, long-forgotten handset, nestled in that eternal graveyard of the mobile phone – the kitchen drawer.
So why would Microsoft spend ?4.6bn on a business that looks like it’s on the way out? To use a romantic analogy: they were the only two left at the party who hadn’t paired up with anyone. They were left dancing together, and thought they might as well go home. Teaching Business English Lesson! This is the feeling of many of us following NOKIA. Statement On Epic! The above paragraphs are a simple attempt to establish that NOKIA owed its domination of the industry to its innovation culture. However, the complacency at NOKIA, wherein they focused too much about hanging onto its market share and leadership position de-railed them from their main strength of creating new products and scholarship person, adopting innovative technologies to excite customers, made them loose their competitive advantages. Understanding Strategic Management. The individual firms and the business environment in which firms exist, both are dynamic systems, endlessly in instability. It is statement on epic heroes, a big challenge to attain a fit between both the systems.
On of the reason of english lesson plans, unstability for a firm is the parallel existance and thesis on epic heroes, dynamics of its competitors specially those competitors which can provide exact substitutes. Strategic Management is all about achieving and upholding competitive advantages over such competitors. To understand the presentation help desk who wants, strategic management of NOKIA both during its periods of rise and fall, it would be prudent first to thesis statement on epic, understand strategies specially market-led and resources based strategies. The development of worldwide homogenized marketplaces have opened up the essay, opportunities for multinational organizations to market their standardized products and thesis statement, services all over the world, with identical strategies, that leads to lower costs and higher margins. Essay! This has generated an important discussion on thesis on epic the effects of the globalization trends on healing research company. Theodore Levitt (1983) followed the globalization of business and emphasizes the focuses on the technology as a driving force towards a converging commonality in proletarianized communication, transport and travel. The competitive strategy.
There are hardly any cellular devices that only enable a phone conversation. New cellular devices are launched into statement on epic, the market with capability to collaborate information, exchange text messages, connect to corporate information sources etc.. Further, with globalizaton, almost everyone everywhere wants all the things they have heard about, seen, or experienced via the new technology (Levitt 1983:1). Thus, “Globalization of markets” (Levitt 1983) is an expression which relates first to demand. Tastes, preferences and help who wants to be a millionaire, price are becoming increasingly universal in customer demands. Secondly, it relates to the supply side of the statement on epic heroes, market. Products and services tend to become more standardized and competition within industries reaches a worldwide scale.
Thirdly, it relates to the way organizations, mainly multinational companies, try to design their marketing policies and control systems. These efforts are done to retain its winner position in the global competition of days your life essay, global products, for global consumers. Michael E. Porter (1979) focuses on a different approach towards a competitive or differential advantage, by identifying the different competitive forces that exist within a competitive market. Knowledge of the underlying forces can shift a corporate focus on their collective strengths and thesis, identify the collective weaknesses. Organizations must increase its effort on school best days life essay how to influence the different forces in a corporate favor. On Epic Heroes! Porter also contributed with several books, which entitles organizations to develop an approach to gain strategic or differential advantages and identifying the organizations value chain. Planned and emergent approaches to strategic management. It is a subject of argument that strategy is deliberate and scholarship person i admire, should be deliberately planned and executed. Managers are always required to predict the statement heroes, future and to arrange plans to pursue an intended strategic result. In essence, this approach tends to emphasise long-term planning designed to achieve a ‘fit’ between an teaching business plans, organisation’s strategy, settings and its environment.
However, heavily and profoundly structured planning is clearly inappropriate in thesis statement on epic heroes, times of rapid and unstable change. In addition, it is clearly evident that, in practice, many strategies simply emerge from a stream of decisions that are made, which is better suited to dynamic and hyper competitive environments. Christmas! Thus, some people argued that organisations that limit themselves to acting on the basis of what is already acknowledged or understood will not be sufficiently innovative to create a sustainable competitive advantage. However, in practice, planning and emergent approaches are both useful, they should not be seen as independent or mutually exclusive. A firm can always, but not fully, commit to thesis statement heroes, detailed and coordinated long-term plans, while, simultaneously adapt itself flexibly and opportunistically to healing, relating circumstances. That is, both planned and emergent approaches are necessary, and if an statement, organisation is to succeed, then it is really important for the managers to try and teaching lesson plans, strike the best possible balance between the two.
In backdrop of above, it would be interesting to statement, mention that NOKIA had planned to develop the high-end mobile phone and invested heavily on its advanced products; meanwhile, the company also, as was earlier planned underwent an internal reorganisation aiming for person the future sustainable growth. However, during the year 2003-2004, NOKIA suffered the fall in the mobile phone market. Since the on epic, company then realised that the market was not yet ready for this new technology and operating system. The company emergently then adjusted its strategy again, and designed five new models of the mobile phones to meet the customer’s needs; meanwhile, the company followed the simply market trends and cut the price of tabakov thesis, phones. Soon the company recaptured the thesis statement, loss in the market share.
In addition, the company gradually changed its stand and started to cooperate with the mobile network operators. These emerging strategy changes showed that NOKIA no longer stuck to the strategies that were previously planned, while simultaneously adopted some emergent strategies in school best your essay, order to meet the customer needs and dynamic business environment. The Core Competence. Part of on epic, NOKIA’s core competence was the knowledge and experience in the wireless, cellular and network services industry. NOKIA got recognization for who wants focusing on superior products and thesis on epic, services. Introducing new product modifications and technological enhancements was part of the company’s product leadership. Presentation To Be! With a wide range of products, NOKIA had applied products independently of technical standard or geographical location. NOKIA also participateed in thesis on epic, several developing new global standards for future telecommunication needs and trends. With its leading position as mobile phone manufacturer and help who wants to be, supplier of digital mobile networks, NOKIA’s participation in development of future technologies enabled and helped them to deliver excellent products. The NOKIA products were mostly targeting to specific market segments.
NOKIA was the first mobile phone manufacturer who adopted models for new ways of thinking into their marketing operations. The general management urged marketing managers to think of companies as repositories of skills, rather than the portfolios of products. A marketing team observed the way that mobile phones were becoming fashion accessories. This unusual approach resulted in a superior product design and control of consumer segment. Thesis On Epic! NOKIA attached a unique value of trends, lifestyles, freedom, power, and technology among others, into their products. Market-led and Resource based approaches. Firms should try to essay, adapt themselves to market developments and on epic heroes, they should build on the strengths of their resource bases and business english plans, activity systems. On Epic Heroes! Some people argue that an organisation needs to adapt itself to its environment. Managers should take the environment as the starting point, then they should choose an advantageous market position and then gradually set up the resource base and activity system necessary to apply this choice.
On the school best life essay, other hand, some argue that the organisation can adapt the environment to thesis statement, itself. Managers must take the organisation’s resource base as the starting point and select an environment to fit with its internal strengths. According to the first view, successful companies are externally oriented and market-driven and this view is referred to teaching business english lesson, as ‘outside-in’ because of thesis on epic, its focus on the environment The companies with this view take the environment as the starting point, set on developments in the market-place and adapt themselves to healing research papers, the external opportunities and threats encountered. They make use of the thesis statement heroes, signals from customers and competitors for deciding their game plan. The proponents of this market-driven approach tend to emphasize that an insight into markets and industries is essential. They argue that not only the general structure of markets and industries need to be analyzed, but also specific demands, strengths, positions and intentions of all main forces need to be determined. As to Porter’s view this approach has spawned five forces, generic strategy and value chain frameworks. Many market-driven advocators suggest firms to help to be a millionaire, initially lead market and industry to change, therefore, they can get the benefit from the altered rules of the on epic, game. Smirchich Stubbart agreed with this opinion, and pointed out that firms can, in part, create their environments through strategic alliances with stakeholders, investments in leading technologies, advertising and a variety of other activities. Presentation Desk Who Wants To Be! Lieberman and Montgomery argued that firms that are market-driven are always the first ones to recognize that new resources or activities need to be developed. So those firms are better positioned can benefit from the ‘first mover advantage’.
More significantly, Market positioning is vital for statement on epic heroes the company’s success. However, some argued that market positioning is vital, but it must take place within the boundaries set by the resource-driven strategy. Essay Person! That is, the market position selected should fit the organization’s resource base. So for being successful, companies must firstly build up a strong internal resource base, and then on thesis on epic heroes the basis of this they can access to unfolding market opportunities in the medium and short term. In essence, this ‘inside-out’ approach assumes that competitive advantage depends upon the behavior of the organisation, rather than its competitive environment.The proponents of tabakov thesis, this approach also stressed on the importance of a firm’s competences over its tangible resources. Strategists have referred to the basis of this strategy as ‘competence based’ or ‘capabilities –based.Collis and Montgomery pointed out that having core competencies can be a very attractive basis for competitive advantage, since rival firms normally takes a long time to catch up. Even if competitors are successful at identifying the competencies and imitating them, the company with an thesis statement, initial leading position can still upgrade its competencies and teaching business english plans, stay ahead.
Therefore, ‘for success, resources should be leading, and market following’. In practice, it is found both positioning and resource deployment issues critical for creating a competitive advantage. They argued that competitive advantage stems from the ability to align positional advantages and resource-based elements of thesis on epic heroes, strategy. Some other experts further suggest that the two approaches should be viewed as complementary, since organisations need to develop both internal and scholarship person, external focus to develop knowledge-based core competences and thesis heroes, market driven strategies sensitive to customer needs.Therefore, both approaches must be considered and balanced simultaneously in making the strategic choice. Application of market-led and resources led strategies at NOKIA.
NOKIA was able to presentation help to be, achieve a great success in the mobile phone industry because it aligned both the strategies – market-driven strategy and resource based strategy during the process of its development. And once it failed to do so, the company immediately suffered the thesis statement, fall, lost market share and decreased sales revenue. But, when the company aligned these two approaches again, it recovered soon. Since those early days, NOKIA has evolved into a multinational encircling several industries. With the collapse of the USSR in 1990, NOKIA suffered the high pressure to survive in so many different areas. Based on the new market opportunity the company predicted in mobile phone industry and its internal strengths-advanced technology on mobile phone sector.NOKIA finally decided to focus on mobile phone industry. Soon NOKIA achieved the success in the mobile phone industry and became the largest mobile phone company in the world.
Without the christmas essay, external threats, the new market opportunities and its internal strengths on the mobile phone sector, NOKIA may have not entered into the mobile phone industry at all. Therefore, both internal and on epic heroes, external factors influenced NOKIA’s strategic choice simultaneously.The big success NOKIA quickly achieved in christmas eve descriptive essay, the mobile phone industry justified that the company’s choice was right, but this choice was made on the integration of market opportunities and NOKIA’s internal strengths. A successful firm can develop the required potential to adopt or to shape the external environment, such as a new product, technological and market change. Over time, NOKIA felt the thesis statement on epic, cardinality of the design in mobile phones. Moreover, they also realised that the phone would not be limited to just a communicating device role, but would also become fashion symbols. So further the company first broke explored the new ground and launched its fashionable and innovative handset -8210 instead of the previous bulky and brick sized device, the thesis, company transformed the heroes, customer needs and led the market change. For NOKIA, this strategy not only essay, earned the statement on epic, ‘first mover advantage and presentation who wants to be a millionaire, increased its market share, but also established a healthy brand name in the mobile phone industry and thesis statement, gained an extensive lead over essay, competitors in this area. Furthermore, based on the different booming innovations from employees, such as text message, NOKIA’s internal antennae design etc, NOKIA kept updating its capability and gradually became the market leaders. Obviously, this change required both overall capability to produce the custom products, which is differentiate with the competitor’s, and an outside-in capability for statement on epic understanding the evolving requirements of customers and energizing the organization to respond to them. Meanwhile, it also implied that market-led strategy and resource-based strategy have a reciprocal relationship, indeed, they complement each other. Following these successes, NOKIA further solidified its market position based on its strong internal resource; meanwhile, company’s ability of sensitive of market trends lead the company to update its competence in a race to stay ahead.
In the early 2000s, NOKIA’s strategy changes further justifies the importance of the integration of these two approaches. NOKIA just concentrated on launching the high-end mobile phones and the complicated software tending to supply the technologically advanced products and exceed the competitors, while paying less attention to other developments. Actually, at christmas eve descriptive, that time, the market was not ready for such devices. Thesis Statement On Epic! Eventually, the slow growth of customers’ demand for the advanced mobile phone caused NOKIA to wait for teaching business plans the market. Thus, the company’s distinct competence on technologically advanced products did not improve its performance and thesis statement heroes, bring the competitive advantage due to its failure to meet the customers’ needs and its blunt market sense. Since NOKIA realised what mistakes it had made, it soon adjusted the strategy. Followed the market trends, NOKIA aggressively launched several new models of phones in christmas, June 2004 based on its strong resource capability, meanwhile, reduced the price of the phone. The company quickly recaptured its market share and increased revenue. The reason why the on epic heroes, company recovered so soon was the ability that the company integrated again its inside-out capabilities and outside-in capabilities that matters.
Based on the above analysis, marketing-led strategy and resource-based strategy both played key role in NOKIA’s process of success. Indeed, these two approaches have a related and complementary relationship. The NOKIA in 2007, at days life, time of launch of Iphone was an innovative brand. In 2007-08, in addition, based on NOKIA’s internal resources and external business environment, an assessments were made about NOKIA’s dominance in mobile phone industry through Porter’s five forces (Porter, 1985, 1998) and Barney’s framework (Barney, 1991) as follows. Based on thesis statement heroes above, the following was envisaged: a) Threat of entry. Since Microsoft Corp had announced its decision to christmas, enter the on epic, mobile phones market, it was apprehanded thta it could bring the big threat to NOKIA. There were many other companies entering into this market So, NOKIA was anticipated to meet more intensive competition than before.
b) Threat of the substitutes. There was no direct substitute in mobile phone industry, especially for NOKIA’s highly advanced products. c) Bargaining power of suppliers. Since NOKIA was the market leader in the mobile phone sector, NOKIA was in school best days your, the strong position. So bargaining power of suppliers is less. d) Bargaining power of thesis statement on epic heroes, buyers. In handsets market, end users were not directly purchasing handset from NOKIA, instead they purchased from the service providers. Since the market became more sensitive to the price, NOKIA could meet the strong bargaining power from the buyers. e) Rivalry among existing competitors. There was a very high competition in mobile phone industry. The competitors included Samsung, LG, Sony Ericcson and other new emerging manufactures.
NOKIA SWOT analysis (2007-08) Internal analysis (Resource-based model) Strengths – NOKIA had advanced technology over the competitors in the mobile phone industry – The market leadership in the mobile phone industry. – Strong brand value and image in the global market. – Had its own manufacture and network.
– Product innovation and creation. Weaknesses – Complications in technology. – Few customized, operator-specific handset with less. – Few alliances, company sticked to its standing in the. market, did not want to cooperate with the operators.
Opportunities– The emerging market in developing countries, such as China, India. – The emerging market for person high-end mobile phone such as business user phone. Threats – Facing more new competitors, especially from Asia. – Stronger buyer power from the network operators. Thesis Statement Heroes! – Lost market share. – Strong competition in school best life, mobile industry – The market becomes saturated. NOKIA PEST analysis (2007-08) Political factors were very importnat for NOKIA. Because NOKIA was selling its product globally.
If governement changes their laws in terms of export import, the sales were bound to be affected. Any polictical harassement or political party’s threat could affect the makret of NOKIA. Political riots are great problems for any comany and same for statement on epic heroes NOKIA. For example in Egypt and christmas, Libya, there were ongoing a political rifts and the situation NOKIA company was forced to decrease its market in these areas. The government bodies in the UK had introduced new laws into the business environment which could affect the on epic, business of NOKIA. Economical factors: Economical factors are very important for a company.
NOKIA’s market existed all around the world. The economic recession all the world had decreased the market of NOKIA in a wide range, especially in Europe and USA, where NOKIA’s revenue got a big jolt. Eve Descriptive Essay! There were other things as well such as labor share to value added, where NOKIA consolidated rate was around 39.8% and with high rate of thesis, export duty. Environmental and Social Factors: Some un-ethical practices were against the law and companies can not be involved in deian tabakov, tehm but there are also some practices that aren’t illegal by law but are consdiered highly un-ethical by the conuming public, companies who engage in these parctice’s can lose a lot of market share. In this context, it would be mentioned that NOKIA loosed their market in thesis on epic, ASIA becuase China and person, India were demanding and producing their own mobile hand sets which were cheaper. So then Socio and Environmental factors were challange for NOKIA as ASIA was a giant market for NOKIA.
Technological: In the statement on epic, communication market technology is perhaps the most important factor that companies like NOKIA have to person i admire, take into consideration. They had to keep up to date with all teh newest technological advances like, express music, smooth touch screen, unexpected memory and camera and thesis on epic, motion capture phones, if they had to capture the biggest market share and stay ahead of their compatitors like Apple and HTC. NOKIA’s standing in 2007-08based on SWOT, PEST and Porters Five Fource Analysis. Based on the above analysis’, it was well anticipated that NOKIA had the potential to remain a major presence in the global mobile phone industry in the following years. However, considering that the external mobile phone market environment as dynamic, NOKIA had lost its market share due to the misinterpretation of the market trends and customer needs. But the market also presented to bring the big potential opportunities to NOKIA, such as the market in developing countries, customized business user mobile phones and so on. Moreover, the research, most important of NOKIA’s internal strengths, such as innovative products, economy of scale, could let it surpass the thesis statement heroes, competitors and essay, solidify its market leader position; Furthermore, NOKIA could benefit further from its strong brand name and company image.
While the fall in 2004, to some degree, just reminded NOKIA of the need to overcome its complacency and arrogance and to thesis statement heroes, be more sensitive to deian tabakov thesis, customer needs. So, NOKIA could maintain its market leader position in the following year in the global mobile phone industry. In fact, NOKIA’s market share in handset market had increased to thesis statement, 40% in 2008. Further, because NOKIA had adopted the scholarship essay person i admire, balanced various strategic approaches in its previous time, it gradually achieved the market leader position. Since NOKIA lost the control to make sense the market trends and concentrated on its planned strategy, the statement on epic, balance between the different approaches also lost. Thus the company’s market share fell immediately. As NOKIA adjusted its strategy, aligned its internal strengths and external opportunities and balanced the emergent and planned strategies, the healing papers, company recaptured its market share again.
NOKIA’s approach for thesis statement developing appropriate strategies for future (2008 ahead) However, it was very clear from the above that NOKIA, to keep its leadership position in the industry need to essay, address the follwoings: Faced with the prospect of industry oversupply and increasing international competition in statement on epic heroes, the mobile industry, it was sure that NOKIA will face more strategic choices. So, NOKIA needed more emergent and planned strategies to respond to this dynamic global market based on the different business environment and situation. In this regard, they were required to strategically counter the entry of Apple I Phone to make its technology more effective to as that of Apple. The following exhibits show the change in essay, NOKIA’s share of market from 2008 to 2012 and statement on epic, year to deian, year change in thesis statement on epic heroes, revenure of NOKIA from 2008 to 2009. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order The rise and fall of nokia. essay editing for presentation help desk to be a millionaire only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed!
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Epic Hero Essay
10 Surprising Things Every Business Plan Should Include. It may be tempting to dive right in when you have a great startup idea, but failing to create a detailed business plan is where many entrepreneurs go wrong. A solid business plan can be the difference between just an thesis idea and a successful business. It allows you to set goals and determine how to realistically measure them. In the process of creating one, you develop an understanding of your market and the competition that is based on facts, not just hopes. We asked experts to help us create a business plan template to help you get started. Here are 10 unexpected items every business plan should have. [See Related Story: Simple Business Plan Templates for Entrepreneurs]
If companies focus only on themselves in their business plan, they are making a big mistake. Businesses should use their business plan partly to address the competition and how their idea differs from what#39;s already out there, said Steve Martorelli, CEO of Turnkey Processing, a payment processing provider. Christmas Eve Descriptive Essay? First, identify your X factor what can you do 10 times better than your competition? Martorelli said. Next, test your hypothesis by talking to potential customers. Do they value what you are proposing to statement on epic heroes offer them as much as you think they do? Finding the answer to these two questions is the most important planning anyone can do. Companies that value innovation must make it a priority from the start. Your business plan should highlight the days, ways in which your startup will be original and groundbreaking, said Amy Hutchens, business strategist and CEO of AmyK International, which specializes in executive development.
Innovation must be a critical component of every business plan, Hutchens said. Thesis Statement Heroes? By making innovation part of the plan, the person i admire, process becomes intentional, not reactive or accidental, and sets the stage for a culture of heroes creativity and innovation for the long run. It is highly unlikely that everything about your business will go according to plan. I Admire? Justin Palmer, founder and president of HomeLife Media, which operates pet-focused websites, said entrepreneurs should have a contingency plan that allows them to thesis statement make any necessary business-model changes should something not go as anticipated. An example of a contingency might be, #39;If we do not have 1,000 paying customers within six months of operations, we need to shift product focus,#39; Palmer said. Presentation Who Wants A Millionaire? A metric such as this is thesis on epic, especially vital if your business operates on the Web or builds software. A business plan is great, but there#39;s no point in sticking with a failing plan for too long. On the other hand, businesses also should prepare for unexpected success. Your business plan should account for normal scenarios as well as highly successful, best-case scenarios, said Elle Kaplan, CEO of LexION Capital Management.
When I started my business, I was in no way prepared for the success and level of growth we obtained, Kaplan said. I should have planned bigger and prepared for faster growth versus being surprised and scholarship essay having to rework my plan. A typical business plan will discuss a company#39;s target market, usually in terms of thesis statement heroes demographic information such as age, gender and income level. However, businesses should consider looking even further to define their target customers by scholarship person i admire factors such as lifestyle, needs and thesis on epic desires, said Amber Goodenough, co-founder of christmas fourfour media, a Web design and development company. Psychographics ? customer values, lifestyles, habits and interests ? give you a deeper insight into heroes, your customers#39; needs, wants and frustrations, which then helps you create products and services that really meet those needs and person solve their problems, Goodenough said. Thesis Statement On Epic? The better you do that, the more money you make. As social media remains a dominant force in marketing and customer engagement, a business plan needs to highlight how the company will use social media to its strategic advantage, said Stephanie Ciccarelli, co-founder and best life essay chief brand officer at Voices.com, an online marketplace that connects businesses with voice-over talent. Heroes? No business plan should be without a section dedicated to the use of papers [social media] as part of their marketing efforts and channel for supporting and engaging customers, Ciccarelli said.
These efforts may also tap into statement heroes, a company#39;s advertising, search engine optimization and customer service efforts. If your business is desk who wants a millionaire, going to have employees, you#39;ll want to spell out how you#39;re going to on epic keep them engaged and focused on their responsibilities, said Bill Rosenthal, CEO of Communispond, a provider of christmas employee skills training. The plan must include ways to show employees [that] their well-being aligns with that of the company, Rosenthal said. Statement On Epic? Establish metrics for everyone#39;s performance, and eve descriptive spell out the rewards for statement heroes meeting the metrics. Christmas Eve Descriptive Essay? Although it may be the last thing on your mind when starting a business, providing an exit strategy with your business plan can be a great help if you decide to sell the business later on. A well-researched exit strategy can also help you land investors, said Mike Scanlin, a venture capitalist and CEO of Born To Sell. As an early-stage company, you need to show investors a path to 10 times their investment, Scanlin said. Make a list of exits mergers and acquisitions or IPOs [initial public offerings] in your space . to help convince [investors] that if they invest in you, there are plenty of people who will want to buy you in three to seven years. One of the key challenges for thesis businesses is actually implementing their plan, said Linda Pophal, author of The Complete Idiot#39;s Guide to Strategic Planning (Penguin, 2011).
All business plans should include a guide to implementing the plan#39;s ideas, she said. Often, by days your life essay the time the statement on epic, planning process is school days life essay, over, the team is exhausted and burned out, and they have a tendency to just go back to thesis statement on epic heroes doing things the way they#39;ve always done them, said Pophal, who also serves as CEO of her company, Strategic Communications. Teaching English? Working out a detailed business plan won#39;t do much good if you and thesis on epic your employees don#39;t stick to it, so companies and employees should be committed to following the points included in a business plan, said Bob Shirilla, co-founder of online retail stores Keepsakes Etc. and help desk Simply Bags. The business plan should include a signed commitment by the leadership team, Shirilla said. This ensures that the leaders understand and will support the business plan. Consensus decision making is key to moving a company forward.
Many organizations fail to achieve their goals because of on epic a lack of understanding and buy-in to healing research papers the plan.
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essay type interview Interview Essay Samples. Topic: Happy Valley’s Handy Delivery. As I stood in front of my house Thursday night, pretending that the passing headlights were a source of warmth, I thought of the strangeness of my situation. Statement On Epic? I was waiting for a cab, but with no particular destination in mind. I had never been in this situation before and was still acquainting myself with the research, novelty of it, when a dark blue car slowed to a stop just a few feet beyond my doorstep. My taxi had finally arrived, and just in time, for the thin layers of my Penn State jacket were beginning to struggle against thesis statement on epic heroes a cold November evening. Instinctively I reached for the back door of the vehicle, but didn’t get it open more than a crack before I heard “Hey grab ah seat up front.” Feeling rather privileged, I complied, and took the offered seat next to Jared. Since we had previously met, formal introductions were skipped.
Instead, I commented on the Pink Floyd CD sitting on the armrest between us. “Yeah the damn thing skips, so I don’t even listen anymore” Jared said. Scholarship? Though I was disappointed, I quickly learned that not having music did not matter much. Thesis? Between the steady conversation and the constant interruptions from the english plans, dispatch radio attached to the dashboard, there was very little time for thesis statement, rock n’ roll CD’s. Jared, who appeared to be in his early thirties, was dressed causally in a gray, hoodless sweatshirt and blue jeans. Healing? His left hand kept passing back and forth between the steering wheel and his face, pushing his wire rimmed glasses further up on his nose. With his large stomach, and tall frame filling the driver’s seat, Jared held a commanding presence over the small Chevy Malibu.
He drove quickly around the block, and managed to talk to me and into statement on epic the handset of the radio at the same time. “87. I’ve got the reporter.” I laughed to myself when I heard my new title. Research Papers? Dispatch responded with an statement “ok” and person i admire gave directions to where we would find our first passenger of the night. When we arrived at the State College bus station, an old man greeted us with thanks and surprise at our quickness. Jared nonchalantly mentioned how we were just around the corner, and then introduced me as an observer. I gave a quick hello, and then quieted down out of respect for thesis on epic, Jared.
I was unsure if it was appropriate to talk with the passengers. Slowly, the old man took his place in the back seat of the car, and then quickly managed to strike up conversation. He had traveled all the way from Florida by deian tabakov bus, and this taxi ride was the on epic, final leg of his journey. I suppose it was the deian, previous solitude he experienced on the Greyhound that made him so talkative in our cab. “A lotta people don’t realize it, but man, Florida got whopped by those damn Hurricanes” he said. From then on the conversation between him and statement Jared focused on healing the weather, both in Florida and in State College, and statement the effect that it was having upon each of their lives. Christmas Eve Descriptive? The old man talked about the Hurricane’s destruction of all the thesis on epic, mature trees down south, and Jared empathetically responded with a similar story about the thesis, Elm trees in State College, and their threat of destruction by a virus. Jared went on to mention how the unseasonably nice weather in State College had hurt business the week before. Statement Heroes? It occurred to me then how important it is for christmas, a taxi driver to stay informed of current events. Thesis Statement On Epic? Sports, politics, weather, or business, I imagine that a successful taxi driver would be familiar with all of these, and able to offer some interesting insight, as Jared did with the weather, and scholarship essay this old man from Florida.
On our way back to town, Jared and I talked about the rules set forth by Handy Delivery. He said that in regard to conversations with passengers, the heroes, company encourages you “to be amicable, if it seems like they want it.” He himself prefers talkative customers because it helps to pass the healing, time, and also improves the statement on epic heroes, tips. Some other Handy Delivery rules which Jared mentioned were the requirements that all drivers must meet. One must be at least 25 years old, with a clean driving record and zero DUI’s. Random drug screenings are also part of the job, and finally, all traffic tickets received on or off the job must be reported to the company.
At first, I was surprised to hear that tickets received off the job needed to be reported, but then after hearing Jared explain why, it made sense. If a driver had received a number of tickets outside of days days your life, work, and then got pulled over thesis, during work and teaching english lesson plans found that he could no longer drive because of those tickets, his job performance would suffer. I realized how important it is for taxi drivers to make intelligent decisions both on and off the thesis statement heroes, job. Driving a taxi no longer seemed like a simple 9-5 job, but rather a lifestyle. A few minutes after arriving back in town, Jared decided to “drive a loop” from College Avenue, left onto business lesson Atherton Street., followed by an immediate left onto Beaver Avenue and then another left down one of the on epic, connecting cross streets.
He chose Allen Street. Jared said that he was looking for potential passengers, and so staying in the busier part of town was wise. Christmas Eve Descriptive? Unfortunately, we did not find any, and so headed towards Starbucks coffee shop right along College Avenue. As we sat in thesis, the car parked outside Starbucks, we talked about the risk of thesis, being robbed while on the job, and the differences between New York City taxi drivers and on epic heroes Handy Delivery drivers. “I’ve only english lesson, seen one robbery in ah year and ah half, so it’s not too common,” Jared declared, “but I am prepared just in case.” He told me of money management techniques such as separating large and small bills, and thesis on epic then hiding the larger bills somewhere in the car. “Just gotta make sure you don’t forget about ‘em” he laughed. Another possibility is to deian tabakov thesis, use a “drop slip” which can be put in any post office mailbox, and then received a few days later. Very few drivers use “drop slips.” Jared explained that while it is thesis statement on epic heroes, important for a driver to manage his money, safety is the school best days essay, first concern. Thesis Heroes? Most drivers will make sure that they are not in danger, and then worry about their money afterwards. Teaching Business English Lesson? Because of this, it is easy to see the thesis, benefit of taking precautions. “87.
Cross Hall, 2 passengers” the sound of the dispatch radio interrupted our conversation. Days Your? Jared replied “10-4,” and we immediately headed towards campus. I asked Jared whether he knew where that building was, and if not, how he would find out. Statement Heroes? He told me that he did know, and as he said it, I detected a sense of who wants, pride in his statement. I knew from thesis statement on epic, previous research that memory was a source of pride among taxi drivers, and teaching Jared without hesitation, reconfirmed it for on epic, me. Deian Tabakov? He told me how the drivers do not like to ask directions, and only consult a map when they absolutely have to. “New guy at work syndrome” was how he described it. “Everybody goes through a stage where they’re learnin’ the statement heroes, ropes, but after enough time on the job, they get the hang of it.” I once again was impressed by the knowledge that taxi drivers had. Our ride with the sorority girls started out quite differently than the one with the old man from Florida. When the two girls got into the car, everything immediately began to smell like perfume, and they talked amongst themselves, rather then with me or Jared.
Once again though, I was introduced as “an observer.” As we headed toward Nicholas towers, I attempted to initiate conversation. I asked the girls what they thought of the thesis, Handy Delivery taxi service, and if they could find out anything about the company, what would it be. After thinking for a moment, the girls wanted to know why there were not more vans. Jared explained that there was only one van in the Handy Delivery fleet, simply because smaller cars made more money. The girls seemed a little disappointed by such a rational explanation, and Jared admitted that he himself preferred the vans. By this time however, the statement on epic, short drive to the apartment complex was complete, and the girls hopped out with a “goodbye” and a “thanks.” The smell of their perfume hung around for a little while longer.
After dropping the girls off, we headed back towards town, where Jared intended to drive another loop. I was interested in what he had said about the business end of things, and scholarship person i admire soon found out that he knew quite a bit more than I expected. He told me all about the organizational strategies of the company, and how each driver is known on the job by a number. I correctly guessed that Jared was 87. Thesis Heroes? At a stoplight, he showed me a computer printout of the financial transactions from his last shift. It specified how much he had paid to rent the scholarship person, taxi from Handy Delivery, and how much money he had made in fares that night. The rental rate is based upon statement on epic heroes a complicated algorithm which Jared said only the computers know. “We plug the numbers in, and shhhooop, out deian they come on the other side.” I was surprised at thesis on epic how quickly our conversation had shifted from usual everyday talk, to a serious discussion of business.
It allowed me another insight into the taxi driving profession. I got to see how seriously the drivers of Handy Delivery take their job. Before we could finish the loop, dispatch called another address over the radio, and once again we found ourselves heading out of town. The passenger this time was a male college student somewhere in his early twenties. Healing Research? He was on statement his way to work at the PA pizza shop, and was running a little late. As him and Jared sat talking about the unique traits of such a job, I began to review in my head, all that I had learned this evening. I realized that the taxi driving profession here in State College is very demanding. To be a successful driver, one must be intelligent, and able to deal with people on a personal level. Knowledge of current events and help desk who wants to be the memorization of statement on epic heroes, directions and locations is also very important.
Similarly, a successful driver must have a good understanding of the business end of thesis, things. Because of statement on epic, these reasons, I began to see why so many of the healing, drivers were college graduates. They were not down on their luck, and working this job because they had to, but rather, they were putting their education to good use. We dropped the thesis statement heroes, pizza guy off at work, and then headed back towards West College Avenue where my final stop would be. Deian Tabakov? As we pulled in front of my house, Jared finished telling his story about the on epic, time a passenger brought a python into presentation who wants the cab and he nearly jumped out of his seat. “Holy Jesus Christ. ” he yelled. I laughed out loud as I imagined this huge man scared by such a small snake. We shook hands and thesis on epic as he drove away, I saw him reach forward for the radio handset. “87.
I’ve dropped the reporter, ready for another pickup.” At least that is what I imagined he said. Topic: Architecture Studio Culture. Interview Paper – Final Draft. When Tuesday night rolled around, my normal time to visit the 2 nd -year architecture studio, I still had to finalize my questions and healing papers the meeting times for my perspective interviewees. After my regular Tuesday meeting of the College Democrats (around 8:10 p.m.), I called Mian, one of my usual architecture student contacts, but he said that he wasn’t going to be there at thesis statement on epic our previously agreed upon time and that he was heading with his roommates to talk with their future landlord. He was going to be back at 9:40, so I decided to days, head to the Pattee Library to thesis statement on epic, work on my questions. I also contacted Christi who I had scheduled an appointment with, but I later learned that she was only planning to stop by the studio to pick up some supplies. Surprisingly, Mian was back at studio ahead of schedule, something that is never the case from what I have seen, so he invited me to the SALA Building to research papers, ask him my questions.
It couldn’t have been a more awful night to be walking around campus; the rain and cold were reluctant and there was hardly a soul in statement on epic heroes, sight. Business Lesson? This of course was true until I arrived at the architecture studio. It was alive inside, despite the dreary and dismal weather just a few yards outside. Thesis Statement On Epic? Students were busy moving about, drawing, studying and tabakov thesis socializing. I walked through the 2 nd year studio, on my way to Mian’s desk in the far left hand side of the studio, passing about thesis statement, 20 or so students at their own desks. Mian was just getting settled from his trip to scholarship essay person, his future house only a few blocks from studio (his current home is downtown and a decent walk to the SALA Building). His desk was parallel with the West wall of the heroes, building and separated from Tristan’s desk on deian tabakov the left only by a mini-fridge.
There was a vase on top of the fridge, but the flowers residing there appeared to have started dying days beforehand. Mian told me that he stole them from an event that occurred downstairs some time ago and statement heroes hadn’t watered them since. Tristan wasn’t at her desk when I first arrived, so I sat in deian tabakov thesis, an extra chair, rested my laptop on the corner of her desk and tried carefully not to disrupt her drawings until she came. There were a handful of other students around; Amanda and Mike were a few steps above Mian’s desk and Tristan and another student on the same level. As I sat, typing my initial description of the environment around me and of Mian himself, Mian ate a half-pint of mint chocolate chip Creamery ice cream while talking to Amanda and heroes Tristan about business english lesson, their IM football team, whose existence was news to me. They also talked about how they have gone days on end without showering and Mian blatantly shared too much information as to his experiences on the matter. Additionally, I witnessed an argument over who gets to use the area’s cutting board with a student from a nearby section. Just before we began, Mian called a friend, and asked if he/she was brining his/her laptop to studio that night since he was planning to stay there for quite some time and was hoping to thesis statement on epic heroes, watch a DVD while working. Mian’s demeanor can be described most concisely as sarcastic and laid back.
He always adds a joking element to whatever conversation he is in with a distinctively Mian-esque sharp tone of voice. Despite the healing, sarcasm that is thesis statement, inherent to Mian’s personality, he seems to show a sense that if you needed someone to stick up for you he’d be the first one to teaching business plans, help out. Mian is just over my height, probably about 5’8”, and is of Chinese descent. Statement On Epic Heroes? I’ve even heard him speaking in presentation desk, Chinese on the phone before. He was wearing a gray, knitted crew sweater, a pair of jeans and silver Adidas running shoes, but Mian let me know he normally doesn’t dress up and wears a t-shirt and hooded sweatshirt most of the time. I couldn’t believe how honest they were with me, it was like I was their connection to the outside world and that I was their hope in on epic, showing the outside what they experience, because according to them one can’t fully write about what it’s like to be in architecture without being in it. They even joked about the Collegian article that talked about the teaching business english plans, hardships of architecture students last year, saying that it barely touched on the surface of what they experience on a daily basis. It felt like they really wanted me to thesis on epic, expose what really goes on in the presentation desk who wants a millionaire, studio, as if they were in on epic, a prison-like environment where their stories couldn’t be told unless it came from an insider, someone who has been there and knows what its like.
A few moments into christmas eve descriptive my interview, I prompted Mian to define studio culture, to define the environment that they live within and are so much a part of. He struggled with the question at first, but Tristan jumped in to help. She spoke about thesis, how the studio was an eve descriptive essay open environment that has developed into a complex family setting. Tristan explained that it leads to a wide variety of relationships and thesis statement heroes fosters design work, but there is competitive edge that still persists. The notion that everyone is competing for the few A’s that are given out each semester forces a “two-faced” relationship with most of the other students; they are extremely close on english lesson a social basis, but on an academic level there is a conscious competitive boundary. I found this particular noteworthy realizing that even though the heroes, studio culture is so tight knit and presentation help desk a millionaire exclusive, there exists a dynamic that eventually individualizes the studio learning environment. Speaking about the social aspects of studio was much easier for Mian; without hesitation he compared the social dynamic of the studio to that of a reality TV show on MTV. Thesis On Epic? “There’s a lot of crying and a lot of eve descriptive, bitching,” he said, explaining how living and statement heroes working in the studio is to be, like living in a house together with fellow architecture students. It was no surprise that Mian argued that 50% of time in the studio is spent socializing and that he met half of statement on epic heroes, his friends in architecture, “We go through everything together” he told me. When asked to characterize the lifestyle of an architecture student during our discussion, Mian responded quite succinctly, “No sleep, no showering, no food…There is no schedule, uh… There is never enough time to do anything. You have to push yourself.
Sleep is always on the back of my mind, but I still manage to teaching lesson plans, get to the gym, despite my lack of sleep….There is thesis, no schedule, time doesn’t exist.” His answer was almost depressing as I began to experience again, through his explanation, what it was like for teaching business plans, me during my sole semester in thesis heroes, architecture my freshman year. The lack of help desk, a schedule was what killed me; I never knew when anything was going to be due, the professors just made it up a few days beforehand (unless it was a major project) and all the days just blended together. According to Mian, this hasn’t changed a bit since 1 st semester (he is now in thesis statement heroes, his 3 rd semester), and it has become even more abstract. Talking about how his perspective changed since first year, he mentioned how it was more “linear last year” that there is so much more to think about and so many more variables to incorporate than before. He said that last year it was more obvious what had to be done in presentation help a millionaire, order to complete a project correctly, and on epic that now the assignments are increasingly less objective and more vague. To add to presentation help desk who wants to be a millionaire, the lack of clarity of project directions, professors (even though there are more) are less inclined to offer help and come in after normal class hours like in first year studio. Apparently, first year studio has changed dramatically since my involvement in the program. From what Mian gathered, all art-related majors (i.e. integrated arts, theatre, architecture, etc.) have a common 1 st year core which includes a limited architectural studio.
The new architecture students who won’t have the same type of 1 st year experience that we went through would be harmed in the long-term, “They will have a rude awakening and thesis on epic most will probably drop out. They won’t be able to draft or anything.” There was an obvious tone of resentment towards this new curriculum, whether it was due to Mian’s desire for i admire, the program to statement heroes, adequately prepare students for deian tabakov, success or his envy that the 1 st years won’t be going through the same hazing-like experience that all those in (what would be) my class went through. Statement? Amanda added that these changes were the result of the politically correct reforms that were underway in the department, to person, limit the mind-numbing pressures put on 1 st -year architecture students. Along the same lines, I questioned Mian about on epic, what could be done to change “studio culture” or the lifestyle of the architectural student, in terms of institutional responses. In a long and teaching business english sporadic answer, he explained “Well…what would I change…I feel like time is the obvious answer… But there is nothing you can really change about it because it is statement on epic heroes, such a huge entity. Research Papers? You could give us less work, but any change would have a negative response [on the success of the program]. You should keep it the way it is.” I was honestly taken aback after hearing Mian’s opinion that he would actually prefer keeping this painstaking program exactly the thesis statement on epic heroes, same. He would keep the all-nighters, isolation, high pressure and school best days life essay timeless environment of studio exactly the same, such that the quality of the program would not be altered and thesis statement on epic heroes his five years of presentation who wants, study not gone to waste. One thing in particular really made me laugh during my interview with Mian, since I was still in thesis, the program for the event he described and had a fond memory of it. In the first few weeks of healing, studio, Steve Shaffer, a previous graduate and now professor in statement heroes, Penn State’s architecture department, drew a table/chart on scholarship essay person a chalkboard regarding architecture student’s time management.
Mian described the event, “Yeah, they told us the first day what it would be like and on epic what we’d have to sacrifice. That we wouldn’t be able to talk on eve descriptive essay AOL. They drew a little picture about time management and crossed off cell phones and football games. That scared a lot of people. I thought they were joking, but now I think they under-exaggerated it.” Mian is thesis, correct in his depiction: everyone was trying to figure out whether or not Steve was serious when he drew the chart. I frankly didn’t have the slightest idea as to the validity of what he said until I left the program a few months later; we all had trouble believing it until it was too late. Wrapping up my interview with Mian, I asked him what his motivation was for enduring the trials of architectural education and what he saw as the end result. “That’s a terrible question!” he responded, adding “That’s like ‘how do you plan to die?’” Amanda began telling me that “you have to hope that it is christmas eve descriptive essay, worth it,” but Mian quickly and strongly interrupted making sure that I didn’t record that answer as his response. He explained, “No, my motivation is that…after during all of this, project by project, hour by hour, I still love it a lot… After the end of a project I realize that I can endure this and still keep going… My motivation is thesis, that I can spend all this time working on school work and it doesn't feel like schoolwork.” Elaborating on his answer, Mian talked about how he even put his architecture work above his family recently. Days Essay? He told me that when his mom went in for surgery he stayed in the studio because a project was due; that his architecture is his life now and it is all he has in school. Thesis On Epic Heroes? Mian ended our conversation concluding, “I just love this even though it’s so painful sometimes.
If that’s not a reason to stay in then I don’t know what is.” After my interview with Mian, I asked Pete, a member of my section last year, if he wouldn’t mind talking with me for a little while. Presentation To Be A Millionaire? He cordially accepted and I moved my laptop a few desks and down two levels to the side of Pete’s drafting desk. It was a lot quieter in this area of the studio since there were only two other students close to Pete. One of them was listening to music and heroes the other was focused intently on his drawings. When I sat down and essay person i admire started to record a description of thesis heroes, my local surroundings, Pete continued his studio work, drawing with a blue pen in his sketchbook and school days best essay a yellow highlighter. With a maroon sweater (similar in thesis statement heroes, design to Mian’s sweater) and teaching business lesson plans blue jeans, Pete sat there without speaking and merely sketched in his book until I was ready.
Unlike the time prior to my interview with Mian, where I was engaged in statement heroes, conversation with him, I told Pete to ignore me for a few minutes and continue with his work until we started. There was a lot of desk a millionaire, overlap with Mian’s responses, specifically when talking about studio culture and the life of an architecture student. Pete reiterated how the students in the studio are a “little happy family” and how they “do schoolwork with each other, eat with each other, and thesis heroes [constantly] interact with each other.” He told me that half of his friends were from architecture, despite the fact that he had already been at Penn State for two years (in architectural engineering) before he began in the architecture program. Although many of his responses were similar to business plans, Mian’s, regarding the bonds architecture students form and the workload they endure, when I asked what motivates him to continue through the thesis statement on epic, trials of architectural education he responded much differently and positively than Mian. Pete explained how architecture was the quintessential art education and that earning an architecture degree will give him the days best days life, ability to enter into any art career available. He felt it would give him something that the “landscape architecture, graphic design, arts, and integrative arts programs can’t offer.” Pete reinforced this as he told me how he wants to exit the program with a well-rounded experience that could only statement, be provided by architecture. He didn’t mention the your life essay, hardships like Mian directly, but it showed through his other responses. Throughout the interview, Pete spoke about how architecture work made up the thesis statement heroes, majority of your, his waking hours, nearly 4/5ths of thesis statement heroes, them. He told me how others, even his roommates, don’t grasp how “studio comes first over everything: social time, sleep, other work, and food” nor what they actually do in the studio when they are there.
He mentioned how he didn’t really have a clue what it would be like when he was accepted into the program and teaching business plans how he was unsure about what the program truly entails, even to thesis on epic heroes, this day. Ending my interview with Pete, he explained, “I don’t think anyone has a clue [what architecture is deian tabakov, really like], except maybe the thesis on epic heroes, larchies (landscape architecture students).” Warning: These samples should be solely used for instructional/educational purposes. Healing? All rights reserved. No part of these writing samples may be reproduced or transmitted in thesis statement, any form or by any means without the prior permission of the authors.