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3 Sample Law Essay Exams From the LEEWS Primer (with Model Responses) [And an example of on truth bradley, LEEWS' effectiveness in practice.] 1 Actual Civil Procedure Exam With Model Response (written by a LEEWS grad) and Professor Comments. The entire grade (!!) in most law school courses will depend upon ways money spm, performance on a final exam, most if not all of which is i admire essay in nature. (You are basically asked to identify and analyze so-called issues generated in a hypothetical [made up] and usually complex fact pattern, much as a lawyer might.) Most exams are 3-4 hours in length, and either closed or open book. The former means you bring nothing into the exam with you (save the code in a course based on a code of rules [e.g., IRS Code in simple ways spm taxation, Federal Rules of Civil Procedure in civil procedure]). Normally open book allows you to bring in class notes, textbook, outlines, whatever, which tends to reassure students. However, open book is misleading, as there is typically little time to refer to aids. Open or closed book, the law you need to know should be in shakespeare your head. Some professors offer take home exams, which may have 8-24 hour time limits, and limits as to how much you can write or type. Grading is invariably anonymous to simple ways money essay spm protect professors and students alike. Unlike college and graduate school, class participation, acquaintance with the professor, even midsemester (as opposed to midyear) midterms generally have no bearing on law school grades.
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Coris Becker, an occasional tennis player, fell while descending steps at the Only For Us Racquet Club in Long Island City, Queens County, New York. As she explained to her husband moments later by phone: Not the most graceful move in the world, Morris. I got so mad, I smashed Mommy's new titanium Stroker. Be a dear and bring home din-din. Ways To Save Money Spm? I'm going to be in the hot tub for essay, hours. As she limped out to her Lexus, Coris ran into the club owner, Jett Setter. He grinned and remarked, I saw that spill, Coris. To Save Money? Not the most graceful move in the world.
At which point Coris determined to sue Setter personally, as well as the club. Although a resident of Queens County, Coris, joined by her mother, Doris, a resident of Manhattan, New York County, brought suit against Only For Us Racquet Club, Inc. (OFU, Inc.) and Jett Setter personally in New York County, seeking damages for Coris' injury and the destruction of the tennis racquet. Thereupon followed, inter alia , the following events and motions: 1 €” OFU, Inc. and Setter moved for a change of venue to Queens County. 2 €” Attempts to serve Setter personally at his club were twice unsuccessful, so a copy of the summons and complaint was affixed to the door of his home. Another was mailed to him. Essay Of Electricity In Pakistan? [So-called nail and mail service.] 3 €” Although the complaint affixed to his door separated from the summons and blew away, and the mailed copy never arrived, Setter, by his attorney, appeared in the action, answered the complaint, interposed affirmative defenses, and otherwise defended against the action. Only later during an appeal did he assert lack of personal jurisdiction as a defense.
4 €” OFU, Inc. Essay Spm? served notice of the deposition of a person who, while standing in the next phone booth, had overheard Coris' conversation with her husband. Coris moved for a protective order forbidding disclosure of anything overheard as a privileged conversation. 5 €” OFU, Inc. requested an admission from Doris that Coris has a tendency to negligent behavior. Doris ignored it. 6 €” Following a directed verdict during trial dismissing her cause of action for destruction of the racquet, Doris immediately instituted a claim for damages on the same ground in small claims court, Manhattan. You are a law clerk to, where appropriate, both trial and essays appellate judges assigned to this case. Prepare a memorandum of simple money, law respecting the issues raised in the above. Majority state law applies.
RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPO. (Such legal knowledge should be in your head as well as your course outline. Note: The law provided herein may or may not be currently accurate.) Discovery (scope of) €” Generally, all information not otherwise privileged that is thesis relevant to the subject matter of the ways spm, action is discoverable, whether or not the material would be admissible as proof. Communications between spouses €” A confidential communication between husband and wife is privileged against disclosure by either spouse or by a third person (e.g., an eavesdropper). Personal Jurisdiction €” Generally, in order to determine the rights and duties of parties to an action, and to bind the parties personally to its determinations, a court must have in personam jurisdiction over said parties. Said jurisdiction will be had, inter alia, where a defendant is present in the state where an action is brought, and mla personally served with process. Where personal service on a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence, a plaintiff is simple ways to save entitled to thesis substitute such service by affixing a copy of the summons and complaint to simple to save money essay the door or other conspicuous place at the defendant's last known address, and also mailing a copy of same by regular mail to said address (so-called nail and mail). A court has held that three attempts at in hand service at a defendant's place of business, without attempting to serve the comparative, defendant at home or leave the summons and simple ways to save money essay complaint with a person of suitable age and discretion at the place of business does not satisfy the requirements of due diligence. Waiver of €” Where a defendant appears, answers the essays and reality bradley, complaint, interposes defenses, and at no time during or after trial moves to dismiss based on, nor claims lack of personal jurisdiction, the defense will be deemed waived on appeal. Requests for admission €” A request for admission imposes a duty on to save essay spm the party served to acknowledge the existence of facts that are not in doubt and that should not be necessary to prove at trial.
The party served normally has 30 days to respond. Failure to timely respond results in the matter being deemed admitted. Inter alia , it is permissible to request that a party admit to a legal conclusion (e.g., that an employee was acting with authority, or that the party was traveling against traffic on a one-way street). However, it is not proper to request an admission to an abstract statement of law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to drive is negligent, per se). Res Judicata €” Doctrine that for reasons of economy, prevention of harassment, and avoidance of inconsistent judicial rulings (policy!), the relitigation of claims and immanuel democratic peace thesis issues is simple ways money essay generally prohibited. Claim preclusion €” Doctrine whereby a final judgment on comparative thesis the merits of a claim or cause of action precludes reassertion of simple to save money, that claim or cause of action in a subsequent suit. Venue €” Refers to the proper place for trial of a lawsuit. The purpose of venue rules is to prevent a plaintiff from forcing a defendant to trial where it would be burdensome for him to appear and defend (policy!).
Unless compelling reasons exist to direct otherwise, a transitory action (meaning that the transaction which is the on truth and reality bradley, subject of the action could have happened anywhere) should be tried in the county where the action arose. MODEL RESPONSE TO CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPOTHETICAL. (1/4 - 1/3 of allotted time divided into 10-15 minute intervals) Preliminary Overview €” Six distinct events/motions. Ways Money Essay? Perform Steps One, Two, and Three (The Blender) on each is my initial perspective on how to proceed. [Always the comparative thesis, Steps, always the Steps €” a constant way of thinking.] Step One €” [Conflict pairings and party objective(s) for ways essay, each of the six events/motions.] The conflict pairings for all six are either Coris and/or Doris versus OFU, Inc. and/or Jett Setter. [The consistent overall objectives are to obtain damages on one side and to avoid liability on the other.
However, given that this is a civil procedure exam, the essay on shortfall of electricity in pakistan, objectives that count for purposes of generating premises are intermediate in nature. In the larger (intermediate) sense they are to keep the litigation going versus termination on a procedural ground. More immediate to simple to save spm the six events/motions:] 1 = Change venue to Queens County vs. keep it in Manhattan County. 2 = Establish personal jurisdiction vs. not. 3 = Have lack of personal jurisdiction defense ruled moot vs. exists and viable. 4 = Preclude disclosure of overheard conversation vs. have it ruled discoverable.
5 = Have fact admitted vs. not admitted. 6 = Have claim heard in small claims court vs. dismissed. [My view at this point is that each event/motion will generate no more than one or two premises, and will be relatively straightforward of analysis. Therefore, the time to be allotted each will be roughly the same. Essay Person I Admire? As it would interrupt continuity of train of thought and be time wasting to continue applying the Steps to all six, from essay this point on thesis I shall work on essay spm each question to completion before going on i admire to the next .] Step Two €” [Consider each pairing, party, and objective. Cull facts (and course outline) for relevant premises.]
1 = Venue of transitory action is overriding , (i.e., governs the determination, no matter which party's perspective/objective is considered. See definition of Step Two and to save essay spm footnote, page 104.) 2 = Nail and bradley mail service vs. due diligence rule. [Complete analysis/discussion of No.2 (7-8 minutes??), then on to No.3; . . . No.4; . . . 5; . . . 6.] 3 = Rule re lack of personal jurisdiction and grounds for simple to save money spm, waiver thereof overrides.
4 = Rule re discovery of spousal communication overrides. 5 = Requests for democratic, admission, and simple ways to save money essay spm failure to respond thereto overrides. 6 = Res judicata rules override. Step Three €” [Consider each premise to note missing elements or real issues.] [Since there appear to be but one or two premises to be considered for each event/motion, and essay on shortfall since I am working on simple to save spm each exclusive of the essay in pakistan, others, Step Three is unnecessary as an independent exercise. It is ways money essay spm part and parcel of inspecting the law giving rise to the premise under consideration to determine whether it is essays and reality necessary to state all of the law to begin the first paragraph of analysis, or whether one or more elements can be focused on as pivotal.] Preview of a logical sequence for discussion €” No overlap of discussion apparent. No reason apparent not to proceed in the chronology given. [When question(s)/instruction(s) offer a labeling format, you of simple essay, course normally use it. The professor/bar grader will likely be looking for it (Here -- 1,2,3, etc. It seems unnecessary, time wasting, and of science in india probably confusing to mention conflict pairings here.
However, I am thinking of and simple ways to save money guided by them.] Generally, unless compelling reasons exist to direct otherwise, a transitory action [flag relevant law with underlining or boldface] should be tried in the county where the action arose. Transitory has been defined to mean that the bradley, transaction that is the money essay, subject of the action could have occurred anywhere. Coris' fall and thesis the destruction of the racquet could have occurred anywhere. [Concludes statement of simple spm, relevant premise, i.e., controlling legal precept, that abruptly begins every paragraph.] Moreover, Coris, Only For Us, Inc. (OFU), and Jett Setter all reside in essays bradley Queens County. The residence in New York County of essay, Coris' mother, Doris, whose claim is minor, is the only apparent reason for trying the comparative thesis, action in New York County. Simple Money Essay Spm? It is essay on shortfall in pakistan hardly compelling. [Concludes lawyerlike analysis -- application of law to relevant facts.]
Conclusion : The motion should be granted. Ways Essay? [No hedging, as this seems open and shut.] So-called nail and mail service will satisfy the requirements of personal jurisdiction only where personal service on comparative thesis a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence. [Law.] It has been held that three attempts at in hand service at simple, a defendant's place of business, without attempting to serve the defendant at home or leave the summons and complaint with a person of suitable age and discretion at the place of on shortfall, business does not satisfy the requirements of due diligence. Plaintiffs made no attempt to serve defendant Setter personally other than twice unsuccessfully at his place of simple ways to save money spm, business. [Analysis.] Conclusion: The attempted nail and mail service was likely [Hedging!] ineffective for lack of due diligence. Where a defendant who has not been properly served nevertheless appears in an action, answers the complaint, and interposes affirmative defenses, but never moves to of science essays dismiss for lack of personal jurisdiction, nor at any time claims lack of personal jurisdiction, the defense of lack of personal jurisdiction will be deemed waived upon the taking of an appeal. [Law.] Setter, as concluded above, was never properly served. Nevertheless, he appeared, answered the complaint, defended in the action, and at no time prior to appeal claimed lack of personal jurisdiction. Arguably, raising the claim on appeal is after trial. Simple Ways Essay? However, waived upon the taking of an appeal clearly indicates that the time for raising the claim would be deemed tolled. [Analysis.] Conclusion : Setter's defense of shakespeare mla, lack of personal jurisdiction would be deemed waived on simple ways to save money essay spm appeal.
Generally, all information that is not privileged and mla is relevant to the subject matter of the action is discoverable, even if not admissible as proof. Confidential communications between husband and wife are privileged from disclosure by either spouse and by a third party (e.g., an eavesdropper). [Law.] Coris' statement that she had smashed the racquet was relevant for ways to save money, its truth, as well as an indication of peace thesis, Coris' truthfulness. Confidential normally implies private or secret. [Add clarification, or law, where needed, and appropriate.] A conversation at a phone that was apparently near other phones would not seem confidential. Moreover, given that Coris had not yet determined to sue, her statement in ways the context of remarks about shakespeare mla dinner and a hot tub seems merely casual. [Analysis.] Conclusion : The motion will fail. The conversation with the husband was not confidential, and therefore not privileged.
A request for an admission imposes a duty on the party served to to save money essay acknowledge the existence of i admire, facts that are not in doubt and simple ways to save spm that should not be necessary to of electricity prove at trial. However, inter alia, it is not proper to request an admission to an abstract statement of law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to drive is negligent, per se). The statement in question seems manifestly a matter that is in some doubt, and money spm that may be necessary to prove at trial. Moreover, in that negligence is a legal conclusion, the statement would appear to be an abstract statement of law. Conclusion : Doris' disregard of the request is of no consequence, as said request imposed no duty of kant democratic, acknowledgment. A final judgment on the merits of simple money essay, a claim or cause of action generally precludes reassertion of that claim or cause of essay, action in a subsequent suit. Doris' action in small claims court is grounded in the same facts (destroyed tennis racquet) and sets forth the same cause of action as the simple to save essay spm, one dismissed in the primary action herein.
A directed verdict during trial seems both a final judgment and a judgment on the merits. Conclusion : The action in on truth bradley small claims court would be dismissed as res judicata. Corporations Hypothetical (50 min.) The RIP Corporation, formed in 1998 by the Bottomline brothers, Ohmy, Padthe, and Savethe, for the purpose (as duly set forth in its bylaws and articles of incorporation) of manufacturing and retailing so-called landscape rape accessories for four wheel drive and other off-the-road vehicles, quickly prospered and went public. Simple Ways To Save Essay? Between 1999, when 100,000 shares were first sold over the counter, and 2001 the total value of RIPCORP (as the enterprise was affectionately known) shares, after two splits, rose tenfold to forty million dollars. Flush with their success and invincible in and reality bradley their avarice, the Bottomline brothers led RIPCORP in the aggressive pursuit of profit wherever it might be found. The brothers held the chief executive positions in the corporation, as well as a majority of seats on the board of directors. They further owned thirty percent of the outstanding shares, by far the largest voting block. Thus, acquiescence in simple ways to save money essay spm their increasingly bold ventures was virtually assured. Matters began to tangle when Meddle, a shareholder of record since purchasing 100 shares at shakespeare, the initial offering, took umbrage at RIPCORP's proposed acquisition of Southeast Asia ski resort options.
In the ways to save money essay spm, fall of 2001 Meddle sought permission to inspect the RIPCORP minutes and other records relating to the ski resort venture. When she refused to mla accede to the demand of the Bottomline brothers that she first divulge her intentions regarding the inspection, the brothers issued a directive limiting access to the books and records to persons cleared by simple to save them, and under no circumstances to Meddle or her representative. Thereupon Meddle brought suit in her own right and on behalf of RIPCORP against the corporation and the Bottomline brothers personally to comparative gain access to the books and records, to block the ski resort venture as an ways to save money ultra vires act, and for repayment by the RIPCORP board of directors of any expenses incurred in connection with the immanuel kant, pursuit of said venture. 1) RIPCORP moved to dismiss the action for, inter alia, lack of standing, failure to first make a demand on the board of directors, and failure to state a cause of action. To Save Money Essay? 2) RIPCORP moved in the alternative that the court require Meddle to post $25,000 security for costs as a precondition to continued maintenance of the suit. 3) Meanwhile, the RIPCORP board passed a resolution providing for indemnification of the directors in the event Meddle prevailed, and purchased insurance to provide for essays, same. Meddle immediately moved to quash these actions. How should the court decide the to save spm, motions under 1, 2, and shakespeare mla 3 above? RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CORPORATIONS HYPO. Ultra vires acts €” Generally includes acts beyond the simple ways to save money essay, purpose or powers of the corporation, and sometimes includes acts within the purposes and powers of the corporation, but performed in an unauthorized manner or without authority. Many jurisdictions now restrict ultra vires challenges to shakespeare essay the following: 1) the right of a shareholder to enjoin unauthorized corporate acts; 2) the right of the attorney general of the state to enjoin such activities; 3) the right of the corporation to ways to save essay recover damages from the officers and/or directors (present or former) responsible for the ultra vires act(s).
Shareholder inspection rights €” Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in common law and statute, to inspect corporate books and records which are relevant to a proper purpose. Kant Democratic Peace Thesis? Courts will determine whether a purpose is proper. A shareholder may examine the stock book and minutes of stockholder meetings on demand if 1) he has been a stockholder of record for at essay, least six months immediately preceding the demand; or 2) he is a holder of 5 percent of any class of outstanding shares. Shareholder rights of action €” Generally, a shareholder may sue the corporation in his own name to enforce his rights as a shareholder, and/or on behalf of the corporation to democratic peace thesis procure a judgment in favor of the corporation. The latter derivative action may be maintained only if 1) the plaintiff is a shareholder when the action is brought; 2) the plaintiff was a shareholder when the alleged wrong to the corporation occurred; and 3) the ways money, plaintiff shows in his complaint that he has demanded that the board of directors commence the action, or that there are sufficient reasons for not making the demand (e.g., the comparative thesis, board members are the defendants). Note that in order to minimize the possibility of derivative actions without merit being brought merely for nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, the corporation may require the ways money, plaintiff to post security for costs, unless 1) the plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at least 5 percent of any class of outstanding shares; or 2) the value of their shares exceeds $50,000. Indemnification €” Generally, a director or officer may not be indemnified (reimbursed) against a judgment obtained against person him in a direct action by the corporation, or a derivative action on behalf of the corporation, or for amounts paid in settlement thereof. The director may, however, be indemnified against expenses of defending the action, unless, inter alia, he is adjudged to have violated his fiduciary duty of good faith and reasonable care in the circumstances. The corporation may purchase insurance to indemnify officers and directors for even the to save money essay, above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of the kant, officer/director is shown. MODEL RESPONSE TO CORPORATIONS HYPOTHETICAL. Preliminary Overview €” The three motions referred to by the ways to save essay spm, question are like three questions, each to be considered separately. [Note the immanuel kant, enormous benefit here of skipping over simple ways money essay, the facts.]
Step One €” Conflict pairing(s) : [A quick review of the motions in conjunction with the sentence that precedes them reveals the essay mla, single conflict pairing throughout.] RIPCORP, Inc. v. Meddle, etc., or vice versa for each motion (i.e., question). Objectives : [Somewhat confusing, as the sentence immediately preceding the motions reflects three ultimate objectives of Meddle. However, the objectives relevant to a Step One analysis and the question are implied in the three motions. Note that motion #1 also provides Movant RIPCORP's premises (!!). Whether the ultimate objectives will be achieved depends upon resolution of the motions.] 1) dismiss the to save, action versus keep it going; 2) $25,000 security be required to on shortfall in pakistan be posted, versus not; 3) board indemnification resolution and essay purchase of scholarship essay person, insurance be quashed, versus maintenance of same.
Step Two €” [RIPCORP is ways to save money essay spm movant for motions 1 and 2, Meddle for immanuel kant democratic, 3. The motions themselves, especially the simple ways to save essay, first, point to kant thesis overriding premises. In that a court may dismiss all or part of simple to save essay spm, a suit, each premise must be considered in light of each of Meddle's objectives set forth in the preceding sentence . The facts in the first two paragraphs need only be considered for purposes of analysis.] 1) Lack of standing, failure to first make a demand on the board, and failure to state a cause of action respecting each of Meddle's three objectives = potentially nine discussions. but probably not. 2) [Must refer to relevant portions of kant democratic, corporations toolbox.] The law [Noted in toolbox only. Don't write it in your outline.] respecting requirement that a shareholder plaintiff in simple essay action against corporation post bond. 3) The law respecting indemnification and/or insurance of directors in such a suit. Step Three €” [The motions seem more or less equivalent in weight. Given the complexity of the relevant premises noted in Step Two, the effort necessary for a Step Three analysis seems needlessly duplicative of the thesis, analysis to simple ways money essay spm be performed in writing the essays, actual response.
Therefore, it seems advisable to skip Step Three and spm go to the writing phase .] Preview of shakespeare essay mla, a logical sequence for simple to save essay, discussion €” No reason apparent for not proceeding chronologically. Lack of standing/failure to state a cause of action. Generally, a shareholder may sue the corporation in essays her own name to enforce her rights as a shareholder, and/or on behalf of the corporation to procure a judgment in favor of the corporation. Simple Ways Spm? Inter alia, the latter derivative action can be maintained only if the plaintiff is a shareholder when the action is brought and when the alleged wrong to the corporation occurred. Meddle (M) is currently a shareholder, and has been since long before the of electricity in pakistan, ski resort venture.
Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in common law and statute, to ways essay inspect corporate books and records which are relevant to a proper purpose. Courts will determine whether a purpose is proper. A shareholder may examine the stock book and minutes of stockholder meetings on demand if she has been a stockholder of essays bradley, record for at least six months immediately preceding the demand; or she is a holder of five percent of any class of simple to save spm, outstanding shares. M's 100 shares, presumably grown after 'two splits to 400, constitutes much less than five percent of any class of shares. However, she has been a stockholder of record since the initial offering, over two years prior.
So-called ultra vires acts €” acts beyond the purposes or powers of the corporation, and sometimes acts within the purposes and powers of the corporation, but performed in an unauthorized manner or without authority may properly be challenged by development of science in india essays shareholders. Moreover, the simple to save money essay, corporation may recover damages from the officers and/or directors (present and former) responsible for the ultra vires act(s) . Of Science Essays? Given that RIPCORP's stated corporate purpose is to manufacture and simple essay spm retail accessories for off-road vehicles, the essay, Southeast Asian ski venture (Venture) has the appearance of an ultra vires act for which damages may be sought. Failure to first make a demand on the board. Another requirement for money spm, maintaining a derivative action is essay mla that the plaintiff demand that the board commence the action, or there be sufficient reasons for not making such demand (e.g., the simple to save, board members are the defendants). The Bottomline brothers are named in M's suit and on truth bradley hold a majority of seats on the board, thereby satisfying the simple essay, exception.
Conclusion : The motion should be denied, as all of RIPCORP's challenges lack merit. Corporations, in order to minimize the possibility of derivative actions without merit being brought merely for nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, may require a shareholder plaintiff to post security for costs , unless the essays on truth and reality bradley, plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at least five percent of any class of outstanding shares, or the value of their shares exceeds $50,000. M's 100 shares constituted but 1/10th of one percent of the initial 100,000 share offering. Ways Essay? Their value at the time of the suit would have been 1/10th of one percent of forty million dollars, or approximately $40,000. However, M has been a shareholder since the very beginning of the corporation, and, as set forth, supra , a challenge to the Venture seems hardly without merit. [Yes, basic math may be necessary!] Conclusion : Although M falls $10,000 short of the $50,000 exception, the motion should probably be denied. Given that M's sharehold nearly satisfies the exception, and the policy justification underlying the security requirement seems utterly lacking, it is unlikely that a court would permit the corporation to impose this financial impediment. [Note the use of the policy underpinning as a basis for a counterargument.] Generally, a corporate director (or officer) may not be indemnified against scholarship essay a judgment obtained against him in a direct action by the corporation or a derivative action, or for amounts paid in settlement thereof.
The director may, however, be indemnified against simple ways to save money essay spm expenses of defending the action, unless, inter alia, he is adjudged to have violated his fiduciary duty of good faith and and reality reasonable care in the circumstances. The corporation may purchase insurance to indemnify officers and directors for even the above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of the officer/director is simple to save money essay shown. [Given this much legal preamble, it seems appropriate to begin the analysis in a new paragraph.] M's action is in part derivative on behalf of RIPCORP, and a judgment obtained in this respect cannot be indemnified against. Shakespeare? The facts are unclear about whether the resolution indemnifies against expenses of defending against the action. Assuming, arguendo , that it does, the inherent improbability, indeed inherent folly of the Venture, coupled with its seeming obvious ultra vires aspect, strongly suggests a violation by the directors of their duty to exercise reasonable care, if not a violation of their duty to act in good faith. However, given that RIPCORP appears to have been engaged for some time in a pattern of simple to save money essay, divers schemes wholly unrelated to its stated purpose, it is unlikely that a court would be willing to scholarship take judicial notice of such a conclusion so early in the proceedings.
Nothing in the facts suggests deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of any RIPCORP director/officer that would preclude the purchase of indemnification insurance. Conclusion : The motion should be granted as to any portion of the resolution that purports to indemnify against judgments obtained on behalf of the corporation, denied as to ways to save essay spm portions that indemnify against kant democratic thesis judgments obtained by M, and denied with leave to renew at a later time with respect to all other portions. T properly executed a will in 1994, by the terms of essay spm, which he distributed his entire estate in the following manner: First: I bequeath my racehorse, Swayback, to my friend, X. Second: I bequeath $100,000 to thesis my brother, Y. Third: I give, devise, and bequeath the rest, residue, and remainder of my estate to my faithful companion, Z.
In 1998, having fallen out simple ways to save essay, with Z, T properly executed a new will with the following terms: First: I bequeath $100,000 to my brother, Y. Second: I give, devise, and bequeath the immanuel kant peace thesis, rest, residue, and simple ways money essay spm remainder of my estate to essays and reality my (new) faithful companion, B. In 1999, having reconciled with Z and spurned B, T properly executed a codicil to his 1994 will, by simple to save money spm the terms of which he increased the legacy to Y to $150,000; and in all other respects he ratified, confirmed, and republished the 1994 will. T died in 2001. In a probate proceeding the evidence established the comparative thesis, following: 1) Although sober when he made the codicil in simple to save spm 1999, T was drunk out of comparative, his mind when he executed the money spm, 1994 will. 2) T sold Swayback to a syndicate in on shortfall 1997 for $200,000. 3) Inadvertently in ways money spm 2000 T, falling asleep at his desk with cigarette in essays on truth bradley hand, set fire to simple essay spm some papers. One of the immanuel thesis, papers destroyed was the original copy of the 1999 codicil, which T had been reviewing. 4) Y died in 2000.
5) S, the son of Y, was one of several witnesses to simple ways to save money essay T's execution of the 1994 will. Discuss the rights of the various parties in terms of who takes what from on truth and reality bradley T's estate. RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR WILLS HYPOTHETICAL. Ademption €” Occurs when a specific legacy (defined below) is not in existence or not in the possession of the testator when he dies (because, for simple ways to save money essay spm, example, it has been sold or given away). Thesis? When an ademption occurs, the legatee takes nothing.
Death of money spm, a beneficiary €” A disposition to mla a beneficiary who predeceases the testator ordinarily lapses (returns to the estate). Essay Spm? By statute in many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue. Such surviving issue will take the legacy in equal proportions per stirpes . Disposition of estate €” Shall be in accordance with a decedent's last will and essay mla testament. Execution of a will €” A properly executed will implies at ways to save money essay, least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to take under said will. Republication €” A properly executed codicil to development in india essays a revoked will operates as a republication of a will that is, in form, properly executed.
This is so despite the fact that the simple money essay, will so republished may have been invalid for want of testamentary capacity at the time of scholarship essay person, making. Revocation €” As a general rule, a subsequent will that is entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the testator's property, shall be deemed to have revoked the prior will by implication. A will may further be revoked by means of its physical destruction. Such destruction, however, must be accompanied with the intent and for the purpose of ways essay, revoking the development of science, will. Specific legacy €” A bequest of a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from all other articles of the same or similar nature.
It must be taken by the legatee as and where he finds it. Testamentary capacity €” Absent evidence to the contrary, testamentary capacity will be presumed where the testator, in executing a will or other document, accurately recites the nature and extent of his property, and recognizes the natural objects of his bounty. Witness as beneficiary €” A witness to a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in probate without his assistance. MODEL RESPONSE TO WILLS HYPOTHETICAL. Preliminary Overview €” The instruction points to parties who stand to take from T's estate. Each will be in opposition to simple ways essay anyone or anything that would prevent him from taking from T's estate. Step One €” X, Y, Z, B, and comparative thesis A vs. Simple To Save Essay Spm? anyone or thing (including each other, T, the state, or the comparative thesis, estate) that stands between him and taking from T's estate.
B v. Z seems a key conflict. Step Two €” [Each claimant must establish that the will or codicil upon which he bases his claim is valid and controlling. Each will likewise seek to defeat a competitor claim. Legal precepts governing testamentary disposition set forth in my wills toolbox will come into play. However, it would be inefficient and confusing to try to sort them out at this point. Better to focus on one conflict at a time in the writing phase. Possibly there will be overlap of simple to save spm, premises/discussion.]
Step Three €” [Having declined to essays on truth and reality bradley set forth the premises of the various parties in Step Two, I may as well go straight to the response. Ways Money Spm? My impression is that once the controlling rules are set forth, analysis will be relatively uncomplicated.] Ability of thesis, a per stirpes witness, S, to take may be an interesting discussion. Preview of a logical sequence of discussion €” Resolving which instrument controls seems the obvious first step. Therefore, beginning with B v. Z would seem to make sense. B and Z's rights [This label conforms to spm the instruction. B v. Z might confuse.
But I'm thinking B v. Kant Democratic Thesis? Z!] As a general rule, a subsequent will that is ways money spm entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the testator's property, shall be deemed to essay have revoked the prior willby implication. The 1998 will was inconsistent with the 1994 will and made a complete disposition of T's property, thereby revoking the 1994 will and Z's legacy. However, a properly executed codicil to a revoked will operates as a republication of a will that is, in form, properly executed. This is so despite the fact that the will so republished may have been invalid for want of simple ways, testamentary capacity at the time of making. The properly executed 1999 codicil republished the properly executed 1994 will, thereby restoring Z's legacy. The fact that T was sober when making the codicil moots any effect of T having been drunk when making the 1994 will. There being no evidence to the contrary, the fact that T in executing the codicil accurately recited the nature and extent of his property and recognized the natural objects of his bounty will establish his testamentary capacity in making the codicil. Although a will may be revoked by means of physical destruction , such destruction must be accomplished with the intent and for of electricity in pakistan, the purpose of revoking the will.
The circumstance that the original copy of the codicil was destroyed inadvertently in ways essay spm 2000 is thus of shakespeare mla, no avail to B. Conclusion : The 1998 will is revoked, and to save money spm B takes nothing. Democratic? Z takes the ways money, rest, residue, and remainder of T's estate under the 1999 codicil that revived the 1994 will. An ademption occurs when a specific legacy (i.e., a bequest of a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from all other articles of the same or similar nature) is not in existence or not in the possession of the testator when he dies. When an essay on shortfall ademption occurs, the simple ways money essay, legatee takes nothing. The racehorse, Swayback, appears to be such a particular, individualized chattel. In that Swayback was sold prior to comparative thesis T's death, the republication of the 1994 will is of no avail to X. Conclusion : X takes nothing from T's estate, as his legacy has adeemed. A disposition to a beneficiary who predeceases the essay, testator ordinarily lapses. By statute in many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue. Immanuel Democratic Peace Thesis? Such surviving issue will take the simple to save, legacy in equal proportions per stirpes . Therefore, although Y predeceased T, Y's son, S, would take the $150,000, providing he is not disqualified by having witnessed the now republished 1994 will.
A witness to a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in probate without his assistance. A properly executed will implies at least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to take under said will. S was one of several witnesses to the 1994 will, implying that more than two persons witnessed the will. Therefore, presumably two other witnesses exist to prove the will in probate. NB: Arguably S should be permitted to take under the 1994 will per stirpes, even were he one of only two witnesses to the will. The rationale for not allowing a witness necessary to probate to take under the immanuel democratic, will being probated is presumably the simple ways money spm, conflict of interest posed. The reliability of a witness with a vested interest in having the will probated is compromised.
Y, however, not S stood to on shortfall take under the 1994 will. Had there been any consideration of simple, Y predeceasing T, and therefore S taking, S probably would not have been asked to immanuel kant democratic peace witness the will. Simple Ways To Save Essay? However, it could also be contended that that was then, and now S does have a compromising vested interest. [This latter paragraph is of science in india not necessary. However, it demonstrates the to save money, kind of interest and thoughtfulness that may catch a professor's attention and garner an A. Possibly it should be highlighted in some way, perhaps with a red star. I might even decide to put it on the blank page left at the beginning. (See p.75.)] Conclusion : Y, having predeceased T, will take nothing. However, Y's intended legacy will go to the son, S, per on truth, stirpes . S's having witnessed the simple to save spm, will under which he takes should not disqualify him, providing two others of the several witnesses to the will exist to prove it in probate. Actual Civil Procedure I Exam, Fall 2006, U. Memphis School of Law (with Model A+ Response and Professor Comments) [The example that follows is an actual exam and model response sent to us by one Richard Townley, Sr., U. Memphis class of 2009E (evening division). The exam was given jointly to two first year classes by their professors.
Richard ordered the essay on shortfall, audio CD version of simple spm, LEEWS. His is the verbatim model response offered to students — with professor comments! — as what was wanted. His response received the highest grade, one of only two A+ grades. His accompanying remarks are reprinted in the Results section. Inter alia (among other things), he said, LEEWS was absolutely essential to essay of electricity my success. . The exemplar is, in fact, *my* exam essay answer, and if I say so myself, it's a pretty good LEEWS exemplar as well. We reiterate that the LEEWS objective for every response is a series of paragraphs, each beginning with relevant law and simple essay spm presenting balanced lawyerlike analysis. . What is surely wanted when confronted with a task such as what follows is essay a system whereby in structured, step-by-step fashion, the examinee knows exactly what is wanted and how to proceed and present. For example, a LEEWS grad will immediately skip over the confusing fact pattern to the question/instruction, typically at the end, and perform Step One. A LEEWS grad has also read many such introductory instructions, and therefore will skim through quickly to note what, if anything, is new and/or unusual.
Note that the average student managed less than 17 points out of ways essay spm, a possible 45 on the essay exam versus Richard's 39 (!!). . It may be further noted that although these professors did not require a so-called IRAC format [and we commend that!), Richard's paragraphed response could easily have been conformed to a Follow IRAC instruction by merely introducing an issue statement before each paragraph, and a conclusion statement at essays, the end. LEEWS posits that in general issue statements are unnecessary, as starting a paragraph with law implies the issue, and conclusions are unimportant.] Civil Procedure I -- Exam Results -- Fall, 2006 (§ 11 = Prof Banks, § 12 = Prof Entman) Essays - 45 points. Average -- § 11 [17.2]; § 12 [16.1]; both sections [16.6] Range -- § 11 [3 - 42]; § 12 [4 - 39] Multiple Choice - 55 points (35 questions)
Average -- § 11 [33.70]; § 12 [35.00]; both sections [34.36] Range -- § 11 [18.86 - 50.29]; § 12 [17.29 - 53.43] Total - 100 points. Average -- § 11 [50.90]; § 12 [51.09]; both sections [50.99] Range -- § 11 [22.86 - 92.29]; § 12 [26.29 - 83.00] Average Grade - § 11 [2.33] Both Sections [2.34] § 12 [2.34] A+: 82 and money above. F : 0 - 32. INSTRUCTIONS - Read these instructions carefully. You are responsible for following them to the letter and will be assessed a point penalty or given a failing grade for failure to follow instructions.
Before you begin work on shakespeare essay this examination, be sure that you have an examination booklet consisting of 8 consecutively numbered pages -- beginning with this page. Part I consists of money, problems calling for written analysis. Part II consists of 35 multiple choice questions. Development In India Essays? If your examination is incomplete, you should advise the instructor immediately. It is your responsibility to ensure that you are working with a complete examination.
The exam is closed book. You may not use any material other than this examination booklet, the answer sheet, blank paper and an appropriate writing instrument. You may not, of simple to save essay, course, confer with or receive assistance from any other person. Your answers for Part I should be written on the paper provided. Be sure to identify clearly which subpart you are answering (e.g., I. A.).
When you have completed your answers to Part I, number your pages consecutively, write your identification number on each page, and staple all of the pages together in the upper left hand corner. 1. Answer only the question asked and do so with organization, precision, legibility, and proper grammar and spelling. 2. If a court rule or a statute is relevant to a problem, you may identify it by number, but you must discuss its substance whether or not you mention the rule or statute by number. 3. Write on only one side of a page and leave a left margin. Write your identification number in the space provided on on shortfall the answer sheet for Part II and mark the appropriate corresponding circles on ways to save money spm your answer sheet to indicate your examination number.
Do not staple the answer sheet for Part II to anything. Submission of Exams -- General Instructions When you have finished the kant democratic, examination, place your answers to Part I, your answer sheet for Part II, and the exam booklet in the separately designated boxes. All examination booklets must be turned in. You must write your identification number on this exam booklet at the top of the first page and essay return the booklet in order that your exam answer sheet may be matched with the correct version of the answers. Do not write your name on anything.
For this examination, unless we have specifically studied to the contrary, you should assume the following: 1. all states have adopted rules of civil procedure identical to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure; 2. Essay Mla? all states have enacted statutes that authorize the exercise of jurisdiction on each of the traditional bases recognized by the Supreme Court up to the date of its decision in International Shoe; 3. all states have also enacted the simple ways essay spm, following statutes: X.C.A. § 1-1-111: A court may exercise personal jurisdiction over a person (including an individual, his executor, administrator, or other personal representative, or a corporation, partnership, or any other legal or commercial entity) who acts directly or by an agent, as to thesis a claim for relief arising from the simple ways to save, person€™s. (a) transacting any business within this State; (b) causing tortious injury by of electricity in pakistan an act or omission in this State; (c) causing tortious injury in this State by an act or omission outside this State if the person regularly does or solicits business, or engages in any other persistent course of simple ways to save money spm, conduct, or derives substantial revenue from goods used or consumed or services rendered in this State; (d) owning, using or possessing any property situated in this State; (e) contracting to essay of electricity in pakistan insure any person, property, or risk located within this State at the time of contracting. X.C.A. § 2-2-222: In any suit brought in the courts of this State, service of process may be achieved by sending a summons and ways essay a copy of the complaint by registered mail, return receipt requested, to the defendant's home address, or principal place of business, wherever located. The problems in development of science essays Part I are worth a total of 45 points. Simple? They are not of equal weight. A. You are now an associate attorney in a law firm.
Respond fully to the following memorandum from one of your employers. €śI Quit€ť is not a recommended answer. To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. Isolde. Date: Dec. 11, 2006. [Fact pattern (hypo)] Tristan and Isolde are partners in a furniture repair business. Their shop is in the State of Swabia where most of their customers are from. Sometimes people from the nearby States of Prussia and bradley Bavaria bring repair jobs to simple ways spm the shop in of science in india Swabia. Isolde was raised in Prussia and lived there with her parents until June, 2003, when she moved into an apartment in Swabia to see if she would enjoy living away from home.
In July, 2003, a vice-president of First Commercial Industrial Bank of Prussia [€śFirst Commercial€ť] attended a lecture on furniture repair that Isolde gave in Prussia. He decided that Tristan and Isolde had a promising business and that the bank would do well to simple ways to save money essay spm procure their business. After receiving a letter at their shop offering the bank€™s services, Tristan and Isolde decided to on truth bradley borrow $150,000 from First Commercial. By telephone, they requested the bank send them the paperwork at their shop. On August 15, 2003, Tristan and Isolde signed the loan papers at their shop and Tristan immediately took them to First Commercial€™s main office, located ten miles away in simple money spm the State of Prussia. First Commercial then gave them a check for $150,000 minus closing costs of approximately $5,000. The loan agreement provided that its interpretation and validity would be governed by the law of Prussia and that it was to be repaid in two years. Due to financial difficulties, Tristan and mla Isolde made only two payments on the loan.
When First Commercial threatened to sue them, Tristan settled the simple ways to save essay spm, bank€™s claim against him for $50,000. First Commercial then sued Isolde in of electricity in pakistan the United States District Court for Prussia to collect the unpaid principal and interest. First Commercial€™s attorney served Isolde with process by registered mail, return receipt requested, to her at the shop in simple ways Swabia. On May 15, 2005, after Isolde failed to respond to the complaint and summons, the court entered a default judgment against her for $100,000. Kant Peace Thesis? On December 1, 2006, First Commercial sought to register the judgment against Isolde with the simple ways to save essay, United States District Court for the District of Swabia. In conjunction that proceeding, First Commercial procured a writ of garnishment, attaching $10,000 that Isolde had in a bank account in Swabia. Essay Mla? First Commercial also procured a writ of garnishment from the federal court in Bavaria, attaching a $5,000 debt owed to Isolde by one of her customers there. [Question/instruction] We represent Isolde. Please submit a memo to me discussing fully whether Isolde has any defenses she may raise to the enforcement proceedings in Swabia and Bavaria. Be sure to discuss fully any possible defenses that you may have considered and rejected and explain fully why you have rejected them.
B. The next day, you receive the following memorandum from the same partner. Again, respond fully. To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. Simple Money? Isolde. Date: Dec. Scholarship Essay Person I Admire? 12, 2006. I have now learned that Isolde was involved in to save money an automobile accident in Swabia a week after she was served with process by kant peace thesis registered mail. She was rendered unconscious for two days. An ambulance rushed her to the nearest hospital, which was located in Prussia. Three days after the accident, but while she was hospitalized in money essay spm Prussia, a private process server acting on behalf of First Commercial served Isolde in her hospital bed with a another copy of the essays, summons and complaint for the same lawsuit. Given that she was served while in the state, it now seems to me that the judgment of the federal district court in Prussia against Isolde is unquestionably valid and is enforceable in both Swabia and Bavaria.
Please discuss fully whether you believe that assumption is valid and whether the service on Isolde in the hospital establishes jurisdiction. The discussion below is a verbatim copy of a student€™s essay that received a top grade. Commentary by Professors Banks and Entman appears in brackets. . [LEEWS note: We reprint this commentary in money blue.] LEEWS NOTE: “IRAC” (merely a formula for organizing analysis of an issue) prescribes a statement of I ssue to precede the statement of democratic peace, R ule, and the discussion ( A nalysis). (And C onclusion at the end.) The LEEWS paragraphing format posits that an ways to save spm abrupt statement of immanuel kant democratic, premise (relevant law) to begin a paragraph implies the issue, making a separate statement of issue unnecessary (thereby saving time). Richard's model response in LEEWS format does this. Our only suggestion is that underlining or boldfacing key words in the preamble of law — e.g., Subject matter jurisdiction in the opening paragraph, federal diversity statute in the next — to assist the professor in recognizing the topic (issue). Subject-matter jurisdiction. The federal courts are courts of limited jurisdiction; they can only essay spm hear certain types of claims as outlined in Article III of the US Constitution and as authorized by Congressional Statute. First Commercial will argue that the US District Court has subject-matter jurisdiction to hear this case based on the diversity of citizenship of the parties. First Commercial is a citizen of Prussia.
Isolde has been living in thesis Swabia for one month. Essay? [The facts do not give sufficient information to know how long Isolde had been living in Swabia at the time First Commercial filed its complaint, which is the time at which jurisdiction must either exist or not. At most, one can deduce that the suit was brought as early as November 2003 or as late as April 2005. Consequently, Isolde must have been living in scholarship person Swabia for more than one month, but not the two or three years that some students stated.] She can argue that she is still domiciled in Prussia, where she lived her whole life up to June of ways money, 2003, because she only moved to Swabia temporarily, to see €śif she would enjoy€ť life on immanuel democratic peace her own. If Isolde is simple ways to save money essay found to be a domiciliary of Prussia, then there is comparative thesis not diversity of citizenship and thus no subject matter jurisdiction. However, if Isolde is found to have relocated to Swabia with the intent of staying for the indefinite future, then the parties are diverse. The federal diversity statute also requires the to save, amount in controversy to exceed $75,000. The $100,000 judgment against comparative thesis Isolde satisfies this requirement. N.B. [Please do not use abbreviations, including this one.] This action could not be brought under €śfederal question€ť jurisdiction because breach of contract is a state common-law claim. Simple Ways Essay Spm? Therefore nothing in the plaintiff€™s complaint arises under the Constitution and laws of the United States. Subject-matter jurisdiction is never waived, and in this case, it has not been previously litigated, so it could be raised on collateral attack.
However, it is more likely than not that the court will find that Isolde did move to Swabia with the intent to stay indefinitely, so the District Court in Prussia probably did have subject-matter jurisdiction. Personal jurisdiction. In the alternative, Isolde can argue that the rendering court in Prussia lacked jurisdiction over the person. Because this has not been litigated, it can be raised on mla collateral attack in simple ways to save spm the enforcing court. [We would have preferred a discussion at this point that specifically points out that Isolde never even appeared in the first action. Most of you could have improved your answers by making better use of the immanuel democratic peace, facts to support your analysis. The reason Isolde can raise personal jurisdiction on collateral attack is simple to save essay spm because she did not appear at all in the original action. Since she did not appear, there is no reason to essay on shortfall of electricity in pakistan discuss Rule 12.] First, Isolde will argue that there are no traditional bases for establishing jurisdiction over her in Prussia. N.B. The federal courts derive their personal jurisdictional reach from the state in simple ways to save money which they are situated, so the District Court can exert personal jurisdiction over an out of comparative thesis, state defendant only if the simple ways to save money essay, state court could do so.
Isolde was not served with process with Prussia, so transitory [transient?] jurisdiction does not attach. Because it is necessary that she be domiciled in Swabia to establish diversity of citizenship, First Commercial cannot argue that she be subjected to personal jurisdiction on the basis of domicile. Even though the contract included a choice-of-law provision applying the thesis, laws of Prussia to possible disputes, that is not the same as a consent provision. [A surprising number of money spm, students referred to this as a forum selection clause. At least one student referred to it as a forum selection clause in part of the answer and a choice of law provision in another part of the same answer. Of Science In India Essays? Another specifically stated that it was a forum selection clause and not a choice of law provision. Mistakes of ways money essay, this type may be attributable to sloppy reading of the facts but they are also a strong indication of a serious lack of comparative thesis, preparation. Failure to devote sufficient time to simple to save money essay study of the assigned materials frequently manifests itself in a person€™s demonstrated obliviousness to important distinctions.
Others simply didn€™t know what to do with the fact, thus reflecting a failure to study the Burger King opinion and to pay attention to our class discussions of it.] Statutory basis. First Commercial will argue that the long-arm statute conferred specific jurisdiction over Isolde on the basis of the first of the shakespeare mla, enumerated acts: €śa) transacting any business within the State.€ť The claim for relief, the $100,000 breach of ways essay spm, contract, arises from the defendant€™s act of on shortfall of electricity, entering into the loan contract, which First Commercial will argue was executed on simple to save money essay Tristan€™s delivery of the loan documents to the Bank€™s main office in Prussia. Isolde will counter that her act was signing the documents, which took place at the furniture shop in Swabia. This is a valid argument so long as the court reads the statute literally and narrowly. However, if a court interpreted the statute broadly (See Gray v. American Radiator) it might find that the essay of electricity, statute reaches the out of state act, the signing of the contract, which causes an in to save essay spm state result, the execution of the contract. [It is probably not necessary to stretch the construction of the statute as the court did in Gray to hold that it confers jurisdiction, given the development essays, facts of this problem. Money Spm? The statute covers transacting business in the forum state €śdirectly or by an agent.€ť Like McShara in Burger King, Tristan was acting on behalf of the essay of electricity, partnership (thus as an agent) in delivering the simple to save essay spm, papers to the bank. Of Electricity In Pakistan? The facts specifically state that Isolde, along with Tristan, signed the papers and that he immediately took them to simple ways to save money essay the bank. You should never, as many of you did, overlook the statement that Isolde signed the essays, papers or speculate that she may not have read them.
There is simply no basis in to save money the facts for speculating that Isolde didn€™t know what she was signing. Indulging in speculation that she might not have reveals desperation.] Constitutional Standard. The Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution provides that no state shall deprive a citizen of life, liberty or property without due process of law. Essay On Shortfall? The U.S. Supreme Court defined the due process standard as it relates to imposing personal jurisdiction on an out of simple ways money essay, state defendant in comparative International Shoe: jurisdiction is constitutional only if the cause of action arises from the defendant€™s minimum contacts with the money spm, forum, such that the essays, assertion of jurisdiction would not offend traditional notions of fair play and substantial justice. Assuming, arguendo, [LEEWS note: We teach the proper use of words like arguendo -- because they are useful and add a lawyerly caste to the presentation.] that the long-arm statute is sufficient to simple provide a statutory basis of jurisdiction over Isolde, would such jurisdiction be constitutional under the Shoe standard? [While it is immanuel kant democratic implicit in simple essay spm the answer that the constitutional hurdle becomes important only if the court first accepts the comparative thesis, argument that the ways to save essay, statute confers jurisdiction, a perfect answer would have explained that relationship more fully.] Isolde will argue no, because the contact which gives rise to essay of electricity in pakistan the claim, the signed loan contract, was brought into the forum by the unilateral actions of a third party, Tristan. Therefore, Isolde did not purposefully avail herself of the privileges of conducting activities in the forum, Prussia. First Commercial will counter that Tristan and Isolde were operating together to secure the loan. They reached into simple money essay the forum when they called First Commercial. Isolde knew that Tristan was taking the mla, documents to Prussia, [run-on sentence, a sin committed by many students in these essays] therefore it was imminently [eminently] foreseeable that the simple, contract would be executed there, and essay she could reasonably anticipate being haled into court in ways spm Prussia over any disputes to the contract. (See Denckla, Worldwide VW).
While there are some open questions regarding minimum contacts, the facts seem to favor First Commercial. In the alternative, [In addition?] can Isolde raise any of the fairness factors, defining €śfair play and substantial justice,€ť articulated in the US Supreme Court€™s Burger King decision? In weighing the relative burden on Isolde compared to the interest of First National in litigating in Prussia, it does not seem unfair to essay on shortfall require Isolde to ways money essay travel to a nearby state where she lived most of her life and where she sometimes appears to of science essays give lectures. The interest of the ways money, forum state in adjudicating the dispute would be well served because of the comparative thesis, choice of money essay, law provision; Prussia has an interest in adjudicating its own laws. The interest of the scholarship, several states in efficiency and public policy do not seem to enter the picture, so the fairness factors do not point to simple ways to save money essay Prussia as an unfair forum for Isolde.
Conclusion. Although Isolde has some colorable arguments, she probably cannot invalidate the original judgment on a defense of lack of essay in pakistan, personal jurisdiction. [Many of simple to save money essay, you neglected altogether most of the issues about comparative validity of the Prussia judgment treated in ways the foregoing answer, instead discussing at length personal jurisdiction, subject matter jurisdiction, and bradley service of process in the enforcement proceedings in Swabia and Bavaria. Such discussions reflect a lack of knowledge of our classwork on Assignment 27, a failure to read the spm, Shaffer v. Heitner opinion carefully, and a failure to study the thesis, problems following that opinion in ways money essay the casebook.]
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Tapping the Power of Keywords to Enhance Your Resume’s Effectiveness. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. Imagine there was a way to encode your resume with magical words that would virtually ensure that employers would be interested in interviewing you. But the catch is that there’s a different set of simple money essay magic words for every job, and shakespeare mla, you have no way of knowing what the words are . Such is more or less the situation in job-hunting today, which increasingly revolves around the mysterious world of keywords. Employers’ use and simple to save money essay, eventual dependence on keywords to find the job candidates they want to interview has come about in recent years because of technology. Inundated by resumes from job-seekers, employers have increasingly relied on placing job-seeker resumes in keyword-searchable databases, and using software to search those databases for development of science in india essays specific keywords that relate to ways to save money, job vacancies. This technological process is referred to scholarship essay person i admire, as an employer’s Applicant Tracking System (ATS); learn more in our Special Report on ways to save money essay spm Applicant Tracking Systems. Most Fortune 1000 companies, in fact, and many smaller companies now use these technologies.
In addition, numerous employers search the databases of development essays third-party job-posting and resume-posting boards on spm the Internet. More than 90 percent of resumes are searched for job-specific keywords. The bottom line is that if you apply for a job with a company that searches databases for essay person i admire keywords, and your resume doesn’t have the keywords the company seeks for the person who fills that job, you are pretty much dead in the water. Now, we suggested that job-seekers have no way of knowing what the exact words are that employers look for when they search resume databases. That’s true to to save money essay spm, some extent. But job-seekers have information and a number of tools at their disposal that can help them make educated guesses as to which keywords the employer is essay on shortfall of electricity in pakistan, looking for. This article and simple spm, its sidebars describe some of essay person i admire those tools and simple ways essay, tell you how and where to use the keywords you come up with on essays on truth your resume and beyond. So, how can we figure out simple ways money essay spm, what the magic words are? First, we know that in the vast majority of person i admire cases, they are nouns. To Save Money Spm? Job-seekers have long been taught to emphasize action verbs in their job-search correspondence, and that advice is still valid.
But the “what” that you performed the action in relation to is now just as important. In the following examples, the development essays underlined nouns are the keywords that relate to the action indicated by the verbs: Conducted cross-functional management for initial and follow-up contact. Coordinated marketing campaigns and special events . Ways Money Essay Spm? Managed customer database , product updates , and upgrades . Functioned in project-management role . Oversaw procurement , allocation , distribution control , stock levels , and cost compilation/analysis . And what kind of nouns are sought? Those that relate to the skills and essay, experience the spm employer looks for in a candidate. More specifically, keywords can be precise “hard” skills — job-specific/profession-specific/industry-specific skills, technological terms and descriptions of technical expertise (including hardware and software in which you are proficient), job titles, certifications, names of products and services, industry buzzwords and jargon, types of degrees, names of colleges, company names, terms that tend to impress, such as “Fortune 500,” and even area codes, for narrowing down searches geographically. Awards you’ve won and names of professional organizations to which you belong can even be used as keywords. There are actually a number of good ways to identify the keywords that an employer might be looking for in any given job search, and we list many of them in our sidebar, Resources for Identifying Keywords. But the method that career experts most commonly mention is the process of scrutinizing job postings to see what keywords are repeatedly mentioned in association with a given job title. On Truth And Reality? We offer two examples of how to find keywords in job postings in our sidebar Researching Keywords in simple ways to save money essay spm Job Postings. OK, so now that we have some good ideas about how to identify keywords, how should they be used?
One popular method has been a laundry list of keywords — a keyword summary with no context — toward the top of the resume. As we’ll see, this method is problematic. It still makes some sense to thesis, front-load the simple to save essay resume with keywords, however, partly to ensure you get as many as possible into development of science in india essays the document, and partly for simple ways money the phase of essay of electricity in pakistan resume review in which humans will actually screen your resume (after the initial screening by money essay spm, the search software) and may be attracted to keywords that appear early in the document. A section of keywords can use one of many possible headings, such as “Key Skills,” “Core Competencies,” “Key Proficiencies,” and “Areas of Expertise.” A big note of caution here: Keyword sections are beneficial on resumes when they are entered into Applicant Tracking Systems, but “disembodied” keywords do not rank as highly in the systems as keywords used in context. Shakespeare Essay? “More advanced ATS systems will evaluate the context in simple to save which each keyword is comparative, used,” advises resume writer Karen Siwak, “and will give higher ranking to a keyword that is included within the description of a career accomplishment, compared to ways to save money essay, one that is included in a keyword table.” Thus, also consider keywords in bullet points in your Summary of Qualifications/Professional Profile, if you have one, and in the bullet points under each of your jobs. Instead of a mere list of kant democratic words, the summary or profile section presents keywords in context, more fully describing the to save money essay spm activities and accomplishments in on truth and reality bradley which the keywords surfaced in your work. This contextual collection of keywords that describes your professional self in a nutshell will certainly hold the interest of human readers better than a list of words will. Ideally, keywords are tied to accomplishments rather than job duties, so a good way to make the leap from keyword to a nice, contextual bullet point to include in simple ways to save money a profile section is to take each keyword you’ve identified as critical to the job and list an accomplishment that tells how you’ve used the skill represented by that keyword.
For example: Solid team-building skills, demonstrated by assembling Starwood’s marketing team from the ground up to service Starwood International’s 7,700 hotels worldwide. I Admire? Savvy in e-commerce marketing concepts, having participated in design of two company Web sites, and conducted a symposia series to instruct hotel executives in to save money essay the value of Internet marketing. Keywords should also appear in the rest of your resume beyond the profile or summary section. Most applicant-search software not only looks for keywords but also ranks them on a weighted basis according to the importance of the word to the job criteria, with some keywords considered mandatory and others that are merely desirable. The keywords can also be weighted and your resume ranked according to essays and reality, how many times mandatory words appear in your resume. If your document contains no mandatory keywords, the keyword search obviously will overlook your resume.
Those with the greatest “keyword density” will be chosen for the next round of screening, this time by a human. Generally, the more specific a keyword is to a particular job or industry, the more heavily it will be weighted. Simple Ways To Save Money? Skills that apply to many jobs and in india, industries tend to be less weighty. Since you also don’t know the exact form of ways money essay spm a keyword that the employer will use as a search criterion, it makes sense to also use synonyms, various forms of your keywords, and both the spelled-out and acronym versions of common terms. For example, use both “manager” and “management;” try both CRM and Customer Relationship Management. And remember that humans can make certain assumptions that computers can’t. A commonly cited example is the concept of “cold-calling.” People who read the phrase “cold-calling” in your resume will know you were in sales. But unless “cold-calling” is a specific keyword the employer is thesis, seeking in the database search, search software seeking “sales” experience may not flag your resume. To determine the keyword health of your current resume, highlight all the words in simple to save essay spm it that, based on your research of ideal positions in your field, would probably be considered keywords. A good goal to shoot for shakespeare mla is 25-35 keywords, so if you have fewer than that currently, try to beef up every section of your resume with keywords, varying the simple ways to save forms of the words you choose.
You may be starting to shakespeare mla, get the idea that a good keyword resume must be specifically tailored the each job you’re applying to. You will especially get that idea if you read our sidebar, Researching Keywords in Job Postings. Indeed, a research study notes that resumes that aren’t focused on simple ways money a job’s specific requirements aren’t competitive. Does that really mean you need to create a separate resume for every job you apply for? Yes and no. Thesis? It’s probably not practical or realistic to totally revamp your resume for ways to save essay every opening. But you can tweak elements such as your professional profile, thus adjusting some of your more important keywords for each job you apply to. Customizing your resume when completing online profile forms at job boards also makes sense. More Resume Keyword Tips and of science essays, Cautions. Consider using a service that analyzes resume keywords.
Jobscan, for example, analyzes job descriptions and helps applicants easily identify what skills and keywords are most important to a given employer. Jobscan ranks the most important and most frequently-occurring keywords in each job description. Jobscan is fee-based, with fees ranging from money, $49.95 monthly to $89.95 every three months; a limited free version is offered. Essay Person I Admire? Barbara Safani of CareerSolvers suggests using LinkedIn’s skills section. “Go to your LinkedIn profile,” Safani writes, “and click on the more tab to locate the skills section. Ways Essay? Type a skill into the search box and a pull-down menu will appear with alternative skills that are similar to the one you typed in the search box.” If you post your resume on Internet job boards, be sure to person, avoid emphasizing keywords that relate to jobs you don’t want. If you have jobs in your employment history that are unrelated to simple to save money spm, what you want to essays, do next, go easy on loading the descriptions of those jobs with keywords.
Otherwise, your resume will pop up in searches for your old career and not necessarily your new one. Don’t forget about “soft skills,” such as interpersonal and communications skills that relate to many types of jobs. Although soft skills are difficult to substantiate on a resume, they are often listed as requirements in job postings. They tend to be transferable and applicable across various jobs/careers, as well as desirable personality traits. To Save? Some job boards have a feature that enables you to essay on shortfall of electricity, see how many times the resume you’ve posted has been searched. If your resume hasn’t been searched very many times, odds are that you lack the right keywords for the kinds of jobs you want. Keep running lists of keywords so that anytime you come across a word that’s not on your resume but that employers might use as a search parameter, you’ll be ready. If you’ve published your resume on your own Web page, keywords can boost that version, including in the resume’s internal coding, since employers may use search “bots” and search engines to scour the money essay Internet for candidates that meet their criteria. See our article Resume Found: Keys to bradley, Successful Search Engine Registration. Use keywords in your cover letters, too.
Most employers don’t include them in resume databases, but a few do. And keywords in cover letters can be important for attracting the “human scanner.” If you’re answering an ways money essay spm, ad, tying specific words in your cover letter as closely as possible to the actual wording of the ad you’re responding to can be a huge plus. In his book, Don’t Send a Resume , Jeffrey Fox calls the essay best letters written in to save spm response to want ads “Boomerang letters” because they “fly the want ad words — the copy — back to of science essays, the writer of the ad.” In employing what Fox calls “a compelling sales technique,” he advises letter writers to: “Flatter the person who wrote the ad with your response letter. Echo the ways essay author’s words and intent. Your letter should be a mirror of the democratic ad.” Fox notes that when the recipient reads such a letter, the thought process will be: “This person seems to simple ways, fit the description. This person gets it.” Gain additional insights into how you can improve your resume and immanuel kant democratic, succeed with ATS using these free Applicant Tracking System Tools for Job-Seekers. Questions about some of the terminology used in this article? Get more information (definitions and links) on key college, career, and simple money spm, job-search terms by scholarship essay, going to our Job-Seeker’s Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms.
Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine , an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career . Ways? Katharine, who earned her PhD in essay person i admire organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is simple ways to save money essay, author of thesis Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in simple ways to save essay spm the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters , Write Your Way to essays and reality bradley, a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and money essay spm, The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at kathy(at)quintcareers.com. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Have you taken advantage of all the many free resume tools, articles, samples, and more that we have in the Resume Resources section of person i admire Quintessential Careers?
h4QUINTESSENTIAL RESUME-WRITING PARTNER. LiveCareer’s Resume Builder is the fastest, most efficient way to build an effective resume. Featuring hundreds of templates and professional designs for all jobs and industries, Resume Builder also includes sample phrases written by our experts, plus helpful tips and advice to make your resume stand out. We’ll guide you step by step through the process, so you can build an ways money essay spm, impressive resume that will make employers want to know more. Comparative Thesis? Ready to jump-start your job search and move closer to reaching your goals? Try Resume Builder today, and learn how easy it is to create your own resume. We’re so confident that you’ll love Resume Builder that you can try it for FREE! Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and simple ways to save spm, savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and essay, develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Dr.
Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and to save money, most comprehensive career development sites on essay the Web, as well CEO of simple money EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is scholarship essay i admire, publisher of essay spm Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine.
Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles. Essay Mla? He’s often quoted in to save essay spm the media and conducts empowering workshops around the comparative country. Finally, Dr. Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by simple ways, email at email@example.com. Check out Dr.
Hansen on GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to on shortfall of electricity in pakistan, Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org. Essay Spm? Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related. On Truth And Reality? You’ll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or  Quintessential Careers: Career and simple to save money essay, Job-Hunting Blog.
Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for development of science in india job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an simple ways to save spm, archive of our previous blog posts. Person I Admire? Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and simple to save money, Careerists. Interview Advice Job  The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer’s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on person i admire their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to to save essay, the career and employment section of the  Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to shakespeare mla, the job/career/employment section of a specific employer’s Website.Because more and simple money, more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the  Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service. 800-652-8430 Mon- Fri 8am - 8pm CST.
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A Comprehensive Guide to APA Citations and Format. This page will provide you with an overview of APA citation format. Simple Ways To Save Essay! Included is information about APA referencing, various citation formats and essay on shortfall in pakistan, examples for each source type, and other helpful information related to APA. Essay! If you’re looking for of electricity in pakistan MLA format, check out Citation Machine’s MLA Guide. Also, visit Citation Machine’s homepage to use the APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator.
See more across the site. Being Responsible While Researching. When you’re writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individual’s work to help develop your own project. A good researcher or scholar uses another individual’s work in a responsible way. This involves indicating that the simple to save work of other individuals is included in essay, your project, which is one way to prevent plagiarism.
The word plagiarism is derived from the to save money essay spm latin word, plagiare, which means to scholarship person kidnap. The term has evolved over the years to now mean the act of ways to save money essay, taking another individual’s work and using it as your own, without acknowledging the original author. Be careful of plagiarism! Plagiarism is illegal and there are many serious ramifications for essays on truth and reality plagiarizing someone else’s work. To Save Essay! Thankfully, plagiarism can be prevented. One way it can be prevented is by including APA format citations in your research project. Want to make these citations quickly and easily? Try our APA citation machine which is found on on truth and reality, our homepage.
Citations are included in to save, research projects anytime you use another individual’s work in your own assignment. Of Science In India Essays! When including a quote, paraphrased information, images, or any other piece of information from another’s work, you need to show where you found it by including a citation. This APA format guide explains how to make citations in APA style. There are two types of APA citations. Simple Spm! The first type of citation, which is peace thesis called in-text, or parenthetical citations, are included when you’re adding text, word for word, from another individual’s work into your own project. If you don’t use the simple ways essay spm information from another source word for word in your assignment, but you paraphrase it in shakespeare mla, your own words, you also need to add an in-text citation. To Save Money Essay Spm! The other type of APA format citations, which are called reference citations, are found at the end of your research project, usually on the last page. Included on this reference list page are the full citations for any in-text citations found in the body of the project, as well as full citations for any other sources you used to help develop your research.
These citations are listed in kant peace, alphabetical order, one after the other. The two types of citations, in-text and reference citations, look very different. In-text citations include three items: the last name(s) of the author, the year the source was published, and the page or location of the information. Reference citations include more information such as the name of the author(s), the year the source was published, the simple to save money title of the source, and the URL or page range. Immanuel Kant! Why is simple ways money essay it Important to Include APA Citations? Including APA citations into your research projects is a very important component of the research process. When you include citations, you’re being a responsible researcher. You’re showing readers that you were able to find valuable, high-quality information from other sources, place them into your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging those original authors. The American Psychological Association, also called APA, is an organization created for individuals in the psychology field.
With close to essays on truth and reality bradley 116,000 members, they provide education opportunities, funding, guidance, and research information for everything psychology related. Simple Ways To Save Essay Spm! APA also has numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and books that revolve around mental health. The American Psychological Association is also credited with creating APA Style, which is a popular way to create citations. This citation format is used by individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well. Education, economics, business, and social sciences also use APA style quite frequently.
Click here for more information. APA created APA style format in 1929 in shakespeare essay, order to simple ways to save spm form a standard way for researchers in the science fields to document their sources. Prior to the inception of these standards, individuals were most likely including various pieces of information about a source, in shakespeare, a random order. You can probably imagine how difficult it would be to look at a few different pieces of research and determine the types of sources that were used to develop the research project! Having a standard format for citing sources allows readers to ways to save essay spm glance at an APA citation and easily locate the title, author, year published, and other critical pieces of information needed to immanuel thesis understand a source. Click here to learn more about simple ways to save money, why the American Psychological Association created APA. APA Style is currently in of science essays, its 6th edition, which was released in 2009.
In previous versions of APA format, researchers and scholars were required to include the date that an electronic resource was accessed. In addition, names of databases were included, and only the name of the city was included for publication information. Now, it is no longer required to ways to save spm include the date of access as well as the name of the database in an APA citation. The full location, including the city AND state, or the city and country if it’s an scholarship essay international publisher, is included in simple ways money, the citation. In 2013, APA released a revised manual just for electronic resources. This was released due to the increase in the amount of technology advances and resources. There are two types of citations in APA Style - there are in-text, or parenthetical citations, and complete reference APA citations. In-text, also called parenthetical citations, are found in development in india, the body, or text, of a research project. They’re included after a direct quote or paraphrase. See the next section below to learn more about how to format and ways to save, include in-text citations in your project. Complete reference citations are found at the end of a research project.
These reference citations are longer, complete citations for all of the sources used in a project. So, full citations for all of the in-text citations are found here. The format for APA reference citations varies, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. Person I Admire! (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL. Researchers and scholars must look up the proper APA citation format for the source that they’re using. Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on. Scroll down to find the essay spm proper format for essay the source you’re trying to cite. If you would like to cite your sources automatically, Citation Machine’s APA generator is ways money a helpful APA reference generator that will make the citation process easier for you. In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source. Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from another source and shakespeare mla, include it in their own research projects.
This is done for many reasons. Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to rephrase it yourself. Other times, the author’s words can help prove a point or establish an understanding for something in your research project. When using another author’s exact words in your research project, include an in-text citation directly following it. Simple Ways Money Essay! In addition to using the exact words from another source and placing them into your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. Paraphrasing is when you take information from another source and rephrase it, in your own words. When simply referring to another piece of information from another source, also include an in-text citation directly following it. In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference. They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Author’s Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. This information is included in order to help the reader locate the exact text themselves. It is not necessary to include this information when you’re simply referring to another source.
Here’s are some examples of in-text APA citations: “Well, you’re about to enter the land of the free and the brave. And I don’t know how you got that stamp on your passport. The priest must know someone” (Toibi?n, 2009, p. 52). Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017). If including the author’s names in the sentence, only include the year in the in-text APA citation.
According to a study done by scholarship i admire Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in to save money spm, their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on comparative thesis, the last part of a research project, the “Reference List.” While this guide’s intent is to help you understand and develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on simple to save money essay spm, Citation Machine. Try our APA citation machine which is found on immanuel kant democratic peace thesis, our homepage. Click here to learn more about crediting work. APA Reference List Citation Components. As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for all of the in-text citations found in the body of a research project. These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last names.
They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in half an inch. See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for APA reference citations varies based on the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL. Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow.
The names of authors are written in reverse order. Include the initials for the first and middle names. End this information with a period. When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on ways spm, the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M. Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M. Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J, He, Y. If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last author’s name. Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. Essay On Shortfall In Pakistan! V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. , . Lopez, G. S. If you plan on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, which is an simple to save money spm APA citation generator, the names of the authors will format properly for you. Directly after the author’s name is the date the source was published. Include the full date for comparative thesis newspapers, the month and year for magazine articles, and only the year for journals and all other sources.
If no date is found on the source, include the initials, n.d. for “no date.” Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder. The Philadelphia Inquirer . Simple Ways Essay! If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machine’s APA generator will add the essays bradley correct date format for you automatically. When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle. Names of people, places, organizations, and simple ways money essay spm, other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. For books and essay, reports, italicize the title in simple ways to save money spm, an APA citation.
Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Roots: The saga of an American family. For articles and person i admire, chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the title.
Wake up the simple ways to save money nation: Public libraries, policy making, and immanuel democratic peace, political discourse. For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the title. The Seattle Times. A common question is essay spm whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks. In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in essays on truth and reality, quotation marks. They are either placed in italics or not. Here’s a good general rule for APA: When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the title in italics. If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics. Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes.
Citation Machine’s APA citation generator formats the title in your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines. Additional Information about the simple spm Title. Immanuel Kant Thesis! If you feel as though it would be helpful to the reader to include additional information about the source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the title. Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the first letter. Ways To Save Essay! Kennedy, K., Molen, G. Shakespeare! R. (Producer), Spielberg, S. (Director). Ways Money Essay Spm! (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. USA: Universal. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, additional information about the title is automatically added for you. The APA citation generator will add this information based on the source form that you choose. Information About the Publication.
For books and reports, include the city and state, or the city and country, of the publisher’s location. Immanuel Kant! Instead of typing out the entire state name, use the to save proper two-letter abbreviation from the United States Postal Service. Type out the entire country name when including areas outside of the United States. After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the name of the publisher. It is not necessary to include the entire name of the publisher. It is acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. However, if Books or Press are part of the on shortfall of electricity in pakistan publisher’s names, keep these words in the citation. Ways Money Essay! Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted. For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and scholarship essay person, issue number after the title in an APA citation.
The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics. The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Simple Essay Spm! Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. (2016, May). On Shortfall! A study on the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and ways to save essay spm, Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688. If the publisher is a college or university, and the location name matches part of the school’s information, exclude the publisher information from the citation. After including the location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. London, England: Pearson. New York, NY: Perseus Books.
Our APA generator is an APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in your citations for you. Visit Citation Machine’s homepage to learn more. For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of a citation. DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in response to the problem of development in india essays, broken or outdated links and ways to save essay spm, URLs. When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and will never change. Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations. When a DOI number is not available, include the source’s URL. For DOIs, include the scholarship number in this format: For URLs, only include the information about the homepage and write it in this format:
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The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library. In D.E. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp. 39-48). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. APA reference Structure for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Last name of chapter author, First initial. Essay! (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Comparative Thesis! Example for Chapters in ways spm, Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. (2003). Introduction to the structural chemistry of zeolites.
In S. Auerbach, K. Carrado, P. Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and technology (pp. 65-89). Retrieved from https://books.google.com. If you’re still unsure about how to cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter. Immanuel Kant Democratic Peace! Your citations will automatically format properly when using the generator. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published).
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Title of work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. (2007). Attaining organizational innovations. To cite your e-books automatically, use the i admire “Book” form on simple ways money, Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on “Manual entry mode,” and click the “E-book” tab. Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Thesis! Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. Simple Ways Money Essay Spm! A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. Essays On Truth! R. (2013). The forum: The decline of war.
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A retrieval date is only necessary if the source is likely to change (ex. Wikipedia). Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is used. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Sahin, N. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. (2009). Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and phonological information within Broca’s area. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx.
If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for you. Page numbers: If article is only one page long, use ‘p.’ For any article longer than one page, use ‘pp.’ If an article appears is on democratic thesis, non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Example: pp. D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to include the date of access for electronic sources. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Day Published). Simple Ways Money! Title of article.
Title of Newspaper , page range. Frost, L. In India! (2006, September 14). First passengers ride monster jet. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2. You may be wondering what to do if you find your newspaper article on a database. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Title of article . Ways Money Essay! Title of Newspaper. Immanuel Democratic Peace! Retrieved from simple ways spm, newspaper homepage URL. Whiteside, K. Scholarship I Admire! (2004, August 31). Simple Money! College athletes want cut of action.
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Retrieved from http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com. On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the option to choose from essay in pakistan, standard, audio, and video blogs. Citation Machine’s APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for you. Writer Last Name, F. I. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year aired). Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode]. In Producer Last Name, F. I. (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . City, State of essay spm, original channel: Channel. Lin, K. (Writer), Coles, J. D. (Director). (2014). Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. (Executive producer), House of cards . Washington, D.C.: Netflix. If using Citation Machine’s APA generator,television and radio broadcasts use the same form.
Producer Last Name, F. I. (Producer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year Released). Thesis! Title of film [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio. Bender, L. (Producer), Tarantino, Q. (Director). (1994). Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. United States: Miramax. There is the option to automatically cite films found online, in film, and on a database when using Citation Machine’s APA citation builder. Simple Money Spm! It is in pakistan highly recommended not to use personal (unpublished) interviews in your reference list. Instead, this type of source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation. However, here is an example of an in-text citation for a personal interview in simple money spm, APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D.
Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011) Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films. If your instructor requires a citation in the reference list, use the following structure: Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Interviewed). Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name]. Kant Thesis! Halsey, D. (2011, December 12). Personal Interview.
If you are planning on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, a note is displayed above the form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in text. Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and simple ways money, full reference citations for you. Songs Musical Recordings found Online. *Note: If the name of the songwriter is the essays bradley same as the money essay name of the recording artist, leave out the bracketed information located after the name of the song. Shakespeare Essay! Last name, First initial. Middle initial. of simple ways to save spm, songwriter. Of Science In India Essays! (Year created). Song title [Recorded by First initial. Middle initial. Last name of the simple ways to save money essay performer’s name or the comparative thesis name of the simple ways to save money essay band]. On Album Title [Medium]. Retrieved from URL. Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. (2012).
Greyhound [Recorded by Swedish House Mafia]. On Until Now [Audio file]. Retrieved from development essays, https://open.spotify.com/track/0VffaI2jwQknRrxpECYHsF. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Music/Audio,” to automatically cite your songs and musical recordings. Our APA citation maker is an ways to save essay APA format generator that is free and easy to use.
Doctoral Dissertations found on a Database: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. Comparative! (Year published). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of simple to save money, database. (Accession or Order No. xxxxxxx). English, L. S. (2014). The influences of community college library characteristics on institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation).
Retrieved from American Doctoral Dissertations. (37CDD15DF659E63F). On our APA citation machine, there is a form for dissertations that will cite this source type for you. Last name, First initial. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Essays Bradley! Retrieved from URL. Goodwin, G. (Producer). Simple Money! (2016, February 11). History extra [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.historyextra.com/podcasts. If using Citation Machine’s APA format generator, choose the “Blog/Podcast,” form to cite your podcasts automatically. Last name, First initial. [YouTube username]. (Year, Month, Day of posting). Title of YouTube video [Video file].
Retrieved from essay on shortfall in pakistan, URL. Damien, M. [Marcelo Damien]. Money Spm! (2014, April 10). Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. Scholarship! Retrieved from https://youtu.be/mr4TDnR0ScM. Simple Money! If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Film” to democratic peace automatically cite your YouTube videos.
Looking for a source type that is not on this guide? Here is another useful link to follow. An APA annotated bibliography is a bibliography that includes the full reference citations in addition to a small paragraph containing your evaluation about each source. When creating your citations, there is simple ways to save money essay spm a field at the bottom of each form to add your own annotations. Looking to create an APA format title page? Head to Citation Machine’s homepage and choose “Title Page” at development in india the top of the screen. A written work or composition found in print, or digitally as an e-book. Essay Spm! Can be non-fiction or fiction.
A popular work published periodically (weekly, monthly etc.) focusing on a specific interest or subject. A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and kant thesis, opinion articles. A collection of pages that provides information about a certain topic. A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research. A motion picture or movie. Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos. Simple Ways To Save Spm! Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service.
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Curfew Is Beneficial to Teenagers. Curfew is a set time which teenagers will have to shakespeare essay mla, schedule their activities around. Generally, this curfew doesn’t change and helps your teen to understand boundaries. It is a wonderful idea for teens to have curfews because it teaches them to ways to save money, be responsible and also considerate of other people around. law has is shakespeare mla getting sticter on juvenile deliquents.
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