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argument in essay Centre for Academic Success. It is very important that you recognize which type of essay questions are looking for some sort of judgement, and then to stunning presentations be able to construct an why x essay, effective, convincing argument in your answer. Presentations. A major cause of complaint from tutors is that students at all levels do not do this very well, and make their writing descriptive rather than argumentative. As a result, a well-argued, well-balanced assignment is almost bound to get a very good mark. The following essay titles all require a judgement or argument: Should capital punishment be reintroduced in the UK? To what extent has the government been successful in its fight against illegal drugs? The notion that all early music should be played on authentic instruments is a fallacy.
Discuss. Bad Term Papers. It is a commonplace observation that workers dislike and resist change in the workplace. How far do you think this is a rational response to their economic position and presentations, how far simply a result of the mismanagement of change? If you were to write a very general essay, for example, about essayists, capital punishment, without answering the specific question asked, your mark is going to be low. Instead, what you need to do is: think what the main points of your argument would be. Stunning Presentations. do extensive reading to find evidence to back up your points, and at the same time note down counter-arguments and contradictory evidence. There is always more than one side to an argument, and it is very important in a piece of academic writing to show that you are aware of these different opinions. Your approach must be balanced, not one-sided. structure your answer carefully. You should state what your conclusion will be right at the start in your introduction; then present both, or all, sides of the argument in a logical, coherent manner, showing clearly which side you stand on by the specific use of thesis on public, language (see below) and use of appropriate examples and stunning presentations, evidence; and research results dissertation, finally include a well-developed conclusion which draws all the strands together andmakes completely clear where you stand. Presentations. In an why x essay, argumentative essay the conclusionis probably the presentations, most important part, so don#8217;t make it too short.
As stated above, your argument must be well-balanced and recognize different opinions and approaches. You should not, therefore, be too dogmatic in your approach, and completely dismiss one side of the argument. At the same time, you should not #8220;sit on the fence#8221; and take an indecisive approach, as this may be interpreted as you not having an opinion, or simply not knowing. (In terms of pure argument, you don#8217;t necessarily have to completely agree with what you are saying). Sample piece of for assignments, argumentative writing. Read the following very short argumentative essay and go through the accompanying analysis. Discuss the presentations, funding of childcare provision in the UK. 1 Recent changes in government priorities have seen a reduction in financial support for papers administration, parents who use childcare. Stunning Presentations. This is occurring at a time when there is increasing social and financial pressure on parents, particularly. Why X Essay. mothers, to work. The issue of childcare and working mothers has been the subject of dispute for some time. Many, notably Giles (2001) and Gough (1999) argue that the best place for children is always in their own homes with their own parents. However, it is my contention that there are many advantages to be had from using childcare and the government should provide more financial assistance to parents who do so.
3 Another argument against stunning, the use of childcare facilities (Vaughan 2001) is that children can be emotionally deprived in these facilities compared to the home. This argument assumes that the best place for children is to be at their parents', especially mothers', side for synonyms, twenty four hours a day. It claims that children's emotional development can be damaged when they are left in childcare facilities. However, parents and stunning presentations, children need to spend sometime apart. Moreover, children become less dependent on their parents and parents themselves are less stressed and more effective care-givers when there are periods of separation.
In fact, a recent study conducted by MCC (2003) indicates that the parent-child relationship can in fact be improved by the use of high-quality childcare facilities. 4 It could further be asserted that the administration, government and the economy as a whole cannot afford the enormous cost involved in supporting childcare for working parents. However, working parents actually contribute to the national economy. Presentations. They are able to utilise their productive skills and essay by woods on a snowy, pay income tax, while non-working parents can become a drain on the tax system through dependent spouse and other rebates. This is the stunning presentations, introduction, which clearly states the main premise in the final sentence: These paragraphs all follow a similar pattern. The counter-argument is given first, followed by the argument put forward by the writer of the piece. Administration. The counter-argument is stunning #8220;weakened#8221; or #8220;problematized#8221; by phrases such as: This argument assumes . It could further be asserted . It is important to show this opposing argument, as by doing so you are showing that you have considered both sides of the synonyms for assignments, argument, and also that you are able to anticipate and criticize any opposing arguments before they are even stated. Presentations. It is also important to essayists clearly mark the shift from the opposing argument to stunning presentations your own supporting argument. In these three paragraphs, this is essayists done by the use of the word however . This is a very short conclusion.
1 When you can think of the opposing opinion but you have not seen it written anywhere: 2 When you have seen the presentations, opposing opinion written in another text: Alternatives to #8220;however#8221;: A model argumentative essay. Should marine mammals be kept in captivity in marine parks? The issue of whether we should allow marine parks to stay open has been widely debated in our community recently. It is an important issue because it concerns fundamental moral and economic questions about the way we use our native wildlife. A variety of different arguments have been put forward about bad term papers, this issue.
This essay will consider arguments for having marine parks and point to some of the problems with these views. It will then put forward reasons for the introduction of laws which prohibit these unnecessary and cruel institutions. Stunning. It is the contention of the Marine Park Owners Association that marine parks attract a lot of foreign tourists (The Sun-Herald, 1993). This position goes on to assert that these tourists spend a lot of essayists, money, increasing our foreign exchange earnings and assisting our national balance of payments. However, foreign tourists would still come to Australia if the parks were closed down. Indeed, surveys of overseas tourists show that they come here for presentations, a variety of bad term papers, other reasons and not to visit places like Seaworld (The Age, 1993). Tourists come here to see our native wildlife in its natural environment and stunning presentations, not to see it in cages and cement pools. They can see animals in synonyms for assignments, those condition in stunning, their own countries Furthermore, we should be promoting our beautiful natural environment to tourists and essayists, not the ugly concrete marine park venues.
The Age (1993) Use of Marine Parks for Scientific Research 19.2.93. Stunning. The Age (1993) Should Animals be Kept in Marine Parks/ 16.8.93. Jones, G. (1991). The Myths about Animal Research in Marine Parks. Scientific Australian . Vol 12, No 3. By Woods On A Evening. Smith, H. (1992).
Marine Parks: Good for Business, Good for Australia. Leisure Business Review . Vol 24, No. 4. The Sun-Herald (1993) Increase in Tourists Visiting Marine Parks 20.7.93. Links to further resources on stunning presentations developing an argument. Last updated: 4 January 2011. Centre for essay by woods on a evening, Academic Success. City North : 0121 331 7685 Email.
Millennium Point Learning Centre : 0121 202 2500 Email. To book a tutorial at Millennium Point: 0121 202 2500.
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oedipus rex essay Ed Friedlander MD. This website collects no information. If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on to any third party, unless required by law. Stunning Presentations? I have no sponsors and do not host paid advertisements. All external links are provided freely to essayists sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful.
This page was last modified December 7, 2011. If you are a student assigned to read Oedipus the King, and perhaps also to comment on Aristotle's ideas about tragedy and tragic flaws, this site will help you get started. Warning: This is NOT a family site, and Sophocles is NOT family entertainment. Oedipus the King is a monument to stunning Sophocles's dramatic genius, and to thesis on public the freedom of Athenian thought. Sophocles himself served as an army general. Two of presentations, his plays (Ajax and Philoctetes) are performed today to help people understand post-traumatic stress disorder, suffered by essayists, good people who have undergone life's most horrible experiences. Oedipus the King develops a shocking -- perhaps even immoral -- idea about a human being's ultimate relationship to the universe. Whether Sophocles's idea is true, or whether he believed it, are for presentations you to decide. Commentators on Sophocles, beginning with Aristotle, have tried to cover over the obvious.
This explains the thesis papers on public administration nonsense about tragic flaws and stunning presentations, hybris. We don't know whether there was a historical Oedipus. Oedipus means swollen feet. The Greeks pronounced it oy-DEEP-us. Oed- is the thesis same root as oedema / edema (tissue swelling; the British preserve the initial o), while -pus is feet (hence octopus, the eight-footed animal.) Laius and Jocasta were king and queen of Thebes, a town in presentations, Greece. One day, they had a baby boy.
An oracle prophesied that the boy would grow up and kill his father and marry his mother. To thwart the prophecy, Laius and Jocasta decided to kill their baby. In those days, it was usual to leave an essayists, unwanted or defective baby in the wilderness. Laius and Jocasta did this. To be extra-sure, they pierced his little feet and tied them together. (Don't worry about why they bound or pierced the baby's feet, which would not have been necessary to guarantee the abandoned child's death. It may have been introduced to explain the hero's name. It also helps later to confirm Oedipus's true identity.) A kindly shepherd found the baby. He gave the baby to a friend, who took it to stunning presentations Corinth, another town. (Corinth reappears in the New Testament.) The king and bad term papers, queen of Corinth couldn't have a baby of their own. So they adopted the foundling. Nobody ever told little Oedipus that his mother was never pregnant.
One day, after he had grown up, a drunk mentioned his being adopted. Oedipus questioned his parents, but they denied it. Oedipus visited various oracles to stunning find out whether he was really adopted. All the oracles told him instead that he would kill his father and dissertation, marry his mother. (None of this makes much sense. Again, don't worry about presentations it. This is thesis papers administration a folk tale.) To thwart the oracles, Oedipus left Corinth permanently. (Again, don't worry. Yes, Oedipus should have considered that, since he might be adopted, any older man might be his father and any older woman his mother.
But this is a folk tale.) Travelling the stunning presentations roads, Oedipus got into a traffic squabble and synonyms, killed a stranger who (unknown to him) was King Laius. In one version, there was a dispute over right-of-way on presentations, a bridge. In those days, high rank got to thesis papers on public go first, Oedipus identified himself as heir to stunning presentations the throne of Corinth, and for some reason (again, don't worry about it) Laius's people simply attacked instead of explaining that he was king of Thebes. Some versions say that the rude Laius drove over Oedipus's sore foot, making him lose his temper. Soon Oedipus's smarts saved the town of Thebes, and he was made king. (In a folk-tale within a folk-tale, Oedipus solved the Riddle of the Sphinx. What animal has four legs in synonyms for assignments, the morning, two legs at noon, and stunning, three legs in the evening? Of course the answer is a human being -- babies crawl and papers, old folks use walking sticks.) Oedipus married Laius's widow, Queen Jocasta. He ruled well, and stunning presentations, they had four children. Eventually, Oedipus and on public, Jocasta found out what had really happened. Stunning? (You must assume that accidentally killing your father and marrying your mother is bad term papers a disaster.) Jocasta committed suicide, and Oedipus blinded himself and became a wandering beggar.
In the version that must have been the favorite of Sophocles's Athenian audience, Oedipus found sanctuary at Colonus, outside of stunning, Athens. The kindness he was shown at the end made the city itself blessed. The moral of the folk tale? Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed! In Iliad XXIII, we read about one Mecisteus, who went once to Thebes after the fall of Oedipus, to attend his funeral, and he beat all the people of for assignments, Cadmus, evidently at boxing (funeral games) which is the subject of the passage.
In the Odyssey XI's catalogue of shades, We read, I also saw fair Epicaste mother of king Oedipodes whose awful lot it was to marry her own son without suspecting it. He married her after having killed his father, but the presentations gods proclaimed the whole story to the world; whereon he remained king of Thebes, in great grief for research results dissertation the spite the gods had borne him; but Epicaste went to the house of the mighty jailor Hades, having hanged herself for grief, and the avenging spirits haunted him as for an outraged mother -- to his ruing bitterly thereafter. That's what Homer has to stunning say about Oedipus. I've been assured that Homer intended the passage to illustrate Oedipus's having the tragic flaw of pride. I can't see what kind of sense this makes. A NYU student found a personal meaning: What is the moral of this story? Don't go to why x essay a fortune teller!
Let life take its course. Stunning Presentations? Your fate is research dissertation already written and presentations, sealed. If you know all there is to know about your life, then why bother living? You'll spend the essay stopping by woods snowy evening rest of your life worrying about what's to come. Embrace life and its surprises. Oedipus Wrecked -- humor.
Wonders why Oedipus allowed himself to be made to stunning feel so stigmatized by a mixup that wasn't his fault. Moral of the story: Being a victim of gurus, society, and circumstances does not relieve one of the responsibility of thinking for themselves. It does make for a tragic hero, however. Sphinxes -- and a lot on the background of the story. For Assignments? The author is with me on the hamartia business, below. Thanks for the sphinx. Long before we got civilized, ancient Europeans (Greeks, Vikings, others) were already talking about predestination. If something was going to happen, it would happen and there was nothing you could do about it. Why would anybody talk like this? 1. Ancient people may have been impressed (or wanted to be impressed) by the fulfillment of prophecies.
In our own world, most predictions by supposed psychics simply don't come true. But people want to presentations believe in the supernatural, and people like to tell each other about the rare occasions when something happens that a psychic said would happen. Essayists? So money-making psychics make lots of predictions and keep them vague. People have such a strong desire to believe in the power of presentations, supernatural prediction that they even invent stories of bad term papers, psychic predictions being fulfilled. The most famous example (Nostradamus and the gray monk in Varennes woods) continues to be told, even though the tale of stunning, Louis XVI being disguised as a monk when he was captured there is why x essay just a lie. You'll need to decide for yourself whether prophecies of stunning, religionists (past or present) come true today, or have ever come true. Some Christians have taught that the Greek oracles were successful because they were diabolic, and that they went silent on the first Christmas (for example, Milton's Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Nativity). Research Dissertation? People want to stunning presentations believe in oracles. 2. Believing in predestination frees people from worry.
Talking about unalterable destiny is extremely popular among soldiers going into battle -- a powerful antidote to obessive fear that would slow or distract a warrior. Soldiers tell each other, If the bullet has your name on it, you will die. For Assignments? This seems to spur them on to bravery, self-sacrifice, peace-of-mind, and stunning presentations, warm camaraderie. Talk about papers administration fate, predestination, and so forth has found its way into warriors' tales across many cultures. In the Iliad , even Zeus (? same word as theos or God) is stunning presentations sometimes subject to Fate (though sometimes Zeus is fate). We also see this in peacetime, whenever people face frightful conflict. A Calvinist friend of mine who struggled with his sexual issues told me how comforted he felt knowing God had chosen him anyway. For some reason that I do not understand, he could believe in this.
He could not believe that he was loved by God as His creation, or loved by God for the sake of Jesus, or even that his sexual orientation might not be the crime that he'd been made to believe it was. Again, I'm no psychiatrist, but I'm glad he could find a formulation that brought him comfort. Most Christians believe that we are responsible for our behavior even though God knows what we will do. So Christians have argued about predestination from thesis New Testament days. Luke says that the people who chose Christ were predestined to do so.
Dante asks the blessed souls in heaven about predestination, and is told they don't know the answer, either. Martin Luther spent much of presentations, his youth obsessing over how he was unable to be as good as he wanted. Why X Essay? He found his answer not in predestination, but in God's free gift of grace in Christ. For him, this was a comfort and assurance. If you want to know whether you are predestined to stunning be saved, just say your prayers. Then you will know you are predestined for salvation. Synonyms? John Calvin was horrified about the implications of predestination, but emphasized it in his teaching. Other preachers like Jonathan Spiders Edwards and presentations, the Wesleys taught that Christ had died for essayists everybody and that everybody had a free choice. Presentations? Milton has God foresee Adam's sin, and God explains that although He foresees it, he didn't make it happen, so he is justified in punishing Adam. Synonyms For Assignments? Racine's Phaedra marked a return to presentations themes of Greek tragedy and people being the victims of cruel destiny.
Racine's milieu was Jansenism, a back-to-basics focus on hellfire and predestination that developed within Roman Catholicism. Boswell, who wrote the why x essay biography of Samuel Johnson, obsessed about predestination and became profoundly depressed thinking he could end up damned eternally. He's not the only person who's had this experience. In the US, the Free Will Baptist denomination emphasized evangelization and need to work hard to presentations bring others to Christ, against those who thought that God's predestination made this unnecessary. Some Hindus and Buddhists have taught that a person's behavior in a past life predestines happiness or misery in the current one, by the laws of karma.
Individual believers may find that this frees them from bitterness over life's injustices (natural and human-made). You'll need to decide for yourself whether this is good or bad. Belief in research results dissertation, karma has awakened social conscience and kindness to strangers in those who believe that what goes around comes around. The theme of predestination continues in secular literature. Chaucer (Troilus and Cressida, The Knight's Tale) deals with predestination. The former is a character study, and the two lovers seem destined for trouble just because of who they are. Marlowe's Faustus and a popular fifties song proclaimed, Che sera sera -- what will be will be. Ambiguous -- do we make our own decisions or not? Prophecies that can't be thwarted are a favorite literary device, especially famous from Macbeth. Ideas about predestination are parodied in Tristram Shandy -- the baby is predestined to have a small nose and presentations, an ugly name despite the conscious efforts of the parents to avoid these supposed disasters. Today, fulfilled prophecies are a staple of fiction.
Although the vast majority of why x essay, psychic predictions in the real world are failures, they come true as plot devices on stunning presentations, the Silver Screen. A new face of the predestination debate comes from the thesis papers administration physicists' model of the world. At least in stunning, Newtonian physics, if you know everything about a closed system at one moment of time, you can predict everything that will happen in the future. Bad Term Papers? If our world is really like this, then physical laws predetermine what will happen in our brains, and what we will think and do. The laws of physics (ultimately) even determine our decisions about stunning presentations which side to take in a college bull session about predestination versus free will. In physics, an electron can bounce like a billiard-ball but go through each of two holes like a wave. As a mainstream Christian, I'm accustomed of thinking that something can be two contrary things at essayists the same time, and stunning, that apparent contradictions may not be real contradictions. The Good Lord feeds the birds, but I know how birds really get their food. I give thanks to the Good Lord for the birth of a child, but nobody requests equal time for stork science. I know how I get sick and how I recover, and thank the Good Lord for bad term papers my recovery.
The bread and wine are Christ's body and blood -- I don't know how. The best (though not the most scholarly) answer I've heard to stunning the Christian mystery of predestination goes something like this: When we are entering the New Jerusalem, we will see a sign overhead saying Enter of bad term papers, your free will. When we are inside, and look back, the reverse of the sign will say God chose us from before the foundation of the presentations world (Ephesians 1:4). The folk tale of Oedipus has a popular theme -- predestination. Sigmund Freud and the Oedipus complex aren't the subject of this site. Mainstream psychiatry doesn't believe (and never believed) Freud's precise formulation.
Freud observed that while there are many stories about bad term papers predestination and presentations, unavoidable dooms, the story of Oedipus has gotten under people's skins since ancient times. The actual reason, of course, is papers on public administration that it's about dysfunctional family relationships, which really do have a lot to do with behavioral/mental illness. Oedipus -- the legend, from Wikipedia. Tells about modern versions, including some modern ribaldry. Sophocles wrote Oedipus the stunning presentations King for the annual festival where playwrights competed for essayists prizes. It was a major civic occasion, with attendance expected. Sophocles the writer is stunning presentations phenomenally good, especially considering his era. His writing is tight, with each phrase contributing to the whole.
He is full of succinct observations on essayists, life. And despite the limits of the form, he often manages to make his characters seem like real individuals. The title of our play is often given in its Latin translation Oedipus Rex, rather than in its original Greek (Oedipus Tyranneus), since the presentations Greek term for king is the English tyrant which means a monarch who rules without the consent of the why x essay people. As the play opens, the priest of Zeus and a bunch of non-speaking characters (old people, children) appear before King Oedipus with tree-branches wrapped with wool. It was evidently the custom to do this in front of a god's altar when you wanted something urgently. Oedipus greets them as a caring, compassionate leader.
The priest explains (really for the audience's benefit) that Thebes is suffering from a plague. Stunning Presentations? Plants, animals, and people are all dying. The people know Oedipus is not a god, but they believe that some god inspired him to solve the riddle of the essayists sphinx and save the town. And since Oedipus has been king, he has done a splendid job. So now people look to him to find a cure for the plague. Oedipus explains (really for the audience's benefit) that he has sent Creon (Jocasta's brother) to the oracle of the god Apollo at Delphi to presentations get an answer. He's late returning, but as soon as he gets back, Oedipus promises to do whatever the papers on public oracle says. Just then, Creon arrives. Stunning? Since it's good news, he is wearing laurel leaves with berries around his head. Creon says, All's well that ends well. (I'm told that the Greeks loved irony.) Apollo said that the killer of Laius must be found and for assignments, banished, and the plague will end.
And Apollo has promised that a diligent investigation will reveal the killer. Oedipus asks to presentations review the facts. All that is known is that Laius left for Delphi and never returned. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with the bodies of Laius and his crew.) There was no immediate investigation, because of the sphinx problem. One of Laius's men escaped, and walked back to Thebes. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with Laius's horses and chariot.) By the why x essay time he got back, Oedipus was being hailed as king. Stunning? The witness said Laius was killed by a gang of robbers. (We can already figure out why the witness lied.
And we'll learn later that he asked immediately to be transferred away from Thebes, and bad term papers, has been gone ever since.) Oedipus reflects that if the killers are still at large, they are still a danger. He decides to issue a policy statement to stunning help find the killer. The chorus, in a song, calls on the various gods (including Triple Artemis, in essayists, her aspects as huntress, moon-goddess, and stunning presentations, goddess of dark sorcery), to save them from the plague and from the evil god Ares, who is research dissertation ordinarily the god of stunning, war but is bad term papers here the god of presentations, general mass death. Oedipus issues a policy statement, that whoever comes forward with information about the murder of Laius will be rewarded, and that if the thesis on public killer himself confesses, he will not be punished beyond having to leave the city permanently. On the other hand, if anyone conceals the presentations killer, Oedipus says he will be cursed. Oedipus continues that he will pursue the investigation just as if Laius were my own father. (Irony.) The Chorus says that Apollo ought to come right out and say who the papers on public administration murderer is. (The Chorus's job is to say what ordinary people think.) Oedipus says, Nobody can make the stunning presentations gods do what they don't want to.
The chorus suggests bringing in the blind psychic, Teiresias. Especially, they hope he can find the missing witness to the killing. Essayists? In those days, the Greeks believed that human psychics got their insights from the gods. There are other stories about Teiresias. As a young man, he ran into some magic snakes and got his gender changed for seven years. This enabled him to stunning presentations tell whether the male or the female enjoys sex more. This was a secret known only to the gods, so he was punished with permanent blindness. Teiresias comes in. Oedipus asks his help finding the killers, ending up by saying, The greatest thing you can do with your life is to use all your special talents to bad term papers help others unselfishly. Teiresias says cryptically, It's a terrible thing to be wise when there's nothing you can do. (As A.A. Milne would say later, and stunning, perhaps Oedipus too, When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise.)
Teiresias says, I want to go home. Why X Essay? Oedipus calls him unpatriotic. Teiresias says, Your words are wide of the stunning mark ( hamartia ). Essayists? Our expression in English is You're missing the point. (Originally an stunning presentations, archery target was a point.) We'll hear about hamartia again. Teiresias continues to stonewall, and Oedipus gets very angry. Finally Teiresias gives in, says Oedipus is the for assignments killer, and presentations, adds that he is living in shame with his closest relative. Oedipus goes ballistic and calls Teiresias some bad things based on his being blind. (Irony.) Teiresias says, You'll see soon. Oedipus understandably thinks this is a political trick to bad term papers smear him, with Teiresias and Creon in stunning, cahoots. Thesis Papers On Public? Oedipus adds that Teiresias can't be much of a psychic, because he hadn't been able to stunning presentations handle the synonyms for assignments sphinx problem. The Chorus tells both men to cool down. Teiresias leaves, predicting disaster.
Soon Oedipus will learn the truth and presentations, be a blind exile, leaning on his staff. The Chorus sings about the stopping on a oracle at stunning Delphi, which was supposedly the bad term papers center of the world. Gods are omniscient, but the chorus has its doubts about human psychics like Teiresias. Especially, they cannot believe Oedipus is a killer. Creon comes in, incensed that Oedipus would accuse him of trying to stunning smear him. The Chorus says Oedipus is simply angry. Creon says he must be nuts. The Chorus says that to the king's faults and misbehavior, they are blind. (See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil -- the why x essay norm in a non-democracy.) Oedipus comes in and accuses Creon directly of planning a coup, using a smear by a crooked psychic as an excuse. They exchange angry words. Oedipus asks why Teiresias never mentioned knowing the killer until today.
Creon can't explain this. He defends himself from the accusation of planning a coup. (1) Being king is stunning too much trouble. (2) Creon has other worthwhile things to do. (3) Creon has everything he needs. (4) Creon has political influence anyway. (5) Creon is well-liked and isn't going to do an obvious wrong. You build a good reputation over a lifetime. A single bad action ruins it. Irony. Oedipus isn't satisfied. He says he wants Creon executed for treason. Why X Essay? The shouting-match continues until Jocasta comes in and tells them to break it up, there's too much trouble already. Presentations? The Chorus says it agrees, and tells Jocasta that both men are at fault. Creon leaves, and Jocasta asks what's happened.
The Chorus talks about what a fine king Oedipus has been, and essay stopping, says, Let's forget the whole business with Teiresias's prophecy. The Chorus uses a variant of the proverb, Let sleeping dogs lie. It's better not to ask about stunning presentations things that can make trouble. Irony. Oedipus talks about it anyway. Why X Essay? Jocasta says, Well, I don't believe in psychics. I'll prove it. Laius and I were told that our baby would kill him and marry me.
But this never happened, because we left the baby to die in the woods. And the witness said that Laius was killed at stunning that place where three roads meet by essay by woods snowy, robbers. Uh-oh, says Oedipus. Stunning Presentations? Which three roads? Irony. Jocasta says, It's where the roads from Thebes, Delphi, and Daulis meet. And it happened just before you solved the riddle of the sphinx and became king. Oedipus is upset. He asks Zeus (chief god), What are you doing to bad term papers me? He asks Jocasta for a description. Jocasta says, Tall, a little gray in stunning presentations, his hair, and essayists, you know something, he looked a lot like you.
Irony. Oedipus continues his questioning. Stunning? The one witness, seeing Oedipus as the new king, asked for a distant transfer. He was a good man, and why x essay, Jocasta didn't know why he wanted away, but she granted his request. Oedipus tells his story.
He was going to the oracles to find out whether he was adopted. All of them told him simply that he would kill his father and marry his mother. As he was traveling alone at stunning presentations the place Jocasta has mentioned, he met a group of men going in the opposite direction. The men, including the leader, started insulting him. Sophocles makes it sound like like a gang of rough men just hassling a lone stranger for fun. One of the men shoved Oedipus. Oedipus punched him back. The leader struck Oedipus treacherously on on public, the back of the presentations head with the horse staff, Oedipus turned and hit the essayists leader in the chest with his own staff, knocking him out of the chariot. Then Oedipus managed to stunning kill them all except for the one who ran away. It was justifiable, self-defense.
But Oedipus is devastated. He says he must be the killer of Laius, and he is ashamed that he has been having sex with his victim's wife. Oedipus says This is too terrible to have happened naturally -- it must be the malicious work of essay stopping snowy evening, some god or other. Stunning? He says he will simply leave the why x essay city, now, and presentations, let the plague end. He adds that he cannot go back to Corinth, for fear of killing his own father and marrying his own mother. The Chorus is deeply sympathetic to Oedipus, and synonyms, appreciative of his willingness to go voluntarily into stunning exile to save the bad term papers city. They say, Before you make your final decision, try to stunning find the last witness. Maybe he will exonerate you.
And Oedipus notes, The witness did say it was robbers, plural. Jocasta adds, Whatever happens, I'll never believe in psychics or oracles. Laius was prophesied to die by the hand of his own child. The Chorus sings a puzzling song about how (1) we have to obey the gods; (2) the gods's best gift is good government; (3) if the government is bad, there is no reason to be good; (4) nobody believes in oracles any more. Jocasta comes in, having visited the local shrines and left little offerings, and asks people to join her in research results dissertation, praying for presentations the distraught Oedipus. He's our leader, and we need him now.
She prays to Apollo to make this disastrous situation better. Irony. Just then, a messenger comes in essayists, from Corinth. He says Lucky Jocasta, you lucky wife! (Actually, Blessed is stunning your marriage bed! Irony.) The king of Corinth has died, and the Corinthians have chosen Oedipus to bad term papers be their new king. (Greek city-states were often elective monarchies.) Jocasta says, Great news. And Oedipus will be especially pleased, because now the oracle about him killing his father is void. You see, I was right not to believe in presentations, oracles. Irony. Oedipus comes in, hears the news, and says, Maybe the oracle has been fulfilled figuratively; perhaps he died of grief for my absence. But I'm still worried about synonyms marrying my mother. Jocasta says, Forget it.
Life is governed by chance, not destiny. Maybe you'll dream about marrying your mother. You should ignore dreams. Oedipus is still worried. When he explains to the messenger, the man cracks up and says, Well, I've got some good news for you. You don't have to worry about marrying the lady you've called mother. because you're adopted!
All hell breaks loose. Oedipus questions the messenger, and learns the messenger had been herding sheep, had met a shepherd who had found Oedipus, had taken the baby, had taken the pin out of his ankles, and had given him to the king and stunning, queen of essay by woods, Corinth to raise as their own. Oedipus is starting to wonder about what has always been wrong with his feet. Oedipus says, It's time to clear this up. Send for the other shepherd. Jocasta realizes exactly what has happened.
Jocasta begs Oedipus NOT to pursue the stunning matter. Oedipus says he has to know. Results? (If Oedipus wasn't so intent on getting to the truth, there'd be no play.) Jocasta runs out horribly upset. Oedipus is a little slower, and thinks, Perhaps she's upset to find out I'm not really of royal blood. But what the heck -- I'm 'Destiny's child' -- and that's something to be proud of! I'm me. Irony.
The Chorus sing a song in honor of Apollo, and stunning, of the woods where Oedipus was found. The say the why x essay spot will become famous. Perhaps Oedipus is the presentations child of nymphs and satyrs. Irony. The other shepherd is brought in.
He already has figured things out, and pretends he doesn't remember. Then he begs the other messenger to be quiet. For Assignments? But Oedipus insists on presentations, the truth. It comes out. Jocasta and Laius crippled the baby and bad term papers, put it in stunning, the woods to foil a prophecy. Oedipus had, indeed, always wondered what was wrong with his feet.
Now everybody knows the truth. Oedipus rushes out. The Chorus sings a song about how transient happiness is, what a splendid king Oedipus has been, and how Oedipus is now the victim of destiny. The next scene is an extremely graphic account, by an eyewitness. Jocasta ran into the bedroom, screaming. Thesis Papers On Public Administration? She locked the door from stunning inside. A few minutes later, Oedipus came in, and broke down the door with what seemed to be supernatural strength. He found Jocasta dead, hanging.
Oedipus took the body down, then removed the pin that held up her dress. He stabbed it again and synonyms for assignments, again into his eyes, saying he has looked at his mother's naked body when he shouldn't, and he has learned what he now wishes he hadn't. The blood didn't merely dribble, as after a single needlestick. It gushed on both sides. For this to presentations happen, the choroidal artery that enters the eye from research dissertation behind must be severed. We can think that Oedipus has actually torn the globes from their sockets. Presentations? Oedipus now begs to be taken out of the city (so that the plague will end), but he has no strength and no guide.
Oedipus comes in. Evidently Oedipus passed out essayists, after blinding himself, and he curses the person who resuscitated him. The Chorus asks, How were you able to rip out stunning, your eyeballs? Oedipus replies, Apollo gave me the strength to do it. Creon is the new king. He is not angry, merely kind. He helps Oedipus up and out of the city, guided by his two daughters. Staff in hand, Oedipus himself is the answer to the riddle of the why x essay sphinx.
Oedipus says that some incredible destiny must surely await him. Stunning? But the Chorus ends with a reflection on how transient human happiness often is: Don't say anybody is fortunate until that person is dead -- the final rest, free from pain. (There is an echo here of Solon's words to Croesus -- don't assume that any particular life will end happily. Is the sense the same here, or different?) What is Sophocles saying? To discern an author's intentions, look for material that is not required by the plot or intended simply to please the audience.
In retelling the story of Oedipus, Sophocles goes beyond mere irony. A major theme in the play is whether one can believe in essay by woods snowy evening, oracles and psychics. By extension, the question is stunning whether the Greeks believed their own mythology. Sophocles makes a special effort to explain that Oedipus killed Laius in self-defense. More generally, Sophocles goes out of his way to on public present Oedipus as an extremely capable, beloved administrator. Conspicuously, Sophocles NEVER suggests that Oedipus has brought his destiny on stunning presentations, himself by any ungodly pride ( hybris ) or tragic flaw ( hamartia ).
The last lines seem ambiguous. They could mean that the dead are more fortunate than the living, because they do not experience pain. Is life really that bad? The gods made the prophecies that led Oedipus into essayists disaster. The sphinx appeared (she must have been sent by the gods), and stunning, Oedipus solved her riddle (the chorus says he must have been guided by the gods.) Teiresias could not solve the essay stopping by woods on a snowy evening riddle, or detect the killer -- thanks to the gods. At the beginning, Apollo's oracle simply says, Find the killer -- leading to the cruel ironies of the play.
Oedipus specifically says the gods set up his extraordinary misfortune. And at the end, Apollo merely gives Oedipus the strength to presentations carve his own eyes out of their sockets. In other words, Sophocles says that Oedipus's frightful misadventure is the intentional work of the gods. At the end, everybody says this. Pure and simple. Nobody even asks why. The Golden Age of Athens was a time for thinkers, scientists, inventors, and for people to share ideas freely. Greeks were very impressed with reason, and must surely have been asking whether they still believed in their mythology. Social conservatives prosecuted Socrates for expressing doubts about the gods, but only because they thought this would corrupt the minds of young people. (Does this sound familiar?) People have often noted that comedy and melodrama have arisen independently in many cultures, but that tragedy has its unique beginnings in Athens's golden age -- the first time that we hear people asking the why x essay tough questions about what they really believed.
The idea that Sophocles is putting forward is stunning much like the dark supernatural suggestions that Stephen King offers our own doubting age. Essayists? Stephen King and stunning presentations, his readers don't really believe in his creepy monsters. And I don't know whether Sophocles really believed the message of why x essay, Oedipus the King. Sophocles is saying, Maybe the gods do exist. and are consciously and elaborately MALICIOUS. This is the only reason that such terrible things could happen to people. Aristotle's Poetics are lecture notes on poetry, with a focus on tragedy. Aristotle liked to classify and presentations, evaluate things, and bad term papers, also liked to talk about human virtue and presentations, vice.
Eventually, this got him the synonyms for assignments best teaching job of his time, as tutor to the boy who became Alexander the Great. Aristotle is reacting in part against Plato's objection to art and theater. Aristotle was especially interested in stunning presentations, justifying tragedy to an audience concerned with public morals. I am quoting below from the translation of the Poetics by S.H. Barber.
After introducing his subject, Aristotle talks about the subject of tragedy. Since the synonyms objects of imitation are men in action, and these men must be either of a higher or a lower type (for moral character mainly answers to these divisions, goodness and badness being the stunning presentations distinguishing marks of moral differences), it follows that we must represent men either as better than in bad term papers, real life, or as worse, or as they are. It is the same in painting. Polygnotus depicted men as nobler than they are, Pauson as less noble, Dionysius drew them true to life. -- II. In other words, when you paint or play a person, you can idealize him, you can lampoon him, or you can try for stunning realism. Aristotle continues.
The same distinction marks off Tragedy from Comedy; for Comedy aims at representing men as worse, Tragedy as better than in actual life. -- II. Aristotle means both better-spoken and of better moral character. Aristotle goes on to explain why people make poetry in for assignments, the first place. He decides that there's an instinct to mimic things, and people like the imitations of stunning presentations, others because it's fun to recognize things. Research Dissertation? He continues. Poetry now diverged in two directions, according to the individual character of the writers. The graver spirits imitated noble actions, and the actions of good men.
The more trivial sort imitated the actions of meaner persons, at first composing satires, as the presentations former did hymns to the gods and the praises of famous men. Bad Term Papers? -- IV. Aristotle adds that the tragedians were the successors of the epic poets, who also focused on high and noble deeds. Aristotle wonders whether Tragedy will ever be better than it was in his era. He tells about its origins in improvisation, and its recent history. Aeschylus first introduced a second actor; he diminished the importance of the Chorus, and assigned the leading part to the dialogue. Stunning Presentations? Sophocles raised the number of synonyms, actors to three, and added scene-painting. -- IV Originally, tragedies were songs sung by presentations, a chorus. Then one member would take the role of a character. Aeschylus added a second speaking part apart from the chorus. Sophocles added a third, and introduced stage scenery. Now Aristotle moves into essay on a evening the famous definition of tragedy. Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an presentations, action that is serious, complete, and for assignments, of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of stunning, artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in the form of synonyms, action, not of narrative; through pity and fear effecting the proper purgation of these emotions. -- VI.
Tragedy must be a unified story, about something important. Aristotle would say later that tragedy should involve high-ranking people. He doesn't give any reason that makes sense. Probably he thought that the great themes of stunning presentations, life required larger-than-life characters. Arthur Miller would write about a salesman as a tragic hero, Willy Low-Man.
And a comic hero would be Truman -- the one true-man in a world that deceives him. The end of the paragraph begins the business that has caused all the trouble. Purging means taking a laxative (our word cathartic for essay on a evening a laxative comes from the Greek term catharsis, which you already know). You watch a tragedy to have a good cry, and get rid of stunning, your ideas about bad things happening to good people. Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality- namely, Plot, Character, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, Song. -- VI. Aristotle goes on to explain what these are.
Plot: the story; the good ones focus on a single episode. Character: the personalities of the characters, as shown in their words and actions. (Considering the limitations of the form, the Greeks did a nice job of drawing character.) Diction: the right choice of thesis papers, words. Aristotle points out how effective using just the right word can be. Thought: Arguments and exposition. Aristotle compares it to rhetoric. Spectacle: as we'd say, special effects.
Not so much the poet's business as the stunning presentations stage-specialist's. Song: words joined to music. What is missing? Aristotle never mentions theme , the thoughts about life on which tragedies can be based. Aristotle was a very smart person, and the Greek tragedies remain popular today, not as museum pieces, but as comments on life. Research Dissertation? Yet Aristotle is silent on this important element of tragedy. As you continue to presentations study literature, you'll constantly look for themes. I like Shakespeare, and like the ancient Greeks, his themes are often troubling. Macbeth gets much of its impact from its central question -- Is life really a meaningless exercise in essayists, a dog-eat-dog world? Hamlet focuses on the phoniness and meanness of human society. Hamlet starts by wishing he was dead.
At the end, he comes to terms with life as many modern secularists do, deciding to live and love well in an unfair world. The themes of Romeo and stunning presentations, Juliet were radical in thesis papers on public administration, Shakespeare's time. Shakespeare changed the presentations messsage of essayists, his source (which was a cautionary tale for presentations teenagers to obey their parents instead of making their own decisions.) Young people should be allowed to choose their own husbands and wives. The disasters of bad term papers, young people -- even a godawful teenaged murder-suicide -- can sometimes be rightly blamed on their parents. And love gives happiness and dignity even in the worst circumstances. Antony and Cleopatra asks the age-old question: Does illicit love ennoble people, or just degrade them? King Lear reaches a conclusion similar to Oedipus the King, but with the idea that unselfish human love can, at least temporarily, give beauty and meaning in a godless world. Aristotle, the school-teacher, is actually steering his students AWAY from looking for themes. Aristotle goes on to say that the plot is best kept unified, without subplots, and stunning presentations, the action not covering more then 24 hours. Subjects from mythology are traditional but not mandatory. Why X Essay? (Aristotle thought people would be more willing to suspend disbelief if the stories came from accepted mythology.) If there are to be coincidences, they should seem to make sense. But again, Tragedy is an imitation not only of a complete action, but of events inspiring fear or pity.
Such an effect is best produced when the events come on us by surprise; and stunning, the effect is heightened when, at the same time, they follow as cause and effect. The tragic wonder will then be greater than if they happened of themselves or by accident; for essayists even coincidences are most striking when they have an air of design. We may instance the statue of Mitys at Argos, which fell upon his murderer while he was a spectator at a festival, and killed him. Such events seem not to be due to mere chance. Plots, therefore, constructed on these principles are necessarily the best. -- IX. Coincidences are crowd-pleasers, and people are willing to suspend disbelief in them. (People want to believe in stunning presentations, magic.) A character today might say that the falling statue expressed the will of the Force. Aristotle launches into why x essay a big discussion about simple vs. complex plots. The best plots are complex, with twists or irony (he calls both of these reversal of the situation) or bombshells (recognition scenes). Aristotle describes a scene of suffering as characteristic of tragedy; it depicts somebody suffering physically or dying onstage. A perfect tragedy should, as we have seen, be arranged not on the simple but on the complex plan. It should, moreover, imitate actions which excite pity and fear, this being the distinctive mark of tragic imitation.
It follows plainly, in the first place, that the change of fortune presented must not be the spectacle of a virtuous man brought from prosperity to adversity: for this moves neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us. Nor, again, that of a bad man passing from adversity to prosperity: for stunning nothing can be more alien to bad term papers the spirit of presentations, Tragedy; it possesses no single tragic quality; it neither satisfies the moral sense nor calls forth pity or fear. Why X Essay? Nor, again, should the downfall of the utter villain be exhibited. A plot of this kind would, doubtless, satisfy the moral sense, but it would inspire neither pity nor fear; for pity is aroused by unmerited misfortune, fear by the misfortune of a man like ourselves. Such an event, therefore, will be neither pitiful nor terrible. Presentations? There remains, then, the character between these two extremes- that of a man who is not eminently good and just, yet whose misfortune is brought about dissertation not by vice or depravity, but by some error or frailty . He must be one who is highly renowned and prosperous -- a personage like Oedipus, Thyestes, or other illustrious men of such families. -- XIII This passage continues to stunning cause problems. Plays about bad people ending up happy don't satisfy Aristotle. (Beavis and Butt-Head Do America doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of tragedy.) Plays about thoroughly bad people getting their just deserts in the end don't work because we can't identify with the bad guy. (Richard III doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of essayists, a tragedy, either.) Finally, Aristotle cannot imagine that a tragedy could deal with disaster befalling a completely sympathetic character. He says this would merely shock us. But Oedipus the King DOES shock us, and presentations, is intended to do so. Why is Aristotle avoiding the obvious? We'll soon see.
A well-constructed plot should, therefore, be single in bad term papers, its issue, rather than double as some maintain. Presentations? The change of fortune should be not from bad to synonyms good, but, reversely, from good to bad. It should come about stunning presentations as the result not of vice, but of some great error or frailty, in a character either such as we have described, or better rather than worse. Synonyms? The practice of the presentations stage bears out our view. -- XIII. By double plots, Aristotle is why x essay referring to serious plays that have a disaster in the middle, but a happy ending. Stunning? Aristotle considers these to be inferior, but admits that many people prefer them. In the second rank comes the kind of tragedy which some place first. Like the Odyssey, it has a double thread of plot, and also an opposite catastrophe for the good and for the bad.
It is accounted the best because of the weakness of the spectators; for the poet is guided in what he writes by the wishes of his audience. The pleasure, however, thence derived is thesis administration not the true tragic pleasure. It is proper rather to Comedy, where those who, in the piece, are the deadliest enemies -- like Orestes and stunning presentations, Aegisthus -- quit the stage as friends at the close, and no one slays or is slain. -- XIII This only makes sense if you share Aristotle's assumption that the stopping by woods on a snowy purpose of serious drama is to make you have a good scare and a good cry and go back to thinking that real-life is presentations more fair. Aristotle goes on to explain that the best plots and the best scripts themselves arouse pity and fear, and that the best plays don't even need the special effects. Fear and pity may be aroused by spectacular means; but they may also result from the research results dissertation inner structure of the piece, which is the better way, and stunning, indicates a superior poet. For the synonyms plot ought to be so constructed that, even without the aid of the eye, he who hears the tale told will thrill with horror and melt to pity at what takes place. This is the impression we should receive from hearing the story of the Oedipus. -- XIV. Aristotle goes on. Let us then determine what are the circumstances which strike us as terrible or pitiful. -- XIV They are aroused especially when people kill friends or family.
The killer may or may not know what he/she is doing. It can happen onstage, or be discovered, as (Aristotle points out) in Oedipus the King. Aristotle was a product of his times. In respect of Character there are four things to be aimed at. First, and most important, it must be good. Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose of any kind will be expressive of presentations, character: the character will be good if the purpose is good. This rule is relative to each class. Even a woman may be good, and also a slave; though the woman may be said to be an why x essay, inferior being, and the slave quite worthless. The second thing to aim at is propriety. There is a type of presentations, manly valor; but valor in a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness is inappropriate. -- XV. We do not have to be left-wing activists or injustice-collectors to despise this kind of sexism and classism.
But the truth is that on the Greek stage, the women are as interesting, sympathetic, intelligent and brave as the men -- an obvious fact that Aristotle ignores. Aristotle goes on dissertation, to say that characters should be believable, the kinds of people we meet in presentations, life, and that characters should be consistent. Aristotle has a problem with Euripides's Iphegenia in Aulis, which tells the story of for assignments, a sudden decision for heroic altruism. It remains to speak of Diction and Thought, the other parts of Tragedy having been already discussed. Presentations? Concerning Thought, we may assume what is stopping on a snowy said in the Rhetoric, to which inquiry the subject more strictly belongs. Presentations? Under Thought is included every effect which has to be produced by bad term papers, speech, the subdivisions being: proof and refutation; the excitation of the stunning presentations feelings, such as pity, fear, anger, and the like; the suggestion of importance or its opposite. Now, it is papers on public evident that the stunning dramatic incidents must be treated from the same points of view as the thesis papers on public administration dramatic speeches, when the object is to evoke the sense of pity, fear, importance, or probability. -- XIX.
Aristotle talks about realism, which is stunning a curious topic when talking about tales from Greek mythology. Why X Essay? Further, if it be objected that the stunning description is not true to papers fact, the poet may perhaps reply, But the objects are as they ought to be; just as Sophocles said that he drew men as they ought to presentations be; Euripides, as they are. In this way the objection may be met. If, however, the representation be of papers on public, neither kind, the poet may answer, This is how men say the thing is, applies to tales about the presentations gods. It may well be that these stories are not higher than fact nor yet true to fact: they are, very possibly, what Xenophanes says of them. Why X Essay? -- XXV. Xenophanes came out and stunning presentations, said it -- the tales of Greek Mythology are fiction. Aristotle knows this is important, but once again, he avoided the rough issue. Somebody may ask you about Sophocles portraying people as they should be, and Euripides portraying people as they are.
Sophocles shows Oedipus as gracious, capable, and altruistic. Sophocles has Ajax write a magnificent suicide note and end a useful life rather than live with the stigma of thesis papers on public, mental illness. Sophocles has Orestes kill his own mother without a lick of regret, making a speech about stunning presentations how everybody who breaks any law should be summarily executed. Euripides, by contrast, shows a woman murdering her two children in cold blood just to for assignments get back at their father. You can have fun examining this further. I think I understand. Aristotle got paid to tell young people that if they lived good lives, really bad things wouldn't happen to them. To explain why they saw really bad things happening to good people onstage, Aristotle gave two (contradictory) answers. 1. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is because that person has a tragic flaw. 2. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is just make-believe. It is so you can have a good scare and a good cry.
This gets these emotions out of your system. You can go back to the real world, where life is stunning fair. It's bunk, intended to keep people from complaining about Sophocles's devastating theme. Aristotle may have been the first schoolteacher to smokescreen Sophocles's message that the gods might be malicious. He may have thought he was right to do so. Essayists? Aristotle's popularity among schoolteachers has helped hide Sophocles's grim idea. Even today, students are forced to write essays about tragic flaws and stunning, purging pity and fear. Somehow, hybris (ungodly pride, arrogance, and so forth) has come to be identified as the usual tragic fault. I cannot understand why -- the idea does not seem to be Aristotle's.
But whenever something bad happens to a basically good person in a tragedy, students are invited to see hybris. (Hubris is the same word; the Greek letter upsilon looks like our Y and is its origin, but the sound was more like the uhh that I make when I have no idea what to say.) In Antigone , Sophocles has the chorus specifically call Creon on his hybris, i.e., his impious decree intended to promote national security. I have seen this section from Antigone quoted and said to be from Oedipus the synonyms King, as proof that Oedipus has a tragic flaw of hybris. In Aeschylus's Agamemnon , the presentations murderess gets the victim to essayists do a vainglorious, un-Greek walk down a red carpet in order to gain public support after the presentations murder. Other characters (Aeschylus's Prometheus, the victims of by woods, Euripides's Dionysus) are punished wrongfully for standing up for what most of us would say is common sense and stunning presentations, genuine goodness. Results? It is presentations hard to generalize this. Interestingly, I can't find the idea of hybris in thesis administration, Aristotle's Poetics. During the sixties, we especially resented being told that Antigone's act of civil disobedience / political protest was hybris. You can't defend yourself against an accusation of stunning presentations, hybris.
I am an honest physician who engages in bad term papers, public debates. When I catch somebody deliberately deceiving the public, they never defend their cases on the facts, but almost always call me arrogant or elitist. (If you have no case, shout hybris!) Through my Shakespeare site, I often get requests, What is Hamlet's tragic flaw?, etc., etc. I tell people that they're asking the wrong question, and to look instead at what the author is really saying about life. If Aristotle and his successors had been free to stunning presentations speak the truth clearly, here are some points that would come up in discussion and with which most students (then and now) would probably agree. In our world, very bad things do sometimes happen to very good people.
Your chief security comes from what people know you can do well. Why X Essay? This results in turn from your natural abilities, your effort, and your good character. Stunning? It's safest, and the best strategy, to try to by woods on a snowy be a good person. It's fun to stunning be scared at shows, and to cry. But we don't want to be rid of these emotions, but to feel them most intensely.
Perhaps we can also bring back, from a good play or movie, something that will help us make sense of ourselves, our neighbors, and thesis, our world. Oedipus seeks the stunning presentations truth about himself despite the warnings that it will not bring him happiness. Essay On A Snowy Evening? We cannot blame Aristotle for the centuries of ignorance during which his authority was used to limit free inquiry. But today, most people admire those who bravely seek the truth about nature, and about themselves. Stunning? It is a modern, rather than an Aristotelian, theme. Greek serious drama (tragedy) reaches an synonyms for assignments, intensity that remains unsurpassed. Serious drama did go on, after the Greeks, to stunning presentations become richer in many ways, including variety of plot, character, and theme.
Much of the why x essay power of serious literature (like tragedy, and like the comedies of Aristophanes and presentations, Shakespeare) comes from the philosophical issues that it raises. We do not have to be frightened when we run into a theme with which we disagree. If history teaches us anything, it is that we need to be more frightened of people who would restrict the free sharing of synonyms, ideas, or force a stupid right-wing or left-wing ideology on presentations, us. Young people naturally discuss whether the stories they hear in research results, church are true, and perhaps even whether the universe itself might be malevolent. Presentations? (Today's teens enjoy the tongue-in-cheek adventure game, Call of Cthulhu, in essay by woods on a evening, which the spiritual powers of the universe are insanely cruel, though less subtle.) Whether or not Sophocles was serious in putting this latter idea forward, simply recognizing that he has done so will not corrupt the morals of young people. Every person must find his or her own answer to stunning the mystery of why bad things happen to essay by woods evening good people in a universe supposedly under God's control. Yet even if people reach different conclusions, and express them freely, people can usually still live and work together in peace and good-will. Few thinking people, then or now, will credit the idea that Apollo, or one of stunning, his counterparts, deliberately engineers disasters.
But Sophocles's theme rings partially true to those of us who approach the universe with a sense of bad term papers, awe, as a mystery where perhaps there is more than there appears to be. They may not have told you that hamartia is the word used in the original Greek of the stunning presentations New Testament for sin. The King James Version has 172 instances. Jim Donahoe's essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw is synonyms for assignments no longer online. In the end however, Oedipus becomes more humble and accepts his fate.
He becomes a better person and is better off after his fall. Dr. Stunning? Black, from Malaspina College (link now down) wrote that Oedipus's flaw is his special ability to bad term papers solve riddles, his detective ability, one might say, or his intellect. Yet this is a form of hubris -- the belief that one can understand, read, predict, control the future etc. through one's native wit, and presentations, this is what brings him down, despite several warnings to give up the hunt. Reason = Apollo. Myth Man. Oedipus. brought about his own downfall because of his excessive obsession to know himself. I'm honored to be the source of his quotation (Thus, some say that the moral of the story is, Even if you try to for assignments thwart your destiny, you won't succeed.).
Link is now down. University of Pennsylvania classics department essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw . in this account, his basic flaw is his lack of knowledge about his own identity. The writer is stunning presentations fair enough to point out that unlike other tragic heroes, Oedipus bears no responsibility for his flaw. You can decide for yourself whether this fits with Aristotle's use of the term, taken in context. Ian Johnston -- also offers a free translation (thanks!) Points out themes common to bad term papers world literature prior to the decline in stunning, religious belief. Who does control our lives? What sort of relationship do we have to that divine force? Concludes that Oedipus has no moral failures, and that his flaw is his very excellence -- and this also gives him his tragic greatness. Letters on the Classics People always think that because Aristotle said a tragic hero's downfall should be due to a tragic flaw (hamartia) , and Aristotle admired King Oedipus above all tragedies, therefore Oedipus must have a flaw. Essayists? [This is a false premise under Aristotle's very own logic.] And so they have struggled to stunning find one. Research Results Dissertation? The whole business of stunning, 'tragic flaws' is why x essay something that English and Drama teachers have got hold of from presentations some book they read when they were students.
No one these days who has actually studied Greek tragedy believes there is any such thing. Tragic Flaws . Synonyms? . I realized something quite interesting: just about everything Aristle says about presentations tragic heroes is wrong. Aristotle had postulated the principle of the tragic flaw in tragedy. A hero, who is mostly good, makes some sort of mistake related to acharacter flaw, usually hybris or pride. Essayists? However, from what I read, I realised that tragic heroes are almost never brought down by flaws or by hybris . In fact, in most cases, the stunning presentations protagonist is actually destroyed by his or her virtues. Essay Stopping By Woods On A Snowy? In puzzling over this, I realised that Aristotle is, in fact,not trying to explain exactly what is happening in tragedy but what should be happening. He is answering a very specific challenge to the very existence of tragedy presented by Plato in the Republic Book III. Plato had argued that tragedy corrupted the stunning audience. Aristotle's development of the tragic flaw is a response to this challenge. The author has a Ph.D. in Ancient and for assignments, Medieval Philosophy. Link is now down: Cyber Essays to help students.
The anonymous author discusses Oedipus the King with reference to Socrates's dictum, The unexamined life is not worth living and (A.A. Stunning? Winnie the Pooh Milne's dictum) When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to why x essay be wise. Seeking a tragic flaw for stunning Oedipus, the author says that Oedipus would have been better not to have been so curious. What the essay ignores is that Oedipus pursued the truth to save his city, not to amuse himself. The author avoids this obvious point in synonyms for assignments, drawing his own non-Sophoclean conclusion. It's better not to know. We used to stunning presentations hear this from bad term papers anti-science college-campus types on both the far-right and stunning presentations, the far-left, who want to reshape society down ideological lines.
You'll have to decide for yourself about this. But like it or not, focusing on essayists, science over make-believe has a lot to do with why whole cities don't die of the plague any more. This essay has been offered for sale (and perhaps still is) by at least two websites set up for students who for whatever reason do not want to write their own papers. I have received no response to my protests. Teachers: Click here to begin your search for online essays intended for presentations would-be plagiarists. Bad Term Papers? Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid! Good luck.
Plagtracker.com -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service. Students: If your teacher is at all computer-savvy, and you turn in a paper that you took for free off the stunning presentations web, you will be caught. Everybody will make fun of you, and you can forget about being a doctor, lawyer, or whatever. That'll be your tragic flaw. Ha ha! Arthur Miller wrote, The flaw, or crack in the character [of Oedipus], is really nothing -- and essayists, need be nothing -- but his inherent unwillingness to stunning presentations remain passive in the face of what he conceives to be a challenge to his dignity, his image of his rightful status.
Only the passive, only those who accept their lots without active retaliation, are 'flawless.' Most of us are in bad term papers, that category. Miller adds that the stunning presentations terror and the fear that is classically associated with tragedy comes from questioning the unquestioned. Maybe this is more about Miller than about Sophocles -- but it was a good thought for the conformist, self-satisfied Fifties. Oedipus -- heroic-fantasy style painting. Jocaste (was Iokaste) -- contemporary novel about Oedipus's wife-mother. Release date Sept. 2004.
Re-released 2011. I'm Ed. You can visit me at my own page and follow the links from essayists there to my autopsy page, my notes on disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the other sites. Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the commas are supposed to stunning presentations go inside the why x essay quotation marks. This became standard to protect fragile bits of movable type. My practice lets me know I'm the stunning one who's typed a particular document. Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in class or at your trade, play sports if and synonyms for assignments, only if you like it, tell the grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the circumstances), and get out of stunning presentations, abusive relationships by any means.
The best thing anybody can say about you is, That kid likes to work too hard and isn't taking it easy like other young people. Thanks for visiting. Essayists? Health and stunning presentations, friendship. To include this page in a bibliography, you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Oedipus the King by Sophocles Retrieved Dec. 25, 2003 from http://www.pathguy.com/oedipus.htm. For Modern Language Association sticklers, the name of the site itself is The Pathology Guy and the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is results dissertation Ed Friedlander MD.
Visitors send me this question from time to time. If being a contemporary American means being focused on presentations, dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and war on drugs profiteering. then the answer is for assignments probably Nothing. If a contemporary American can still ask, If there is presentations a God, why do horrible things happen to perfectly good people? And how do we explain this to children? -- then the why x essay answer is maybe that Sophocles deals with basic human issues. A week after setting up this site, people are already writing me to tell me that I am wrong, but not why. Each of three teachers has told me that The class agreed Oedipus caused his own problem. I use the term immoral for the idea that the gods deliberately set up horrible disasters, simply for stunning presentations lack of for assignments, a better English word. And it seems appropriate to me. Stunning Presentations? (Cliff Notes used the word moral for the idea that the gods are fair and thesis administration, decent.) If you can think of a better one, please let me know. If you are a student writing on Oedipus , perhaps you can find a typically Greek solution. Athenians often constructed sentences in the form of One the one hand ( men ). and on stunning, the other hand ( de ). Argue both sides.
It'll be fun and prevent trouble. If your instructor is a proponent of one of the three sides of the culture war, you can make him/her happy and still be honest. If your instructor is a conservative religionist (Religious Right, etc., etc.), point out how Sophocles recognizes the falsity of old, heathen mythologies, how their false idols were cruel and amoral, etc., etc. If your instructor is a left-wing social-activist / postmodernist focused on grievance-group politics, point out how Sophocles challenges the traditional belief structures of the oppressive patriarchy, etc., etc. If your instructor is why x essay a scientific naturalist, argue that Sophocles actually knew that Greek mythology, and all the talk about gods and so forth, was bunk, and maybe this is what he is really telling us. If you are a teacher taking a traditional classroom approach to Oedipus the King, be ready for stunning presentations these questions from your students. Cliff Notes, which is as usual pretty good, warns that overemphasis on a search for the decisive flaw in the protagonist as the key factor for understanding the tragedy can lead to superficial or false interpretations.
The author also warns that Aristotle's approach is sometimes too artificial or formula-prone in its conclusions. Bad Term Papers? He goes on to say that some people say Oedipus's tragic flaw is his anger (at Laius, at Tiresias), his trying to escape his destiny, and his pride and determination in trying to get the herdsman to tell the truth. (The author adds that Sophocles believes that the universe is fundamentally a profoundly moral place, though I can't tell why.) Why all the different supposed tragic flaws? If a lone man is hassled and then physically attacked by stunning, a group of thugs on a deserted stretch of research results dissertation, highway, especially when the area is stunning presentations not patrolled by fast police cars, he is much safer if he hits back than if he runs or begs for mercy. Papers? This isn't right, but it's a fact of life, and if you didn't know it, you have been protected and are naive. Sophocles presents Oedipus's killing of Laius as self-defense. What kind of stunning, sense does this make if Sophocles wants us to think Oedipus caused his own downfall?
Today, if a psychic went on the air and accused a decent, respected government official of administration, murder and incest, people would be furious and believe that this is crooked politics. Oedipus is right to think this and to be very angry, though I think (as the stunning presentations Chorus does) that he goes too far in bad term papers, assuming Creon is behind it. Why would anybody think Oedipus should NOT be suspicious and angry? If Oedipus had not tried hard to get to the truth, there would have been no play. Oedipus loses his temper with Creon, and stunning, the Chorus says he is over-reacting, but not that this causes his disaster. The Chorus sings about the need to essayists revere the gods, but never that Oedipus has not done do.
In fact, the Chorus, representing public opinion, never says Oedipus caused his disaster. This is in spectacular contrast to the ending of Antigone, where the stunning presentations Chorus sings about Creon's hybris (I refuse to allow proper religious burial rites for a man who endangered National Security, this will make him an example and keep our people safe) and how it caused his ruin (Religion and conscience and dissertation, decency and human love take precedence over supposed National Security.) Does the word hybris even appear in Aristotle's Poetics? The site went up in 1998, and presentations, has proved very popular. Bad Term Papers? Most of stunning presentations, my correspondents express appreciation -- especially fellow-educators. I do get maybe half a dozen abusive e-mails per year specifically about this page, all claiming to come from teachers. Bad Term Papers? (My second such correspondent from 2007 claimed to teach English at stunning presentations a major university, but the department chairman tells me that he knows of no such person.) At least I'm glad people still feel strongly enough about results dissertation classical literature to send hate mail. Stunning? However, not one of them (or anyone else) has ever tried to explain why I am wrong -- and research results, that leads me to draw the obvious conclusion. If you have no case, shout hybris . If you are a student who has been punished for presentations using this website, please contact me and I'll probably be able to synonyms for assignments take care of it for you.
Whatever you decide, I hope that everybody enjoys Sophocles's Oedipus the King, and the Greek custom of free intellectual inquiry, as much as I have! Health and friendship! This isn't the first time that everybody's told me that conventional wisdom is right and that I'm wrong, but not why. In the 1970's, I said: Peptic ulcer craters contain spiral bacteria, which are part of the process. Patients presenting with fibromyalgia symptoms have a real disease. Nitrates do not dilate atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Bismuth has a specific, powerful effect on indigestion apart from its antacid effect. The psychologic roots for criminality are not in lack of self-esteem, but in a sense of entitlement and special privilege. Selenium has a specific, powerful effect on dandruff apart from stunning presentations its keratolytic effect. A large percentage of SIDS deaths are intentional or negligent homicides, and why x essay, a baby can smother by overling or on a mattress or big toy.
William Blake's private papers show that psychosis does not necessarily mean disability or lack of insight. I'm no Teiresias. But except for the last (where people are still telling me I'm wrong, but not why), I've been glad that common sense and a little basic understanding of the world eventually wins out over academic dogma. I'm thankful for the experimental method and the fact that science corrects itself. To the best of my knowledge, all the stunning presentations links on my literature pages are to free sites. Essay Stopping By Woods? In August 2000, the operator of the large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to buy these pages out for a price in the low four figures. I refused, and the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the domain and presentations, spare everybody from a lot of wasted time.
It's a shame. This site will always remain free, to help everybody enjoy the bad term papers works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much. If any of the sites to which I have linked are asking students for their money, please let me know. reset Jan. Stunning Presentations? 30, 2005:
Ed says, This world would be a sorry place if people like me who call ourselves Christians didn't try to bad term papers act as good as other good people . Click here to presentations see the author's friend, Dr. Essayists? Ken Savage, do it right.
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5 Tips for Creating a Photo Essay with a Purpose. As a photographer, you are a storyteller. The nouns are your subject matter; the verbs are the color and presentations contrast that keep the on public, story moving. A cast of characters all working together to get your point across. Instead of proper grammar, you ensure proper exposure. Instead of stunning, spelling errors, you watch for tack-sharp focus. For those times when the synonyms for assignments, story is especially important and meaningful, or for when one image doesn’t say it all, there is the photographic essay. With blogging and stunning presentations social media, photo essays are more popular than ever: humorous or emotionally relevant, sparking debate or encouraging compassion, each with a story to tell. I’ve mentioned before that taking on a photo project is papers, one of my favorite ways to reignite my love for stunning photography, but beyond that, it’s a great way to for assignments get your message across and have your work seen by stunning, a larger group. A photo essay is intriguing; it’s something to bad term papers talk about after people hear that you’re a photographer and stunning want to know about the glitz and glamour of dissertation, it all. It’s the perfect thing to tell them after you’re done going on and on presentations about all of the synonyms for assignments, red carpets, the celebrities, the fame, and stunning presentations the fortune.
It also can be extremely satisfying and kick-start your creative wonderment. By definition, a photographic essay is a set or series of photographs intended to tell a story or evoke emotions. Thesis Papers Administration. It can be only stunning presentations images, images with captions, or images with full text. In short, it can be almost anything you want it to essayists be. Which is where I struggle mostwhen the options are limitless. In this freelance world we live in, I love a little guidance, a little direction. Ideally, someone to tell me exactly what they want and promise to be thrilled with whatever I produce, for my fragile artist ego can’t take any less. While I continue my quest for that, I offer you these 5 tips for stunning presentations creating your own, completely without bounds, photographic essay: Each time I’ve had a very specific concept in thesis on public administration, mind before I started shooting, it’s never been the end result. An example: for a hot minute, I offered a “day in the life” session to my clients. I was photographing so many of the same clients year after year that I wanted to be able to offer them a different spin on the portrait sessions I was doing for them. I asked a long-time client if her family could be my guinea pigs for this and stunning told them that we could do whatever they wanted.
We went out for ice cream, had a mini dance party in their living room, and I photographed a tooth that had been lost that very morning. Then, very last, I photographed the thesis papers on public administration, two young daughters with notes they had written, which to be honest, I’m not even sure how they had come about. Stunning. I rushed home after the session and edited those last note pictures first just because they were so different from what I usually shoot, and posted them on my personal Facebook page the heading Notes Girls Write . Within minutes a dear friend, and fellow photographer, commented that this was big. Bigger than just the two pictures. Synonyms For Assignments. She and I would spend the presentations, next year working on a photo essay that became a blog, that in turn became a book entitled Notes Girls Write . Research Results Dissertation. We photographed hundreds of women of stunning presentations, all ages with their notes, each one later expressing having their portrait taken with their own words was an extremely powerful moment for them. Beyond my beautiful children, the fact that I can make a bed with hospital corners like no one’s business, and the award I won in the 4th grade for why x essay “Most Patient”, Notes Girls Write is one of my proudest accomplishments. Stunning. It evolved on its own, starting from a few similar photographs that struck a cord in viewers and becoming a large and powerful project, one of the biggest markers in my career so far. TIP: Don’t be so set in your idea that your project can’t outgrow your original concept. Your images will guide you to research your end result, which may end up being different than you originally envisioned it. 2) If you think there’s something there, there’s likely something there.
For the presentations, last year I have been a “foster mom” with a dog rescue group. Volunteers transport dogs that would otherwise be put down from overpopulated shelters, or seized from terrible situations, to bad term papers my area, where dog adoption rates are much higher. These dogs live in foster homes while they receive medical care and basic training so that they can be adopted out to loving homes. Presentations. It’s incredibly rewarding. Especially when I had hardwood floors. I knew from the first time I met the transport van I wanted to document what it looked like: a van full of dogs that just narrowly escaped death arriving to temporary homes where they will experience a level of love and essayists care which they’ve likely never known. I tear-up every time I see it. Stunning Presentations. I am also put to work every time I am there, so taking photos while holding onto a 100 pound German Shepard is tough. It’s going to take me several trips to have enough images to do anything with, but that’s fine.
I have no idea what I will be doing with these photos. Papers Administration. I know they will find a home somewhere: maybe with the rescue group to raise awareness, or to help bring in volunteers, or maybe they will do nothing more than document my own story with volunteering, or perhaps something more. I’m not sure yet, but the point is presentations, that I have the why x essay, images, ready for their time, whenever that is. TIP: If you think there is something to it, there likely is. Stunning Presentations. Even if it’s just a personal passion project. Essayists. Take photos until you find the direction or purpose and save them until your essay takes shape.
You may not end up using all, or any of the images, but in stunning presentations, continuing to take photographs, your project will be defined. I’m the “World’s Worst Over-Shooter”. Need one image? Let me take a hundred so we know we have it. Bad Term Papers. Luckily for my bad habit, the photographic essay needs over shooting. Whether you know what your plan is, or have no idea want your end result will look like, the more coverage you have, the better. This is one of the few times I push my luck and stunning ask my subjects to work for me until they never want to see me again (I only photograph people though, so if you are photographing mountains or something, you have the added advantage of bad term papers, not pushing people until they cry or yell). Presentations. Don’t be shy. Shoot everything you know you don’t need, just in case you need it. Should your end product need supporting images or take a different direction than you originally thought, you’ll be ready.
Take advantage of digital (if that’s how you shoot) and research dissertation fill a memory card. You may end up trashing everything, or you may not. Stunning. I had no idea that my Notes Girls Write project would span for as long as it did, but because I didn’t turn down anyone who was interested in the very beginning I ended up with some shots that told complete stories and expanded on the original concept. TIP: Think big. If you are shooting an essay where mountains are your subject matter, see the mountain in pieces and photograph the surrounding trees, rocks, and whatever else. This will save you having to return to the beginning of the project for supporting shots, or having to reshoot if your essay takes a different turn than you planned. Essayists. 4) Ask for help with image selection. Stunning. I struggle with this oneI let my personal feelings get involved.
Throughout our Notes Girls Write project I was constantly picking images based on my personal feelingsthe subjects that I had connected with more, and administration the girls that I knew were most interested in the project. This is where it is so helpful to have someone else help. Someone who has no personal feelings towards the images and stunning presentations will help you pick based only on the strength of the image and not your own feelings. Even if people were not involved as subjects, you tend to have personal feelings toward images that the general public may not see the power behind. Why X Essay. I recently photographed several dozen sexual assault survivors as part of a photographic essay for a victim advocacy’s annual gallery show. This event is meant to stunning put faces on the survivors and raise awareness, and has been a large local event for years.
I was thrilled to be selected to stopping by woods on a evening be the stunning, exclusive photographer, though this was one of the hardest projects I’ve ever taken on. The photo sessions themselves, whether five minutes or 30, were extremely emotional for the survivors and in the time I spent with them, I often learned a lot about their journey and experience. This made it difficult for research dissertation me to pick which final images would be used for stunning presentations the show, based only on the power of the image and not my personal feelings. In the end several select friends helped me narrow each survivor’s images down, and stopping by woods on a the subjects themselves selected which would be the final image used, as ultimately this is their story. TIP: All creative work is personal, and looking at photographs we take ourselves is stunning presentations, incredibly hard to do with clear eyes. We see the mistakes, the essayists, personal feelings, the shot that could have been better. It’s impossible to always set these aside so when working on a project that is presentations, incredibly important to why x essay you, or large in scale. Have others help you decide what images to use for your final pieces.
Bring in people who are interested in photography and people that aren’t. People that know about your subject matter and stunning people that don’t understand it at synonyms, all. Presentations. But above all, bring in people who will be honest and essayists not tip-toe around your feelings. Lastly, also bring a thick skin. 5) Tell your story, in presentations, fact shout it from the rooftops if you can. Maybe your original idea for your photographic essay was to post it on your blog.
Awesome, nothing wrong with that, but are you sure it can’t be more? Shop it around, who can it help? Does this benefit a group, an why x essay organization, or a person? Could it inspire people? If you feel passionately about the stunning, photos, chances are that someone else will too.
Your photographic eye doesn’t stop when your shooting is done. If you felt compelled to take the time to create a photographic essay, there are likely “readers” for your story. TIP: This isn’t the time to be humble. Bad Term Papers. Taking on a photo essay is a large endeavour. While there’s nothing wrong with having it be something you only did for your own personal growth, showing it around can be helpful both in experience and longterm benefit.
Post it on social media, find appropriate places your essay could be displayed, and think about how it helped you. Every single photo essay I have done has led to an outstanding connection, or more work, and there is stunning presentations, nothing wrong with getting those things along with the stopping, personal gain of accomplishing something you’re proud of. Stunning Presentations. The ideas are truly for a photographic essay are limitless. Truly. For Assignments. Want a few more ideas for projects, try these? Have you ever done a photographic essay? What is your experience? Share with in the comments if you have, or have considered it. Stunning Presentations. If you haven’t, what are you waiting for? Read more from our Tips Tutorials category. Lynsey Mattingly photographs families, kids, couples, and other groups of people who, for whatever reason, kind of like each other.
Her portrait work has been featured in People Magazine, Us Weekly, BBC Magazine, and on national TV including CNN, Oprah, and Ellen, but most importantly, in the personal galleries of clients across the country. Papers. Her photography can be viewed at www.lynseymattingly.com or on Facebook. Excellent post Lynsey. I suffer from the same challenges as you in tip #4. I get caught up in my personal meaning behind some of my pictures. Apparently, others feel the presentations, same way. http://www.picture-power.com/my-most-powerful-picture.html. I have an idea for a photo essay I wanted to pursue, this article helped grow it further. Thesis. Thank you. Wonderful article. I liked the picture for stunning presentations #3.
This is the main reason why I think a blog is a much more interesting format than a photo sharing site such as flickr or 500px to show your work; for me, the images are just part of the story, but the words and texts can help define them, giving them context and research results body. For me, an stunning image rarely works alone and usually comes in a set with a particular rhythm and dissertation flow; what precedes and presentations what follows is a very important element of each capture, as well. One example from my blog, a short walk that I took recently along a humble neighborhood in essayists, Bangkok: I think the issue in presentations, Tip #4 is essayists, common to all creative endeavors: We all get too close to the material. In a previous life, I was a writer and editor, but when it came time for presentations me to edit my own stuff, I had somebody else look at it. On Public. We have too much of ourselves tied up in the work to presentations be objective sometimes. Wonderful article, thank you #128578; some of the examples are awesome and thought-filling. Thank-you for telling me about results, this!! It pretty much rocks. I am so glad that I came across this article this morning. I am no pro photographer but just someone who loves capturing images to share.
I have been asked to volunteer my time to capture a group of students in Beijing, who would be traveling to presentations Xian, the home of the by woods on a, terracotta warriors, to help out in a orphanage just 2 weeks from now. I have never done this before. They are not expecting much. Just pictures for the event. However, I wanted to tell a story. A story of these volunteers as well as the orphans and I have been struggling over the past week of whether is stunning presentations, that what I should do.
After reading this article, I know that I am on the right path and hopefully help not to take pictures of people, but take pictures of the story behind the essayists, people. Thank you again very much. This is my first opportunity to use my hobby for a good cause, and stunning I am very excited about it. Thank you again for this great article. Really good points and very motivational to get me on a riveting photo essay again. I did attempt one such photographic essay which I titled #8220;The World of Weeds.#8221; Would appreciate a few visits with any helpful comments or critiques. It#8217;s over at thesis papers administration, one of my blogs and can be found here: http://thegoldenumber.blogspot.com/2013/07/the-world-of-weeds.html. you have some beautiful images there, but I would keep the focus similar. the shift in focus from stunning presentations, 1, 2, 3 and 5 is radical. Research Dissertation. 5 the presentations, green plant on the corner and then 7 seems another sudden change. The drain-pipe is beautiful because the on public, eye follows the path of the pipe and so tightly focused. It seems to be erratic because you have the wonderful still life of dried plants against nearly solid backdrops like walls and stunning then sudden change to green plants that don#8217;t seem to have the same focus.. but the dried plants and why x essay wall work, the drain beautiful and interesting.
The green plants against walls work well with dried plants because they have similar conceptual style. Overall, is interesting group and should be developed some more. I recently completed my first photo essay as an stunning eBook. It took me a long time to figure out how to work with iBooks Author, but it was a great platform to synonyms construct such a vehicle to display digital photographs in a meaningful way. Stunning Presentations. Unfortunately, it only thesis on public administration publishes to presentations iBooks, which translates, effectively, to why x essay having the eBook only on iPads. Photo essays in black and white.
This post inspired me to start my website of stunning presentations, photo essays. My current ongoing series is about a band I went on tour with and papers on public administration the different things I learned and encountered: http://www.quietandconstant.com/on-tour-with-lemuria-part-1/ I recently made a photo essay which was published in a mainstream web portal so I#8217;m quite happy about that. I agree that sometimes, photographs have to stunning be put in context by using words to string them together. Papers. Also believe that any subject can be turned into stunning a photo essay. The Photo Essay is a piece where its the research dissertation, photographer#8217;s voice through and stunning through. Landscape Photography Tips. Photo Composition Tips. Beginner Photography Tips.
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Copying Machines Used to stunning Make One or a Few Copies of New Documents, Mainly Outgoing Letters. Letter Copying Presses. Squeezed Out, Gov. Tilden's Message to the Legislature, Albany, NY, Mar. Synonyms. 19, 1875, Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper , April 1875. James Watt copying press, 1780 patent diagram. Dolphin Arch Copying Press. A number of US manufacturers, including E.W.
Frost, New York, NY, and John Alexander, New York, NY, offered Dolphin letter copying presses in 1866-68. Prices at presentations, that time were $6.50 for 9x12 to $105 for results 10.5x16. Plates 4 - 6 show letter copying presses that were displayed at the 1851 Industrial Exhibition in London. Along with typewriters, letter copying presses are the most common machines found in photographs of late 19 th century and very early 20 th century offices. Yates (Ch. Stunning Presentations. 4-5) reports that the Illinois Central Railroad used copying presses to make copies of outgoing letters in press books at least from the research, late 1850s to presentations 1896, that the Repauno Chemical Co. stopped using press books in bad term papers 1901 (p. Presentations. 226), that the Scoville Manufacturing Co. was still using copy presses and press books for outgoing letters in 1913 (p. 181), and that the thesis papers, Hagley Museum and Library has press books that were used in stunning presentations the 1930s (p.
283). The last U.S. Essay Stopping By Woods On A. President whose official correspondence was copied on a copying press was Calvin Coolidge (1923-29). Stunning. (David Owen, Making Copies, Smithsonian , Aug. 2004, p. 92) Screw model letter copying presses were still marketed in 1950, and Proudfoot reports that an organization in London, England, was still using press books in the late 1950s. (W. Bad Term Papers. B. Stunning Presentations. Proudfoot, The Origin of Stencil Duplicating , 1972, p. 32) Because of the size and why x essay, weight of letter copying presses, numerous portable methods for pressing loose copies and copy books were also marketed during the 19th century. In a review of office equipment at the 1851 Industrial Exhibition, Granville Sharp recommended that when an office was selecting a press like those in stunning presentations Plates 1-3, it should make sure that the handle was heavily weighted at the ends to insure proper spinning. “This is essential to a screw copy press; for unless one pull will serve to raise or to bad term papers depress the plate, much time is lost.” In addition to the press, offices needed to buy copying books that contained up to a thousand pages of presentations tough tissue paper, copying ink, copying paper dampers, oiled paper, and blotting paper. Sharp explained that before using the new press, the office had to decide how to thesis on public organize its letters. Production of copies was easiest if the user copied its letters into a single letter book in chronological order. Presentations. In that case, the user needed to make an index so that letters of interest could later be retrieved.
Alternatively, the office could organize its correspondence by stopping by woods snowy client, which avoided indexing but made it necessary to use numerous copying books on a given day. Although copies could be made up to presentations twenty-four hours after a letter was written, copies made within a few hours were best. A copying clerk would begin by counting the number of letters to be written during the next few hours and by preparing the copying book. Suppose the clerk wanted to copy 20 one-page letters. In that case, he (copying clerks were men) would insert a sheet of oiled paper into the copying book in front of the first tissue on which he wanted to make a copy of a letter. He would then turn 20 sheets of papers on public administration tissue paper and insert a second oiled paper. Sharp advised that “Success in copying letters depends almost entirely upon the damping of the paper. The paper should be saturated and damp, not wet.” To dampen the tissue paper, the presentations, clerk used a brush or copying paper damper. The damper had a reservoir for bad term papers water that wet a cloth, and the clerk wiped the cloth over stunning presentations, the tissues on why x essay, which copies were to be made. (See Plate 5A ) As an alternative method of dampening the tissue paper, in 1860 Cutter, Tower Co., Boston, advertised Lynch's patent paper moistener ( Plate 5B ) with the claim that it does away with the stunning presentations, use of the why x essay, brush, wet cloths and dipping bowls, and dampens the paper sufficiently by presentations a single roll of the machine.
Next, letters were written with special copying ink, which was not blotted. The copying clerk arranged the portion of the letter book to be used in the following sequence starting from the front: a sheet of why x essay oiled paper, then a sheet of letter book tissue, then a letter placed face up against the back of the tissue on stunning, which the copy was to be made, then another oiled paper, et cetera , “oiled paper being in all cases placed next the bad term papers, damp paper, to prevent the ink forcing beyond the paper intended to receive it.” Finally, “Close the book, put it into the press, and screw tightly down, letting it remain a minute or two under pressure, when the copy will be properly taken, and may be dried with blotting paper, or held near the fire.” Based on experience, the clerk could adjust the press time. If he made a copy soon after a letter was written, only a second or two was needed to stunning make a good impression. Results. When the letter book was pressed, some of the ink transferred from the letters to stunning the moist tissues in the book. Because the on a, ink penetrated the tissues, copies could be read from the front sides of the tissues. Prior to the introduction of inks made with aniline dyes, the quality of stunning presentations copies made on research dissertation, letter copying presses was limited by the properties of the available copying inks. The first aniline dye was invented in 1856, and numerous aniline dyes were invented in the following two decades. Bedini (p. 193) reports that The growth of the aniline dye and ink manufacturing industries in Germany, which coincided with the earliest importation in 1868 of thin papers manufactured in Japan, brought a new popularity to the bound letter book. Plates 6AB and AC, Racine Automatic Copying Press, Racine Mall and Wrought Iron Co., Racine, WI, advertised 1901-05.
On the Racine press, the screw wheel was used only to adjust for the thickness of the book. Pressure was applied with the presentations, lever. Plate 6B , Wells Fargo Co. Copying Press. Dissertation. Wells Fargo Museum, San Francisco, CA. Plate 4, Coalbrookdale Press 1851. Plate 5, Imperial Press 1851.
Plate 5A , Shriver's Copying Brush with Reservoir Handle holding water enough to dampen one hundred leaves of letter paper, T. Shriver Co., New York, NY, patented 1867, advertised 1868-86. Plate 5B , Lynch's Patent Paper Moistener, Cutter, Tower Co., Boston, 1860. Plate 6, Barrett Co. Press 1851. Plate 6A, Lightning Copying Press, R E Kidder, Worcester, MA, patented Nov 4,1884, advertised 1887. Plate 6AA , Very Large Copying Press, Standard Oil of stunning Ohio, c. Synonyms For Assignments. 1900. By the stunning, late 1870s, an improved method for moistening pages in copying books had been invented, and by the late 1880s it had been widely adopted. Rather than using a brush or damper to wet the tissues, the synonyms for assignments, clerk inserted a thin moist cloth or pad between each oil paper and the following tissue. A supply of moist pads was prepared in advance using a copying bath, such as Hill's Blotter Bath, patented in stunning 1879 ( Plate 6B ), or Tatum's Ideal Copying Pad Bath, patented in synonyms 1887 ( Plate 7 ). Stunning Presentations. Tatum also produced larger copying tanks that included wringers to remove excess water from essay by woods evening copying pads.
The Globe Roller Copying Bath ( Plate 8 ), which was marketed by Globe-Wernicke Co. in presentations the early 1900s, is an example of a copying tank. Essay Stopping By Woods On A. To prepare a supply of moist pads using the Ideal bath, the clerk removed the presentations, tray from the bath, poured water into stopping by woods, the pan, and stunning presentations, replaced the tray. Why X Essay. Also, the clerk sprinkled a set of pads, let them stand overnight, and then placed them in stunning the tray. “The evaporation from the water underneath will generally be sufficient to keep pads damp enough for essayists ordinary work.” Plate 8A shows an 1886 Bailey's Letter Copying Machine with a Moistening Attachment on top. Plate 8D shows a Little Giant Copying Tank, which was priced at $9. Plate 8A , Bailey's Letter Copying Machine with Moistening Attachment, 1886 ad. Plate 8B , Office with Copying Pad Bath in front of stunning Letter Copying Press.
Plate 8C , Office with Large Letter Copying Press and Sink with Wringer for Preparing Moist Pads. Plate 6B, Hill's Blotter Bath, B.B.Hill, Springfield, MA, patented 1879. See U.S. Patent No. Essay Snowy Evening. 216,738. Plate 7, Ideal Copying Bath and Instructions, Samuel C. Tatum Co., patented and advertised in presentations 1887. Plate 7A, Williams Copying Bath, Williams Typewriter Co., patented 1891, advertisement with instructions. Courtesy of the essayists, Museum of Business History and Technology. Plate 8, Globe Copying Bath 1909 ad.
Plate 8D , Little Giant Copying Tank, The Sam'l C. Tatum Co., Cincinnati, OH, 1898 ad. Plate 9 , Letter Copying Book, 1905. Plate 10 , Atmospheric Letter Copying Press, 1881. Plate 10A , Bushnell's Perfect Letter Copying Books, 1895 ad. Plate 10A2, Bushnell's Perfect Letter Copying Book, copyright 1885, cover and instructions. Courtesy of the Museum of Business History and stunning, Technology. Plate 10B , Cylindrical Copying Press, 1888. Plate 10C , Patent Simplex Copying Press,
John Morris Co., Chicago, IL. Plate 10G , Book Copying Press, advertised c. 1920s, Germany. Plate 11A , Rapid Roller Damp-Leaf Copier, Office Specialty Manufacturing Co., Rochester, NY, c. Thesis Papers On Public. 1889 ad. Plate 11B , Rapid Duplicator, Rapid Duplicating Copying Machine Co., NY., NY, 1887 ad. The Process Letter Machine Co., Muncie, IN, offered the New Rotary Copying Press, a loose-leaf copier, in presentations 1902. This machine was similar to roller copiers but copied onto loose-leaf paper . The Cylinder Letter Press Co., Chicago, IL, and why x essay, The Easy Machine Co., Marion, IN, offered different loose-leaf copier, the Cylinder Letter Press and the Quick Easy Copying Press, respectively, in stunning 1903 and 1905, respectively. Plate 11E , Cylinder Letter Press, Cylinder Letter Press, Co., Chicago, IL, 1903 ad. Plate 11C , The New Rotary Copying Press, Plate 11D , Quick Easy Copying Press,
Plate 12A , Polygraph 1803, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, on why x essay, loan from the Franklin Institute. Carbon Paper, Manifold Books and Typewriters. Nevertheless, use of carbon paper was modest until the stunning, 1870s. Early carbon paper was messy, carbon paper did not make a satisfactory copy when the original was written with a pen, there was concern that carbon copies could be altered or forged, and carbon copies were not admissible in court. Carbon paper became more important after the late 1870s because of the bad term papers, introduction of the typewriter and greaseless carbon paper. Unlike the earlier carbon papers, the new ones were coated on only one side.
Typewriters were able to produce up to ten carbon copies along with an original. Carbon paper for use with typewriters, available from John Underwood Co. among others, was advertised in 1886 (A.C. Farley Co., The Purchaser , Philadelphia, PA, Feb. 1886. Hagley Museum and Library). Yates reports that in 1912 a government report stated that by presentations the almost universal practice of synonyms for assignments business concerns, the presentations, carbon copy has supplanted the press copy as a record of outgoing correspondence.
According to Yates (p. Why X Essay. 48), This statement was based primarily on large businesses: many smaller companies continued to use the rolling copier and even press books for some years. Plate 13 , Agate-Tipped Stylus. Plate 13A , Lightning Copying Book and stunning presentations, Lightning Pen, 1879. Plate 13B , Stylograph or Rapid Letter Copying Book, 1883 ad. Machines Used to Make Many Duplicates.
Neither letter copying presses nor carbon paper could be used to make numerous copies of a document. Until the mid-1870s, offices had two options for making many copies. They could go to a commercial printer, or they could buy a small printing press. In the 19th century, commercial printers used platen presses for essayists job work such as business cards, envelopes, billheads, and circulars. (Harold E. Sterne, Catalogue of Nineteenth Century Printing Presses , 1978, p. 217) Yates (Ch. 4) indicates that until 1876 the Illinois Central Railroad used commercial printers when it needed large numbers of copies of presentations items such as circulars, and synonyms, that it continued to use commercial printers after 1876 when it needed multiple copies of documents to be distributed to stunning presentations the public rather than for internal use. The online Briar Press reports that small table top printing presses were made in thesis papers on public the US as early as the 1830s. In the 19th century, commercial printers used lithographic presses to print such things as labels, stock certificates, bank notes, maps, insurance policies, and stunning, business stationery. Sterne (p.
203) reports that The fine detail and unusual calligraphy needed in this work was beautifully reproduced through the lithographic technique. In lithography, an image is created on or transferred to a flat polished stone, which serves as a printing plate. The image is created on the stone using a greasy crayon, or alternatively is created on a sheet of paper using greasy lithographic ink and then transferred to the stone. Next, printers ink is applied to the stone. This ink adheres only to the crayon or lithographic ink. The stone is then covered with a sheet of paper, and the stone and essayists, paper are run through a press to stunning presentations make a lithograph. In England, small lithographic presses were marketed to offices in the 1850s. One example that was exhibited in 1851 is the S. Mordan Co. Combined Lithographic and Copying Press ( Plate 14 ). To use this as a lithographic press, it was necessary to transfer a document image to why x essay a smooth limestone block. A second example that was exhibited in 1855 and presentations, described as suitable for thesis on public the Counting House, Office, or Library was exhibited by Waterlow and Son of London in stunning 1855 ( Plate 14AAA ). Stopping By Woods On A. Waterlow's advertisement stated: Nearly One Thousand of these Presses have now been sold, and are being successfully used in all Her Majesty's Government Offices, Public and Private Schools, Railway Companies, Assurance Offices, and also by the most influential Bankers, Merchants, Clergymen, c., in the United Kingdom.
The available evidence suggests that such lithographic presses were not used widely, if at all, in offices in the US. William Tuttle and Benjamin O. Woods produced small lever presses in Boston, MA, by 1857. A lever press is a table-top hand-operated version of the larger foot-operated platen press used by commercial printers. Woods advertised small Novelty printing presses in 1870 and exhibited them at the Centennial Exhibition in 1876. The online Briar Press Museum has photographs of stunning early Woods Novelty presses (1,2). W. A. Kelsey Co. began to market small lever presses in 1872 and continued to sell them for over a century. The online Briar Press Museum has photographs of early Kelsey presses (1,2,3,4).
To the left is an illustration of a Kelsey Excelsior printing press from a broadside distributed at the Centennial Exhibition in 1876. Plate 14A shows a later Excelsior. Small lever presses were sold in essayists a wide range of sizes by numerous companies. Lever presses that printed items measuring 1.5 x 2.5 were as little as $2 while larger ones with the capacity to presentations print items as large as 11 x 16 were as much as $160. Plate 14, Mordan Co. Press, 1851. Plate 14AAA , Patent Improved Autographic Press or Portable Printing Machine, Waterlow and Sons, London, 1855. Plate 14AA, Dunkerly Self-Inking Press, Providence, R.I.,1876 ad. Plate 14A , Kelsey Co. Excelsior Printing Press, model patented 1893. Plate 14B , Patent Lever Self-Inker Press No.
2, 1889 ad. 14B2 , Printing Press, Press Museum, Istanbul, Turkey. Stencil Duplicating Machines. Plate 14C , Zuccato's Papyrograph, The Papyrograph Co., Norwich, CT, 1878 a. Plate 15, Edison Electric Pen Stand 1876. Plate 16, Battery for Edison Electric Pen 1876. By early 1876, Edison’s copying system, which was produced by research the Edison Electric Pen and Duplicating Press Co., was a commercial success. It was exhibited at the 1876 International Exhibition in Philadelphia. In 1876, the Edison electric pen with the duplicating press was advertised for presentations $35 by Charles Batchelor, New York, NY. ( Publishers' Weekly , Vol. 10, 1876, p. 109) According to the Smithsonian Institution, approximately 60,000 were sold.
However, sales were constrained by the fact that many office clerks did not have the skill or motivation to essayists maintain the complicated battery. A battery was necessary because central electric power systems were not introduced until the stunning presentations, 1880s. Late in 1876, Edison licensed his copying system to results the Western Electric Co., which manufactured it for stunning several years. Why X Essay. By 1880, however, sales were in decline because of the development of competing technologies, including the Trypograph, Cyclostyle and Hektograph. There were, however, some people who preferred the Edison system. Stunning. According to essayists an 1885 testimonial, It may be of interest for one who has used the papyrograph and the hektograph, but with no great satisfaction, to state that every other system always drives me back to Edison's electric pen as the stunning, neatest, readiest, and in every way the most satisfactory copying system. An experience of eight years with it has always been very satisfactory. Results. ( Christian Union , June 4, 1885) A number of other companies marketed similar systems, including some with pneumatic perforating pens driver by foot-powered bellows. According to one contemporary account, a pulsating pen, driven by the foot like a sewing machine, rivals the Edison electric pen. Stunning Presentations. It is certainly lighter to write with, and requires no battery, with its acids, to bad term papers spoil clothing.
This is on show by Ward Drummond. Presentations. ( Christian Union , Oct. 29, 1879) According to an 1885 trade press discussion referring to the Edison electric pen, Other perforating pens working pretty much upon the same principle, with the exception that the motive power is supplied by essayists clockwork, have made their appearance in England. while a far more expensive and complicated method consisted of an induction coil which can produce a spark of sufficient power to perforate paper, which is made to pass continually between a pen of stunning metal partially insulated and a metallic plate upon which is laid the perforated paper. Bad Term Papers. ( Geyer's Stationer , 1885) Plate 17, Edison Duplicating Press. Plate 18, Edison Press Electric Pen 1876. Plate 19 , Trypograph marketed by Zuccato Wolff, London. Plate 19A, Edison Stencil Perforation 1880. Image 1, Neostyle Wheel Pen, 1888. Image 2, Cyclostyle, 1884. Image 3, Cyclostyle, 1885. Image 4, Cyclostyle 1884.
Image 5, Cyclostyle, 1884. Image 6, Cyclostyle, 1884. The Stygmograph (Plate 21A) was advertised in 1884 as a copying pen for writing by hand on duplicating stencils. To prepare a handwritten stencil, A sheet of Mimeograph stencil paper is placed over stunning, the finely grooved steel plate and written upon with a smooth pointed steel stylus, and in the line of the writing so made, the for assignments, stencil paper will be perforated from the under side with minute holes, in such close proximity to each other that the dividing fibers of paper are scarcely perceptible. After the stunning, operator has written a few lines, the operator moves the stencil upward over the writing plate so that a new portion of the essayists, stencil is on top of the writing plate. After the stencil is presentations, completed it is essay stopping on a evening, placed in the printing frame, by which the stencil is firmly held taut and in a position for rapid printing. After inking the roller on the slate furnished for that purpose, pass it over the stencil sheet and a correct reproduction of the matter stenciled will appear on the paper which has been previously placed underneath. Ads claimed that these Mimeographs could make over 1,500 copies from a stencil. Stunning Presentations. A. B. Dick claimed to have sold over 80,000 Edison Mimeographs by 1892 and over 200,000 by 1899. In 1889, Mimeographs were $12-$29.50, depending on size and bad term papers, whether they included the stunning, items needed for handwritten, typewritten, or both types of stencils. Edison Mimeographs continued to be sold in the early decades of the essayists, 20th century.
The model numbers denote different sizes and features. In 1889, the stunning presentations, models used for handwritten stencils were identified as No. 0 to No. 5; the model for typewritten stencils only was No. 12; the models for both types of stencils were No. 20 to No. 25. Plate 21B , Edison Mimeograph, A.B. Bad Term Papers. Dick Co., Chicago, IL, 1889 ad.
Plate 22, Mimeograph No. 12. Plate 23, Mimeograph No. Presentations. 12. Plate 24 , Edison Mimeograph Typewriter 1894. According to an 1887 product review, the Rapid Duplicating and Copying Machine Co., New York, NY, produced a Rapid Duplicator machine that could produce close to 200 copies from a set of two or three stencils that had been produced simultaneously with a typewriter or by hand.
The Rapid Duplicator is illustrated in the top image to the right. The operator began with two or three sheets of research very thin paper resting on stunning, top of each other. Behind each of for assignments these sheets he then put a sheet of carbon paper with the carbon side facing up. He then typed or wrote on this sandwich, thereby producing 2 or 3 paper stencils, each with a mirror-image of the writing, formed by transferred carbon paper ink, on its back. Next, he fastened one of the stencils on the large roller on the machine, with the carbon paper ink facing the outside. He inserted at the left end of the machine blank sheets of paper that were to be printed. Presentations. These blank sheets were automatically dampened and fed toward the right. A special roller squeezed excess moisture out of the dampened sheets. The blank sheets passed between rolls where they were printed by being pressed against the stencil. The printed sheets exited at the right end of the machine.
If three stencils were made, the research results, first was able to print around 75 sheets, the second between 50 and 75 sheets, and the third around 50 sheets. Plate 26, Mimeograph Presses 1896. Plate 24A , Rapid Duplicator, Rapid Duplicating and Copying Machine Co., NY, NY, 1887 ad. Automatic Cyclostyle, 1899 ad. Plate 25 , Automatic Cyclostyle. Plate 25A , Diagraph Stencil Printing Machine, 1895 ad. Plate 27A, Rotary Neostyle, Neostyle Co., NY, NY, 1898 ad. Plate 27 , Rotary Neostyle, electric model, 1899. Plate 30, Edison Rotary Mimeograph No. 75, 1904.
Plate 30A . Stunning. Edison Mimeograph No. 78 with automatic feed, 1929 ad. Plate 30A1, Roneo Rotary Copying Machine, 1913 ad. Plate 30B , Roneo Copier, 1906. Plate 30B2 , Office with Roneo Copier, Norway, 1914. Courtesy of Harald Bohne. Plate 30C , Soennecken Copying Machine, 1913. Cyclostyle No. 6. Plate 32, Mimeoscope, patented 1914-16, advertised 1920-30.
Les Newcomer reports that the Heyer Hectograph Co. sold a Hectograph kit as late as 1974 (tray, gelatin, a few sheets of purple inked paper, and that thick cover. The tray was only 1/4 deep). I bought one from McCauley's Office supplies in Livonia, Mich., in that year to on a run a classroom newspaper. It was a whopping one column, one page. Stunning. I ran it weekly for dissertation three months, until I ran out of gelatin and couldn't get a refill. In 1901, a different hektograph duplicating process was introduced in the U.S. (W. H. Stunning. Leffingwell, The Office Appliance Manual , 1926, p. 378.) Rather than using a gelatin pad, this process, which was invented in Germany in 1880 and marketed as the Schapirograph, used a roll of papers on public paper coated with gelatin, glue, and stunning, glycerin.
This paper was feed from one roller over bad term papers, a flat surface to another roller ( Plate 34 ). Presentations. The portion of the paper resting on the flat surface played the same roll as the gelatin pad in the hektograph. The paper roll was reusable because after a time any remaining ink would sink below the surface. These were advertised as late as 1922. Dissertation. The Commercial Duplicator, advertised by Duplicator Mfg. Co. Stunning. during 1913-17 (and probably longer), appears to have used a similar technology to produce up to essayists 100 copies of a document from the original itself written in duplicator ink. ( System , Sept. 1913, front advertising section)
Beginning in 1910, Ditto, Inc., sold gelatin duplicators that were essentially large mechanical versions of the Daus Tip-Top Duplicator pictured to the right. Presentations. The Ditto process could be used for up to 100 copies. Synonyms For Assignments. Plate 34A is a 1925 Ditto machine. When preparing the original, hard bond paper and a special kind of stunning presentations ink [containing aniline dyes] are used. This may be in the form of a duplicating typewriter ribbon, a duplicating ink, or even an indelible pencil. The original is placed face down on bad term papers, the copying surface and smoothed with the palm of the hand or a roller.
It is stunning, then lifted off, having left its impression on research results, the gelatin. The blank sheets are placed one at a time on the gelatin surface and allowed to remain a few seconds until the presentations, imprint is made. The Ditto machine in Plate 34A was $200. Thesis. In 1925, other models were $117 to $395. The spirit duplicator, which was introduced in 1923 and which was marketed for several decades, evolved from the hektograph and Ditto machines described above. Stunning. The best-known spirit duplicator company was Ditto, Inc.
The Ditto process involved the bad term papers, creation of presentations masters and the transfer of ink from research results dissertation masters to copies. Presentations. A Ditto carbon consisted of a sheet of slick, impermeable paper (the master) attached to the front of a second sheet that had on its face a coating of paste-like ink. Synonyms. When one typed or drew on the front of the stunning, master, a reverse image in heavy ink was transferred to the back side of the master. Research Results Dissertation. The master was then detached from the second sheet and attached to the drum of a rotary press with the inked surface outward. Presentations. When the drum was rotated, the inked surface of the thesis on public, master was wiped with a solvent such as spirit ether to stunning wet the ink, and until the research, ink was exhausted impressions were made on papers that were fed under the drum. Plate 33 , J. R. Holcomb Co. Transfer Tablet Hektograph, Plate 33B, Lawton Simplex Printer, 1895 ad.
The illustration shows three gelatin trays. Plates 33C-D , Bottle for Composition for Hall's Patent Simplex Hektograph, England. Photo below shows instructions on back of bottle. Plate 34 , Daus Tip-Top Duplicator, advertised 1901. Plate 34A , Ditto Standard No. 2, as of 1925 Ditto Inc.'s most popular model. Plate 34AA , Model E-41, Ditto Division of Bell Howell, c. 1950s. The Cylinder Duplicator Co., Philadelphia, PA, offered a cylinder duplicator in 1905. The duplicator was a cylinder 9 long and 12 in circumference, containing a composition to receive a negative of stunning presentations pen or typewritten matter made with a duplicating ink. Duplicate copies were mae by running the roller over blank papers.
The maker claimed that the device would make 50 to 75 copies of letters written with a typewriter and 100 to 125 copies of letters written with a pen. Plate 34B , Cylinder Duplicator, In the 1880s, a number of office duplicators were introduced that used lithographic processes, but the stone was generally replaced by a zinc plate or even parchment. According to an 1880 description, the bad term papers, process of using Anderson's New Auto-Lithograph consists in writing the presentations, original document with chemical writing fluid with any pen on ordinary writing paper, and when dry this original is placed ink-side downward upon [a sensitive plate], and bad term papers, left for two or three minutes. It is then removed and stunning presentations, a negative impression, in perfect and beautiful relief, will be found on bad term papers, the plate. The roller having been previously inked with copying ink is now passed over the negative, and it will be seen that all the lines will have taken the ink. A sheet of paper being laid upon this impression is smoothed over with the hand, and on removing it a perfect copy in permanent jet black will be obtained. This may be repeated for stunning presentations a number of copies, and why x essay, when they become faint the impression may be re-inked with the roller and the copies will be as at stunning presentations, first. When the requisite number of copies are taken, the impression may be washed off with water and a sponge. ( Geyer's Stationer , Oct. Synonyms For Assignments. 7, 1880, p. 2)
Black's Autocopyist ( Plate 35 ), which was introduced by 1887, used parchment secured in a printing frame. To use the Autocopyist, one wrote on stunning, a sheet of paper with lithographic ink. This paper was then laid face down on the dampened parchment, and pressure was applied to the back of the paper, causing the lithographic ink to transfer to the parchment. Printing ink was then rolled onto the parchment, where it adhered only to results dissertation the lithographic ink. Stunning. Next, a sheet of paper was pressed onto the parchment to bad term papers make a lithographic copy.
Ca. 1887, Autocopyists were $11 to $37, depending on size, and an ad claimed that 50,000 Autocopyists are already being used. Using a lithographic duplicator, one could make copies not only of handwritten documents and drawings but also of documents that were typed using a lithographic ribbon. Nevertheless, the market for these lithographic duplicators was limited because stencil duplicators and hektographs were superior for most office applications, the exception being in reproduction of stunning presentations drawings. An 1887 review of the Columbia No. 2 index typewriter indicates the variety of duplicating processes that were available: In writing [with the Columbia typewriter] on prepared paper the writing can be transferred to a lithograph-stone, from bad term papers which any quantity of stunning presentations copies may be secured. The writing may also be copied in an ordinary letter-book or transferred to a gelatine pad. Essayists. ( The Office , July 1887, p. 130) In 1932, the Addressograph-Multigraph Corp. Presentations. introduced the Multilith printing process (1932 Annual Report), a simple, revolutionary process of lithography which brings, to large and small users alike, the advantages of office lithographic reproduction.
The sale of Multilith machines began in 1933. Synonyms. (1933 Annual Report) Early in 1939, the company reported that its Multilith line had developed into stunning, a large and important part of the company's business. Research. (1938 Annual Report) Plate 34C , The Wonder Lithograph, The Wonder Lithograph Co., Corning, NY, 1887 ad. The Autocopyist Co., NY, NY, Multigraph Printing Duplicators. Form letters were more likely to be read if they were individually addressed and were, or appeared to stunning presentations be, typewritten, rather than produced using a stencil duplicator or conventional printing press. Dissertation. The first commercially successful machine to produce form letters that appeared to stunning be typewritten was the Gammeter Multigraph, which was introduced by essayists American Multigraph Co. in 1902. The next machine that produced such form letters with a distinct technology was the stunning, Hooven Automatic Typewriter, which is discussed in this Museum's exhibit on Special-Purpose Office Typewriters. A third technology that was used to produce such form letters was embodied in the Addressing Multigraph and essayists, the Addressograph Dupligraph. In 1907, ads claimed that Multigraphs could produce 3,000 to presentations 6,000 letters per on public administration hour, depending on stunning, the skill of the operator. A Multigraph used by students is on a evening, pictured in stunning the 1911 catalog of Hesser Business College, Manchester, NH.
Plate 36, Multigraph Printer No. 40, American Multigraph Co. Plate 36A , Multigraph Typesetter No. 59. Plate 36B , Multigraph Printer (left) and Typesetter, 1916. 1915 Price for these two machines was $200. ( System , Jan. 1915) Plate 36C , Woman with Multigraph Typesetter (left) and Printer, Duplication Dept., Denver Public Library, Denver CO, c. Synonyms For Assignments. 1930s. Stunning Presentations. Denver Public Library, Western History Collection, X-27483. Plate 36E , Multigraph System, 1930 ad. Plate 36F , Multigraph Set-O-Type Model 99, 1932 ad.
Plate 38 , Printograph, 1909. Plate 38A , Writerpress. Plate 38B, Writerpress, Writerpress Co., Buffalo, NY, 1908 ad. Bad Term Papers. Image shows one woman operating the press and two others composing form letters by manually arranging type in a holder. In 1924, the stunning, American Manicopy Typewriter Co. attempted to raise capital to produce the Manicopy Machine.
The machine was based on US patents No. 1,301,146 and essayists, No 1,452,945 awarded to Chester A. Macomic, and was also called the Macomic Typesetting and Type Distributing Machine. Stunning. A photograph of one of these machines is immediately to the left. Miss Stenographer merely sets a standard keyboard typewriter on the Manicopy Machine. She places a piece of paper in dissertation the typewriter and starts to write. Plungers underneath the typewriter keys are depressed every time a key on the typewriter is struck, thus setting the type on the Manicopy. When she has completed writing the letter or circular, she turns a lever and the type which has been set on the line bars are conveyed automatically to the printing surface where the desired number of copies is printed automatically. After the job is completed, these line bars are returned to presentations their original positions automatically by turning a lever, and by turning another lever the type is instantly and why x essay, automatically returned to its proper position without the type being touched by hand. The company planned to stunning produce 12,000 Manicopy Machines a year and to sell them for essayists $1,250 each..
We have found no evidence that the company raised the capital necessary to go into stunning presentations, commercial production. In 1924, American Multigraph introduced the Multigraph Keyboard Compotype, a complicated machine that enabled the operator to set Multigraph type by working at a typewriter-style keyboard. The Compotype composed the bad term papers, body of the form letter by stamping characters on strip aluminum and automatically assembling the strips of type--a line at a time--on a flexible sheet metal blanket. This blanket was then clamped on the drum of a Multigraph printer in order to produce form letters. The Compotype also produced address plates. In 1927, American Multigraph introduced the Addressing Multigraph, which typewrites a letter, signs a signature, fills in presentations the address and typewrites the bad term papers, envelope, all at a single revolution of the presentations, drum. The Addressing Multigraph used plates made with the Keyboard Compotype. Synonyms. Like Hollerith tabulating machines, Addressing Multigraphs were leased rather than sold to users.
In 1947, Multigraph machines were sold to offices for a wide range of duplicating purposes, e.g., production of large quantities of presentations blank business forms and promotional materials. (Addressograph-Multigraph, 1947 Annual Report) Plate 38D , Multigraph System, 1930 ad. Plate 38E, Multigraph Set-O-Type Model 99, 1932 ad. Photocopying Machines Used to Copy Existing Documents. One result of the difficulty of copying incoming documents is that offices maintained central files. Everett Alldredge of the National Archives in Washington, DC, stated: Before the Xerox era [which began in 1960], every government agency had one central filing system.
When anybody needed information he went to bad term papers that central file. But today, with the copying of presentations documents made so easy, many a government executive prefers to maintain files in papers on public administration his own office. (John H. Presentations. Dessauer, My Years with Xerox, 1971, p. xiv) The blue process was a contact printing technology: photosensitive paper was placed in contact with the document that was being copied. For Assignments. A clerk began by using paper and chemicals (potassium ferrocyanide and ferric citrate) to prepare photosensitive paper. A draftsman used opaque ink to draw on paper that was translucent or that was subsequently made translucent with oil, melted wax, or various chemicals. Alternatively, a junior draftsman copied original drawings onto tracing paper with black India ink. Stunning. The clerk then put a sheet of photosensitive paper in the tray of a blue printing frame, covered this with the translucent original or India ink tracing, and stopping snowy evening, covered this with a heavy glass plate that pressed the stunning, papers together. Results. The blue printing frame was installed so that the stunning, prepared tray could be pushed out research, a window into the sunlight ( Plate 39 ). The clerk exposed the tray for anywhere from several minutes to an hour, depending on stunning presentations, the brightness of the day, and used chemicals to fix the print. The result, a blue print, had a blue background where the photosensitive paper had been exposed to light and white lines where the essayists, paper had not been exposed. The blue process was time consuming and impractical for duplication of typical office documents, however, even though by 1881 commercially prepared photosensitive paper for use in stunning the blue process was available.
Frames for use in exposing blue prints to the sun were still advertised in 1913. However, after the research results, development of electric illumination and installation of stunning electrical distribution systems, blueprint machines were developed that operated indoors with carbon arc lamps. On these machines, the frames that held the photosensitive paper and research dissertation, the original were in a vertical rather than horizontal plane. For an early photograph of one of these machines, click on the link to B. L. Makepeace, Inc., scroll down, and then click on presentations, the link to first blueprinting machines in New England . See also Plate 39A to the right. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, a number of contact printing processes similar to the blue process but employing different chemicals were used to produce prints that differed in appearance, e.g., colored lines on thesis on public administration, white backgrounds. Plate 39A , Electric Blue Printing Machine, Vertical Type, 1913. Camera-Based Photocopying Machines. The Rectigraph Co. introduced camera-based photocopying machines in 1906 or 1907, and stunning, the Photostat Corp. (an affiliate of Eastman Kodak) did so at some point during 1907-11. Rectigraph and Photostat machines ( Plates 40-42 ) combined a large camera and a developing machine and used sensitized paper furnished in thesis on public administration 350-foot rolls.
The prints are made direct on stunning presentations, sensitized paper, no negative, plate or film intervening. The usual exposure is ten seconds. After the exposure has been made the why x essay, paper is cut off and carried underneath the stunning, exposure chamber to on public the developing bath, where it remains for 35 seconds, and is then drawn into a fixing bath. While one print is being developed or fixed, another exposure can be made. When the stunning presentations, copies are removed from the fixing bath, they are allowed to dry by exposure to the air, or may be run through a drying machine. The first print taken from the papers administration, original is stunning presentations, a 'black' print; the whites in the original are black and stopping by woods on a, the blacks, white. ( Plate 43 ) A white 'positive' print of the stunning, original is made by rephotographing the black print. As many positives as required may be made by continuing to photograph the black print. ( The American Digest of Business Machines , 1924.) Du Pont Co. files include black prints of thesis graphs dating from 1909, and the company acquired a Photostat machine in presentations 1912. (Yates, p. 248, n. 81) A System , Sept.
1913 ad stated 20 Photostats used by the U.S. Government. In 1911, a Photostat machine was $500. (Yates, p. Why X Essay. 54.) In 1924, Photostat machines were $650 to $1,050, depending on maximum print size and attachments. The cost of materials per print was $.06 for an 11.5 x 14 print. Similar Rectigraph machines were $500 to presentations $850. Plates 43A, B, C D , Large Photocopying Machines, including Agfa Repromaster 1600 on right. Why X Essay. Press Museum, Istanbul, Turkey.
Plate 40 , Photostat Machine, 1918 photo. Plate 40A , Photostat Machine, 1924. [Leffingwell 1926, p. Stunning. 401] Plate 40B , Photostat Machine, Plate 40C , Photocopying Machine at Acacia Mutual Life Insurance Co. Photograph by Theodor Horydczak (c. 1890-1971) Repro. No: LC-H814-T-1578-067.
Library of for assignments Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, D.C. Courtesy of Good Old Things. Plate 42 , Rectigraph with Copy Board, Rectigraph Co., Rochester, NY. Plate 43 , Photostat black print. Library of Congress, American Memory, An American Time Capsule. While invented in 1896, reflex copying technologies became significant during the 1920s and 1930s. Stunning Presentations. Like the blue process, reflex copying was a contact printing technology. In reflex copying, a sheet of photosensitive paper was placed face down on an original, and research dissertation, the back of the photosensitive paper was exposed to light. Light reflected from the original exposed the emulsion on the front of the photosensitive paper.
In the stunning, 1930s, Remington Rand sold Dexigraph reflex copying machines. In the 1950s, several companies, including Apeco, 3M, and Kodak sold desktop reflex copying machines. Typically, an original to be copied was placed face-up. It was covered with a sheet of translucent paper with a heat-sensitive coating. This is the thesis on public administration, sheet on which the copy would appear. Infrared light went through the translucent paper, was reflected from the white portions of the original, and was absorbed by the black portions of the original. Stunning. The light that was absorbed by essayists the black portions heated relevant portions of the heat-sensitive coating on the copying paper, and this created the copy.
This technology had numerous problems, according to Owen. Presentations. It required expensive chemically treated papers, and copies smelled bad, were hard to read, were not durable, and tended to curl up into tubes. (David Owen, Making Copies, Smithsonian , Aug. Research Results Dissertation. 2004, pp. 91-97.) For a history of Apeco and the photocopying industry of which it was a part, see the Harvard Business School discussion. Plate 44 , Apeco Auto-Stat, 1954 ad. Plate 44A , 3M Thermo-Fax, 1956 aa.
Plate 44B , Kodak Verifax, 1958 ad. Electrostatic Photocopying Machines: Xerography. The first experimental electrostatic photocopy was made by Chester F. Presentations. Carlson in 1938. Carlson patented the xerography process, which was further developed by bad term papers the Battelle Memorial Institute and the Haloid Co. Stunning Presentations. The first commercially successful machine to use the technology was Haloid's Model A Copier , which was introduced in 1950 (Dessauer).
The Model A was not a plain paper copying machine. It was widely used to make paper master plates for offset duplicating with machines made by the Addressograph-Multigraph Co. and others. The Haloid Co. was renamed Haloid-Xerox Inc. in 1958. The first plain paper office copying machine, the Xerox 914 , was introduced in early 1960 (Dessauer). The Xerox 914 produced 400 copies an hour. Essayists. After 1960, sales of the 914 increased rapidly and Xerox copying machines quickly became important in offices. In 1963, the company introduced its first desktop plain paper copier, the presentations, Xerox 813 . In 1965, the thesis papers on public, company introduced the Xerox 2400 , a large machine that produced 2400 copies an hour. (For a history, see Dessauer 1971 and Owen 2004.) Plates 45 through 45C: Courtesy of Xerox Corporation. Plate 45 , Haloid Model A Copier.
First manually operated commercial xerography printer. First automatic office copier to. make copies on plain paper. First desktop copier to make. copies on plain paper. First Xerox high volume copier. (1) Granville Sharp’s advice comes from The Gilbart Prize Essay on the Adaptation of Recent Discoveries and Inventions in Science and Art to the Purposes of Practical Banking , Groombridge and Sons, London, 1854, including exhibits.
(2) The Edison electric pen in Plate 15 is on stunning presentations, display in the Information Age exhibit at why x essay, the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of American History in stunning presentations Washington, DC. The Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan, also has an electric pen. The Science Museum in London has a number of dissertation early copying machines, including a Watt portable copying press, a Trypograph, and a Cyclostyle. (3) W. B. Presentations. Proudfoot, The Origin of why x essay Stencil Duplicating , Hutchinson, London, 1972, and stunning, B. Rhodes W. W. Streeter, Before Photocopying: The Art and History of Mechanical Copying, 1780-1938 , Oak Knoll Press, 1999, are excellent illustrated histories of early copying technologies. J. S. By Woods On A Evening. Dorley, The Roneo Story , Roneo Vickers Ltd., 1978, provides an illustrated history of the Roneo Co. (4) T. A. Presentations. Russo, Office Collectibles: 100 Years of Business Technology , Schiffer, 2000, pp. Results. 93-98, has a copy of Watt’s patent and photographs of a Watt portable copying machine and other early duplicating machines.
Copyright 2000-2016. All material on the Early Office Museum web site is copyrighted. All rights are reserved.
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Ask “why?” five times…. Proximate causes vs root causes, Narrative fallacy and Mental Models. Great post for people in the investment field: Farnham Street is an amazing blog dedicated to stunning, discussing mental models and they do a great job of explaining the challenges of proximate vs root causes and how to deal with the stopping on a evening deductive problems that can occur when we jump to conclusions too quickly. In investments we are always coming up with narrative to explain what happened. The financial press exist purely on this, reporting the day after on stunning why the markets have moved the way they have as if it’s an obvious truth. Making an investment is much harder, you need to look forward to results, what is presentations, likely to happen. When assessing our investment outcomes we are also immensely susceptible to a whole range of behavioural biases. The issue of proximate cause and narrative fallacy often comes up. Proximate cause: The manager lost a lot of results dissertation money because the stunning position was very big and the stock blew up because company management were hiding what they were really doing and no one could have know. Root causes: they failed to size the why x essay position correctly because they failed to assess the risk in the investment correctly, they failed to assess the stunning presentations risk because they were trying to cover too many different investments without enough resource, or they failed to assess the risk properly because they did not have enough independent challenge to the key decision maker, or they failed to essay stopping snowy, assess the risk properly because the analyst was not diligent enough/experienced enough to identify the presentations risks…
Each of results those different causes has very different corrective actions and very different reactions that we should have as asset allocators. The opposite can also be true: the manager lost money, what an idiot, obviously they should have seen the presentations risks, because now with hindsight we have the narrative stating how obvious it was. But at the time they understood the risks. They sized appropriately for the risks. And things just didn’t go their way this time, which will happen 45% of the time for most money managers. The key to differentiating between these different potential cases is asking the right questions, and why x essay, asking more and more questions. Digging deeper and challenging your assumptions. In the Farnham Street article the stunning presentations particular route I like is asking “Why?” 5 times? Why did you lose money? We sized it to big and got it wrong. Why did you size it to why x essay, big?
We misestimated the stunning risk. Why did you misestaimate the risk? The analyst was an idiot. Why was the analyst an idiot? Oh they are not really an idiot. It’s because we left him to do the work on their own and did not provide independent challenge. Why did you not provide independent challenge? Because I was too distracted on something else.
It reminds me of Ricardo Semler, who applies this approach to much of his business decisions, for him it seems to why x essay, work when you just ask Why three times? He is interviewed by stunning presentations Tim Ferriss episode 229 which can be found here. It’s a really inspirational podcast that covers his approach to building a phenomenally successful business with a very unconventional management style, well worth a listen for all sorts of good reasons. The Farnham Street post also has a great explanation of other mental models which are all relevant to Investment decision making if you read down to the end. Improving decision making in committees. A review of decision making literature from UCL on what makes for good decisions in committees is particularly relevant for investment committees: 1. Diversity of essayists participants (functional diversity) with different independent expertise or knowledge makes optimal decision making more likely (finding global rather than local maxima more likely with different starting points for the mathematical optimisation geeks) 2. Slower decision making is stunning, more accurate. (And conversely sometimes you need to essayists, trade speed for accuracy). 3. Don’t vote, prefer discussion.
Getting to stunning presentations, a consensus answer or leave it to results, an expert final choice, if you do vote it needs to expertise weighted (ie some votes count more than others) based on objective expertise measurement, not one man one vote. 4. Over confidence bias: The worse you are at something the more delusional you are that you know the right answer! More expertise often results in less certainty from stunning expert individuals: the problem is they know how much they don’t know and on public administration, they can take other less expert people’s opinion into presentations, account too much. Go with the experts opinion after having the discussion and as the expert balance your opinion carefully with the input from others. Podcast: The Naked Scientist. Dan Bang University College London 5:40 mins up to 10:40 mins. I was listening to a podcast which reminded me of synonyms for assignments a really interesting counterintuitive truth: we are more creative when we have constraints. People think creativity will happen when “I make enough space in my life and have this perfect zen moment and can unleash my creativity.” But creativity seems to come better when we place constraints around it. What sort of constraints? 1. Completely arbitrary random constraints: it seems these are the presentations most powerful way to unleash pure creativity* e.g.1.
For a photographer: Today I can only photograph pictures with red in synonyms for assignments them. Suddenly you start noticing things all over stunning, the show that have red in them. Results. Suddenly you start looking much more carefully, it becomes a fun objective. E.g.2. For a writer: Describe the stunning forest only with words beginning with T and O… give it a try and see how much more interesting your descriptions have to be with this sort of essayists constraint in stunning presentations place. 2. Structure constraints: e.g. This project has to synonyms for assignments, consist of stunning presentations exactly six photographs. The pictures have to be circular. Once you define a structure you start thinking about what will fit that structure and papers on public, again looking for something different.
3. Spacial constraints: e.g.1. Take 200 unique photographs of this small space eg. Your kitchen. The first 50’are unique and cliche, the next 50 you start running out of normal ideas and stunning, after 100 the magic starts, you start seeing differently. E.g.2. I am only going to write while on the top desk of a bus travelling around London… 3. Time constraints: I have got to get this project done by July. By next week Friday.
By Tomorrow. Thesis Administration. When that deadline is immovable we all come up with the goods… So give it a try next time you are trying to presentations, do something a little more creatively…. constrain yourself! * the synonyms for assignments idea of random arbitrary constraints reminds me a little of the approach Derren Brown recommends for memorising something using absurd imagery: if you create an absurd mental image of something you are trying to stunning presentations, remember, you remember it much more easily. For example I was once trying to remember the names of a family I had met recently (as I am always forgetting names), so I pictured them as a giant dad of a man in a caveman’s loincloth (it had an association with his name. It I won’t give it away here!), standing on bad term papers a map of the world on Sweden (that’s whether they were from) surrounded by stunning presentations his family in various other absurd poses and dress. To this day I can still rebuild the entire mental picture and I remember their names and papers, where they are from. The more absurd we create a mental image the better our brain remembers it. I wonder whether it’s a similar thing going on with the creative constraints.
It’s forcing our brain out of the everyday “auto pilot” and into a place where it has to presentations, do some work which then unleashes the creativity. Here is the podcast, from The Psych Files by Michael Britt episode 269: How to synonyms for assignments, get people to be creative. How do we learn? How should we learn? The fun bit is there are many ways to presentations, learn. Books, podcasts, videos, lectures, demonstrations, and doing it yourself. I have learnt that the results optimal approach to learning is different for different people. Personally I find my self quite visual and auditory, if I can visualise a problem or listen to an explanation I can often internalise it. There are also many stages to learning. Stunning Presentations. Head knowledge, heart knowledge, practice, failure until eventually it becomes internalised, muscle memory, and bad term papers, we can be “in the stunning presentations flow…”, operating with unconscious ease.
There are some guiding principles that I believe are important to remember on our journey to learn: Be open minded: “It is the mark of an educated mind to be able to entertain a thought without accepting it.” ? Aristotle, Metaphysics Seek to truly understand: “Any fool can know. The point is to research dissertation, understand.” ? Albert Einstein Seek simplicity on the other side of complexity: “The simple things are also the most extraordinary things, and stunning presentations, only the wise can see them.” ? Paulo Coelho, The Alchemist. By Woods Snowy. (In mathematics you often know you have the cracked a problem and arrived at the right answer when the formulas magically compress to an elegant, beautiful solution) Hold your own beliefs lightly: “Don’t believe everything you think. Thoughts are just that – thoughts.” ? Allan Lokos, Thomas E Kids. Each of these make us more receptive to deep learning.
But most profoundly, are the principle paths to wisdom: “By three methods we may learn wisdom: First, by presentations reflection, which is noblest; Second, by imitation, which is easiest; and third by experience, which is the bad term papers bitterest.” ? Confucius. I don’t have time in this life to make all the mistakes myself! So Confucious’s first two paths are to be preferred: I can learn through true understanding – often my preferred route, can I come up with an axiomatic explanation or understanding from first principles rather that statistical inference, or learn from stunning presentations other people’s mistakes (or by stopping snowy evening deconstructing their successes) – the reason that studying history in any field of endeavour is so important is because through that we may potentially understand the reasons for the mistakes and successes of those who came before us. then I can get on with making the presentations mistakes that I need to make myself, Confucius’s bitterest path, to push my own learning further. And from there flows a further insight, to push the boundaries beyond what others have learnt, we need to essayists, be making mistakes. We learn by making mistakes. And you only make mistakes when you go for presentations, it. So don’t be afraid to do, to act. My danger, my demon, is I spend all of my time thinking and not enough of my time doing.
So doing is something I have to constantly challenge myself to do more of! “The fool doth think he is wise, but the why x essay wise man knows himself to be a fool.” ? William Shakespeare, As You Like It. What inspires you? What motivates you? I love learning. I am motivated by stunning learning and I become inspired by learning. I spend a lot of my time listening to podcasts, reading and interacting with interesting people. Dissertation. But I won’t make much impact if I keep what I learn to myself. I want to share the presentations things I am learning, with anyone who is synonyms for assignments, interested. Stunning. Perhaps they will help and inspire you and make the world a better place… What is the purpose of learning?
To acquire knowledge but more importantly to translate that knowledge into wisdom – the beneficial application of knowledge. Some quotes to illustrate the difference. “Knowing yourself is the thesis papers administration beginning of all wisdom.” ? Aristotle “The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing.” ? Socrates “The saddest aspect of presentations life right now is that science gathers knowledge faster than society gathers wisdom.” ? Isaac Asimov “The unexamined life is for assignments, not worth living.” ? Socrates “The fear of the Lord is the beginning of stunning knowledge, but fools despise wisdom and instruction.” ? The Bible, Proverbs 1:7. I love learning for on a, many reasons: We are creative beings. Stunning Presentations. Creativity creates meaning in my life. Research Results Dissertation. As a kid I grew up programming computer games, reading fantasy novels and dreaming of creating my own adventure stories with friends. Presentations. I remember thinking “adults lose their imagination. I must make sure that as I grow up I must never lose this… this ability to create something out of nothing, by using my imagination.” As I grew up what interested me changed, or more accurately expanded: I still love those things I grew up with, but I discovered that the world had many more interesting topics to explore. Essayists. I realised that creativity builds not out of nothing but on the ideas of stunning others. Learning about things we don’t yet know is a great way to inspire yourself to papers on public administration, being creative.
Learning will make me a better person. I know I will never be perfect (one of the wonderful, liberating truths to be found in the doctrines of stunning presentations Christianity). But I want to be a better person, more true to myself, and a richer contributor to the lives of my family, my friends, my colleagues at work, my community. I do love trivia. I just love learning stuff just for the sake of knowing something interesting. I hope it makes me a more interesting person. But what I desire most through knowledge is wisdom. Let’s be clear though, Wisdom should not be our only aim. God was pleased with King Solomon’s request to thesis papers administration, grant him Wisdom, but he still ended up failing to live as a godly man. Perhaps there is something even deeper we should be aspiring to? Relationship?
Wisdom about relationships? Join me on that journey… Breadth vs depth, what do I want to presentations, be expert at? In any given area there are experts, who through their tremendous skill, focus and extensive dedicated time have built exceptional expertise in for assignments that area, more than I could ever hope to stunning presentations, do. The world typically encourages and rewards great specialisation. But my interest in learning is broad. For Assignments. I love connecting the stunning dots between disparate, seemingly unrelated topics. I have always tended towards the generalist rather than the specialist in results one particular area. I love the stunning idea of being the why x essay “meta connector” of concepts.
As an example, my job in investments gives me the tremendous privelege of dealing with true “best in the world” experts on a very wide variety of investment topics, which is why I love it so much. It was one of the few careers I came across where I felt, “I can do the same job every day and never stop learning about a very wide range of things.” But what about the gaps between the specialist experts? The unexplored cracks and fissures between the stunning various fields-of-endeavour? For me the why x essay interesting opportunities are in stunning making connections between those disparate areas, how can ideas in one area be applied somewhere new? That’s where I want to on a snowy evening, focus: to stunning presentations, be the expert “meta connector”. I want my skill, my differentiator and competitive advantage, to be that I am a person able to make those diverse connections. Synonyms For Assignments. Through that I will be able to have greater creative impact and to stunning, hopefully boost the essay stopping evening creativity and stunning, enhance the skills of the specialists with whom I am priveleged to work or interact.
But you can’t be properly broad and for assignments, wise without also getting sufficiently expert in some areas. I still need to be enough of an expert in the areas I want to apply the things I learn to. So I will need the skills and focus to learn to become an stunning, expert in some select areas. The key is focus, doing a few things well. My mission in life is to for assignments, develop my expertise in a few specific areas: 1. In being the expert meta concept connector, my learning passion. 2. In Investment Management generally, and presentations, specifically in Asset Allocation, my work passion.
3. In Photography, my creative passion. 4. In enriching a select human relationships: my family, my friends, my colleagues and my chosen communities, my human passion. What do I want to learn and share about? So what will this blog cover? For the reasons mentioned above I am intentionally keeping it broad. There are some broad categories I find myself interested in which might appeal to different people, so I will try to why x essay, categorise each entry into one or more topics, listed below, to which it is stunning, most pertinent. Bad Term Papers. But remember, it’s the connections between diverse topics, the repeating patterns, that allow us to make the connections where there are gaps in presentations expertise. The main categories of topics I will focus on are, in no particular order. Relationships Psychology Business (particularly the thesis papers cultures we define in business) Investments (because it is what I do) History Health Science (broadly but also particularly Physics and Astronomy) Art and in particular Photography (because that is what my hobby is) Maths and presentations, Statistics. Many of the posts are likely to results dissertation, be quite short. But occasionally I might publish a thought piece, more like an essay.
If these are of less interest please skip them, the last thing I want to do is bore people. So why another blog on this sort of topic? Well firstly just because I will enjoy producing it. But secondly because learning is how we progress as a civilisation. That may seem like a statement of the obvious, but how good are we at learning as a civilisation?
If I can help spread ideas more widely we may all learn wisdom a little faster, and the world will become a little better….