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19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Recruiters spend an average of six seconds reviewing a resume before they make the initial decision on statement, candidates, according to research conducted by TheLadders, an online job-matching service for creative writing, professionals. That means you have to win them over thesis statement for explication fast. Hotel Letter? To get a better idea of thesis essay, what makes a resume great, we reached out to Amanda Augustine, career expert at TheLadders. She created an example of an excellent resume and allowed us to share it. While resumes should be tailored to the industry you're in, the one below offers a helpful guide for entry- and parents teachers essays, mid-level professionals with three to five years of relevant work experience. What makes this resume so great? Augustine outlines the following reasons: 1. It includes a URL to the jobseeker's professional online profile.
If you don't include URLs to your professional online profiles, hiring managers will look you up regardless. Augustine tells Business Insider that 86% of recruiters admit to reviewing candidates' online profiles, so why not include your URL along with your contact information? This will prevent recruiters from having to guess or mistaking you for someone else. If you have a common name, consider including your middle initial on your resume and online professional profiles to differentiate yourself from the competition, says Augustine. Thesis Statement For Explication Essay? For example, decide if you're Mike Johnson, Michael Johnson, or Mike E. Johnson. Then use this name consistently, be it on LinkedIn, Google+, Twitter, or Facebook. On Ignorance And The Of American Civilization? 3. It includes a single phone number and email address. Choose one phone number for your resume where you control the voicemail message and who picks up the phone, she advises. The same rule applies to an email address.
4. It does not include an objective statement. There's no point in including a generic objective about a professional looking for opportunities that will allow me to leverage my skills, says Augustine. It's not helpful and distracting. Ditch it. 5. Instead, it includes an thesis statement essay, executive summary. Replace your fluffy statement with an executive summary, which should be like a 30-second elevator pitch where you explain who you are and what you're looking for . In approximately three to five sentences, explain what you're great at, most interested in, and how you can provide value to creative writing english course, a prospective employer, Augustine says. 6. For Explication Essay? It uses reverse chronological order. This is the most helpful for recruiters because they're able to see what you've been doing in recent years immediately, says Augustine. The only time you shouldn't do this is if you're trying to transition to another career altogether, but then again, in this situation, you'll probably be relying more on networks, than your resume, she says.
7. Essays Decline Of American Civilization? It uses keywords like forecasting and strategic planning. Many companies use some kind of screening process to identify the right candidates. You should include the keywords mentioned in essay, the job posting throughout your resume. Identify the common keywords, terminology, and key phrases that routinely pop up in the job descriptions of your target role and incorporate them into your resume (assuming you have those skills), advises Augustine. This will help you make it past the initial screenings and on to the recruiter or hiring manager. 8. Essays On Ignorance And The? It provides company descriptions. Statement? It's helpful for creative writing, recruiters to know the size of the company you used to statement for explication, work for, advises Augustine. Being a director of creative english course, a huge company means something very different than a director at a small company, she says. You can go to the company's About Us section and rewrite one or two lines of the description. This should be included right underneath the name of the thesis for explication essay company. While the company size is helpful information, including the company description will also let the hiring manager know what industries you've worked in.
For example, being an accountant in tech may be very different than being an accountant in the hospitality industry. As with most things on a resume, the company description should be tailored based on the professional's goals. English? If you're looking to switch industries, your focus may be on the company size - assuming it's similar to your goals - and thesis essay, less on discussing the to critical thinking various products your company sells. 9. It does not list achievements in thesis statement for explication essay, dense blocks of writing, text. Recruiters receive so many resumes to scan through at statement a time, so make it as easy as possible for hotel cover letter, them to for explication essay, understand why you're perfect for the job. Dense blocks of text are too difficult to read, says Augustine. Decline Of American? 10. Instead, achievements are listed in two to five bullet points per job.
Under each job or experience you've had, explain how you contributed to for explication essay, or supported your team's projects and initiatives. As you build up your experience, save the english bullets for your bragging points, says Augustine. Quantify your major accomplishments and contributions for each role, Augustine tells us. This can include the money you saved or brought in for your employer, deals closed, and projects delivered on time or under budget. Do not use any more than three to thesis statement, five bullet points. 12.
Accomplishments are formatted as result-and-then-cause. A good rule is to use the barriers hum 111 result BY action sentence structure whenever possible. For example: Generated approximately $452,000 in annual savings by employing a new procedure which streamlined the statement for explication essay business's vendor relationships. Essays On Ignorance? 13. White space draws the reader's eyes to important points. Recruiters do not spend a lot of time scanning resumes, so avoid dense blocks of text. Thesis Statement? The key is to essay, format the information in a way that makes it easy to scan and recognize your job goals and relevant qualifications, Augustine tells us. 14. It doesn't use crazy fonts or colors. Thesis Essay? Stick to black and white color, says Augustine.
As for parents essays, font, it's best to stick with the basics, such as Arial, Tahoma, or Calibri. Augustine says you should never write your resume in statement for explication essay, third person because everyone knows you're the one writing it (unless you go through a professional resume writing service). Instead, you should write it in first person, and do not include pronouns. It's weird [to include pronouns], and it's an extra word you don't need, she says. You need to streamline your resume because you have limited real estate. Avoid adding any embedded tables, pictures, or other images in your resume, as this can confuse the applicant-tracking software and jumble your resume in the system, says Augustine. 17. It doesn't use headers or footers.
It may look neat and concise to display your contact information in the header, but for t he same reason with embedded tables and charts, it often gets scrambled in an applicant tracking system, says Augustine. 18. Education is hotel cover listed at the bottom. Unless you're a recent graduate, you should highlight your work experience and essay, move your education information to the bottom of barriers thinking, your resume, says Augustine. Never include anything about your high-school years. 19.
It doesn't say references upon request. Every recruiter knows you're going to provide references if they request it so there's no reason for you to include this line. Thesis Statement? Again, remember that space on passion essay, your resume is crucial so don't waste it on a meaningless line, Augustine tells us.
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open source essay 1st Edition January 1999. 1-56592-582-3, Order Number: 5823. The Open Source Definition. The typical computer user owns lots of statement essay software that he bought years ago and no longer uses today.
He may have upgraded his computer or changed brands, and then the hotel housekeeper cover program wouldn't work any longer. The software might have become obsolete. The program may simply not do what he needs. He may have bought two or more computers, and doesn't want to thesis pay for essay a second copy of the software. Whatever the reason, the software that he paid for years ago isn't up to the task today. Thesis Statement Essay? Does that really need to writing english happen? What if you had the right to get a free upgrade whenever your software needed it? What if, when you switched from a Mac to a PC, you could switch software versions for free? What if, when the software doesn't work or isn't powerful enough, you can have it improved or even fix it yourself? What if the software was still maintained even if the company that produced it went out of business?
What if you could use your software on your office workstation, and thesis statement, your home desktop computer, and your portable laptop, instead of just one computer? You'd probably still be using the software you paid for years ago. Passion? These are some of the rights that Open Source gives you. The Open Source Definition is a bill of thesis statement for explication rights for the computer user. It defines certain rights that a software license must grant you to be certified as Open Source . Those who don't make their programs Open Source are finding it difficult to compete with those who do, as users gain a new appreciation of rights they always should have had. Passion Essay? Programs like the Linux operating system and Netscape's web browser have become extremely popular, displacing other software that has more restrictive licenses. Statement For Explication Essay? Companies that use open-source software have the advantage of its very rapid development, often by several collaborating companies, and much of it contributed by individuals who simply need an improvement to serve their own needs. The volunteers who made products like Linux possible are only there, and the companies are only able to cooperate, because of the rights that come with Open Source.
The average computer programmer would feel stupid if he put lots of work into a program, only to have the owner of the program sell his improvement without giving anything back. Vitamin C Research? Those same programmers feel comfortable contributing to for explication essay Open Source because they are assured of these rights: The right to make copies of the program, and distribute those copies. Barriers To Critical Thinking? The right to thesis essay have access to the software's source code, a necessary preliminary before you can change it. The right to make improvements to the program. These rights are important to the software contributor because they keep all contributors at the same level relative to each other. Everyone who wants to is allowed to creative course sell an Open Source program, so prices will be low and development to reach new markets will be rapid. Anyone who invests the time to thesis essay build knowledge in c research paper an Open Source program can support it, and this provides users with the option of providing their own support, or the economy of a number of competing support providers. Any programmer can tailor an Open Source program to thesis statement specific markets in order to reach new customers. Creative? People who do these things aren't compelled to pay royalties or license fees. The reason for the success of this somewhat communist-sounding strategy, while the statement for explication essay failure of passion for art communism itself is visible around the world, is that the economics of information are fundamentally different from statement essay those of other products.
There is very little cost associated with copying a piece of information like a computer program. The electricity involved costs less than a penny, and c research paper, the use of the equipment not much more. In comparison, you can't copy a loaf of statement for explication bread without a pound of flour. The concept of free software is an old one. When computers first reached universities, they were research tools. Software was freely passed around, and writing english, programmers were paid for statement for explication the act of paper programming, not for the programs themselves. Only later on, when computers reached the business world, did programmers begin to support themselves by restricting the rights to thesis statement essay their software and charging fees for parents teachers essays each copy. Free Software as a politica l idea has been popularized by Richard Stallman since 1984, when he formed the Free Software Foundation and its GNU Project.
Stallman's premise is that people should have more freedom, and should appreciate their freedom. He designed a set of rights that he felt all users should have, and codified them in the GNU General Public License or GPL. Thesis Essay? Stallman punningly christened his license the copyleft because it leaves the right to copy in essay place. Stallman himself developed seminal works of free software such as the GNU C Compiler , and GNU Emacs, an editor so alluring to some that it is spoken of as it were a religion. His work inspired many others to contribute free software under the essay GPL. For Art? Although it is thesis for explication essay, not promoted with the same libertarian fervor, the of american Open Source Definition includes many of Stallman's ideas, and can be considered a derivative of his work. The Open Source Definition started life as a policy document of the Debian GNU/Linux Distribution . Debian, an early Linux system and one still popular today, was built entirely of free software. However, since there were other licenses than the copyleft that purported to be free, Debian had some problem defining what was free, and they had never made their free software policy clear to the rest of the world. I was the leader of the Debian project, at thesis statement, that time, and I addressed these problems by parents essays, proposing a Debian Social Contrac t and the Debian Free Software Guidelines in July 1997. Many Debian developers had criticisms and improvements that I incorporated into thesis for explication the documents. The Social Contract documented Debian's intent to compose their system entirely of free software, and the Free Software Guidelines made it possible to classify software into free and non-free easily, by comparing the software license to the guidelines.
Debian's guidelines were lauded in the free software community, especially among Linux developers, who were working their own free software revolution at the time in developing the first practical free operating system. When Netscape decided to teachers make their web browser free software, they contacted Eric Raymond. Raymond is the for explication essay Margaret Meade of free software: he has written several anthropological articles explaining the free software phenomenon and for art, the culture that has grown around it, works that are the first of their kind and have shone a spotlight on this formerly little-known phenomenon. Netscape management was impressed with Raymond's essay The Cathedral and the Bazaar, a chronicle of a successful free software development using unpaid volunteer contributors, and asked him to consult, under a non-disclosure agreement, while they developed a license for statement for explication essay their free software. Raymond insisted that Netscape's license comply with Debian's guidelines for it to be taken seriously as free software. Raymond and I had met occasionally at the Hacker's Conference , an invitation-only gathering of passion for art creative and unconventional programmers.
We had corresponded on for explication essay, various subjects via email. Teachers? He contacted me in February of 1997 with the idea for thesis statement for explication Open Source . Raymond was concerned that conservative business people were put off by Stallman's freedom pitch, which was, in contrast, very popular among the more liberal programmers. Vitamin Paper? He felt this was stifling the development of essay Linux in the business world while it flourished in research. He met with business people in the fledgling Linux industry, and for art, together they conceived of a program to market the statement for explication essay free software concept to people who wore ties. Larry Augustin of VA Research and Sam Ockman (who later left VA to form Penguin Computing) were involved, as well as others who aren't known to me. Some months before Open Source , I had conceived of the idea of Open Hardware , a similar concept but for hardware devices and their interfaces rather than software programs. Open Hardware has not been as successful as Open Source to date, but it is still operating and you can find information on housekeeper cover, it at http://www.openhardware.org/ . Raymond felt that the Debian Free Software Guidelines were the right document to define Open Source, but that they needed a more general name and the removal of Debian-specific references. I edited the Guidelines to form the Open Source Definition. I had formed a corporation for for explication essay Debian called Software in the Public Interest, and I offered to register a trademark for Open Source so that we could couple its use to the definition. Thinking? Raymond agreed, and I registered a certification mark, a special form of for explication trademark meant to be applied to barriers to critical thinking hum 111 other people's products, on statement for explication essay, the term.
About a month after I registered the mark, it became clear that Software in the Public Interest might not be the best home of the passion for art Open Source mark, and I transferred ownership of the thesis statement mark to Raymond. Creative Writing Course? Raymond and I have since formed the Open Source Initiative, an statement essay, organization exclusively for managing the Open Source campaign and its certification mark. At this writing, the essays on ignorance decline Open Source Initiative is governed by a six-person board chosen from well-known free software contributors, and seeks to expand its board to about ten people. At the time of its conception there was much criticism for the Open Source campaign, even among the Linux contingent who had already bought-in to the free software concept. Many pointed to the existing use of the term Open Source in the political intelligence industry. Others felt the term Open was already overused. Many simply preferred the thesis essay established name Free Software . I contended that the parents teachers essays overuse of Open could never be as bad as the dual meaning of Free in the English language--either liberty or price , with price being the most oft-used meaning in the commercial world of thesis for explication computers and parents are better teachers essays, software. Richard Stallman later took exception to thesis the campaign's lack of an emphasis on freedom, and the fact that as Open Source became more popular, his role in parents are better essays the genesis of thesis free software, and that of his Free Software Foundation, were being ignored--he complained of being written out of history. This situation was made worse by a tendency for people in the industry to to critical compare Raymond and Stallman as if they were proponents of competing philosophies rather than people who were using different methods to market the thesis statement for explication same concept. I probably exacerbated the situation by pitting Stallman and Raymond against each other in debates at Linux Expo and Open Source Expo. Passion? It became so popular to type-cast the two as adversaries that an email debate, never intended for publication, appeared the online journal Salon . At that point, I asked Raymond to tone down a dialogue that it had never been his intent to enter.
When the Open Source Definition was written, there were already a large number of products that fit the definition. The problem was with programs that did not meet the definition, yet were seductive to users. The case of KDE, Qt , and Troll Tech is relevant to this essay because the KDE group and Troll Tech tried to place a non-Open-Source product in the infrastructure of Linux, and met with unexpected resistance. Public outcry and the threat of thesis statement essay a fully open-source replacement for their product eventually convinced Troll to switch to a fully Open Source license. Barriers Thinking Hum 111? It's an interesting example of the community's enthusiastic acceptance of the thesis essay Open Source Definition that Troll Tech had to make its license comply, if their product was to cover succeed. KDE was the first attempt at a free graphical desktop for Linux.
The KDE applications were themselves under the GPL, but they depended on a proprietary graphical library called Qt , from Troll Tech . Qt's license terms prohibited modification or use with any display software other than the senescent X Window System. Thesis Statement Essay? Other use required a $1,500 developer's license. Troll Tech provided versions of Qt for Microsoft Windows and the Macintosh, and this was its main revenue source. The pseudo-free license for essays and the civilization X systems was meant to leverage the contributions of thesis for explication essay Linux developers into demos, examples, and accessories for their pricey Windows and Mac products. Although the problems with the hotel housekeeper cover letter Qt license were clear, the prospect of a graphical desktop for Linux was so attractive that many users were willing to overlook its non-Open-Source nature.
Open Source proponents found KDE objectionable because they perceived that the KDE developers were trying to blur the for explication essay definition of what free software was to include partially-free items like Qt . The KDE developers contended that their programs were Open Source, even though there were no runnable versions of the and the of american civilization programs that did not require a non-Open-Source library. I, and statement for explication essay, others, asserted that KDE applications were only Open Source fragments of non-Open-Source programs, and that an Open Source version of Qt would be necessary before KDE could be referred to as Open Source. The KDE developers attempted to partially address the for art essay problem of statement Qt's license by negotiating a KDE Free Qt Foundation agreement with Troll Tech, in housekeeper cover which Troll and KDE would jointly control releases of the free version of Qt , and Troll Tech would release Qt under an Open-Source-complaint license if the company was ever purchased or went out of business. Another group initiated the GNOME project, a fully Open Source competitor of KDE that aimed to provide more features and sophistication, and a separate group initiated a Harmony project to produce a fully Open Source clone of Qt that would support KDE. As GNOME was being demonstrated to accolades and Harmony was about to become useful, Troll Tech realized Qt would not be successful in the Linux market without a change in license. Troll Tech released a fully Open Source license for Qt , defusing the thesis for explication conflict and removing the motivation for the Harmony project. The GNOME project continues, and hotel letter, now aims to best KDE in terms of functionality and sophistication rather than in terms of its license. Before they released their new Open Source license, Troll Tech provided me with a copy for auditing, with the essay request that it be kept confidential until they could announce it. In my enthusiasm to make peace with the KDE group and in an embarrassing feat of self-deception, I pre-announced their license eight hours early on on ignorance and the civilization, a KDE mailing list. That email was almost immediately picked up by Slashdot and other online news magazines, to my chagrin. Troll Tech's new license is for explication, notable in are better teachers essays that it takes advantage of a loophole in the Open Source Definition that allows patch files to be treated differently from other software.
I would like to thesis address this loophole in a future revision of the Open Source Definition, but the new text should not place Qt outside of Open Source. At this writing, proponents of Open Source are increasing exponentially. The recent Open Source contributions of IBM and creative english, Ericsson have been in the headlines. Two Linux distributions, Yggdrasil and thesis statement essay, Debian , are distributing complete Linux system distributions, including many applications, that are entirely Open Source, and several others, including Red Hat, are very close. With the vitamin c research paper completion of the GNOME system, an Open Source GUI desktop OS capable of competing with Microsoft NT will have been realized. Analysis of the Open Source Definition.
In this section, I'll present the entire text of the statement essay Open Source Definition, with commentary (in italic). Parents Teachers Essays? You can find the canonical version of the Open Source Definition at http://www.opensource.org/osd.html . Pedants have pointed out minor ambiguities in the Open Source Definition. Thesis For Explication Essay? I've held off revising it as it's little more than a year old and I'd like people to barriers to critical thinking consider it stable . The future will bring slight language changes, but only the most minor of changes in the intent of the document. The Open Source Definition (Version 1.0) Open source doesn't just mean access to the source code. The distribution terms of an open-source program must comply with the following criteria:
Note that the Open Source Definition is not itself a software license. Thesis Statement For Explication Essay? It is housekeeper, a specification of what is permissible in a software license for that software to be referred to as Open Source. The Open Source Definition was not intended to be a legal document. Thesis Statement Essay? The inclusion of the Open Source Definition in software licenses, such as a proposed license of the hotel housekeeper Linux Documentation Project, has tempted me to write a more rigorous version that would be appropriate for thesis statement essay that use. To be Open Source, all of the terms below must be applied together, and in all cases. For example, they must be applied to derived versions of a program as well as the original program. Vitamin Paper? It's not sufficient to apply some and not others, and it's not sufficient for the terms to for explication essay only apply some of the time. After working through some particularly naive interpretations of the Open Source Definition, I feel tempted to add: this means you! The license may not restrict any party from selling or giving away the software as a component of an aggregate software distribution containing programs from several different sources. The license may not require a royalty or other fee for such sale. This means that you can make any number of copies of the parents are better essays software, and thesis statement, sell or give them away, and you don't have to c research paper pay anyone for for explication that privilege.
The aggregate software distribution containing programs from several different sources was intended to fit a loophole in parents the Artistic License, a rather sloppy license in my opinion, originally designed for Perl. Today, almost all programs that use the Artistic License are also available under the GPL. Statement? That provision is thus no longer necessary, and may be removed from a future version of the vitamin Open Source Definition. The program must include source code, and thesis for explication essay, must allow distribution in source code as well as compiled form. Where some form of a product is not distributed with source code, there must be a well-publicized means of downloading the source code, without charge, via the Internet. The source code must be the preferred form in which a programmer would modify the program. Deliberately obfuscated source code is not allowed. Intermediate forms such as the output of creative a preprocessor or translator are not allowed. Source code is a necessary preliminary for the repair or modification of a program.
The intent here is for source code to be distributed with the initial work, and all derived works. The license must allow modifications and derived works, and must allow them to be distributed under the same terms as the license of the thesis original software. Software has little use if you can't maintain it ( fix bugs, port to new systems, make improvements), and modification is necessary for maintenance. The intent here is for vitamin modification of any sort to essay be allowed. It must be allowed for a modified work to be distributed under the essay same license terms as the original work. However, it is not required that any producer of a derived work must use the same license terms, only that the option to do so be open to them. Various licenses speak differently on this subject--the BSD license allows you to take modifications private, while the GPL does not. A concern among some software authors is statement, that this provision could allow unscrupulous people to modify their software in ways that would embarrass the original author.
They fear someone deliberately making the software perform incorrectly in a way that would make it look as if the author was a poor programmer. Hotel Letter? Others are concerned that software could be modified for thesis statement for explication essay criminal use, by passion for art essay, the addition of thesis statement essay Trojan horse functions or locally-banned technologies such as cryptography. All of these actions, however, are covered by creative course, criminal law. A common misunderstanding about software licenses is thesis statement for explication essay, that they must specify everything, including things like don't use this software to teachers essays commit a crime. However, no license has any valid existence outside of the statement body of civil and criminal law. Considering a license as something apart from the body of barriers to critical hum 111 applicable law is statement essay, as silly as considering an English-language document as being apart from the dictionary, in which case none of the words would have any defined meaning. Integrity of the creative Author's Source Code. The license may restrict source code from being distributed in modified form only if the license allows the distribution of patch files with the source code for thesis statement essay the purpose of modifying the program at build time. Some authors were afraid that others would distribute source code with modifications that would be perceived as the work of the original author, and would reflect poorly on that author. This gives them a way to enforce a separation between modifications and their own work without prohibiting modifications.
Some consider it un-aesthetic that modifications might have to be distributed in essays on ignorance decline a separate patch file from the source code, even though Linux distributions like Debian and Red Hat use this procedure for thesis for explication essay all of the modifications they make to the programs they distribute. Vitamin C Research Paper? There are programs that automatically merge patches into the main source, and one can have these programs run automatically when extracting a source package. Thus, this provision should cause little or no hardship. Note also that this provision says that in the case of patch files, the for explication essay modification takes place at vitamin, build-time. This loophole is employed in statement essay the Qt Public License to mandate a different, though less restrictive, license for the patch files, in contradiction of Section 3 of the Open Source Definition. There is a proposal to clean up this loophole in the definition while keeping Qt within Open Source. The license must explicitly permit distribution of software built from modified source code. The license may require derived works to carry a different name or version number from the original software. This means that Netscape, for vitamin example, can insist that only they can name a version of the program Netscape Navigator(tm) while all free versions of the thesis essay program must be called Mozilla or something else. No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups. The license must not discriminate against any person or group of thinking hum 111 persons.
A license provided by the Regents of the University of California, Berkeley, prohibited an electronic design program from being used by the police of South Africa. While this was a laudable sentiment in the time of apartheid, it makes little sense today. Some people are still stuck with software that they acquired under that license, and their derived versions must carry the same restriction. Open Source licenses may not contain such provisions, no matter how laudable their intent. No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor. The license must not restrict anyone from making use of the program in a specific field of endeavor. For example, it may not restrict the program from being used in a business, or from statement for explication being used for teachers genetic research. Your software must be equally usable in an abortion clinic, or by an anti-abortion organization. These political arguments belong on the floor of Congress, not in software licenses. Some people find this lack of discrimination extremely offensive!
Distribution of License. The rights attached to the program must apply to all to thesis essay whom the program is redistributed without the need for execution of an additional license by those parties. The license must be automatic, no signature required. Unfortunately, there has not been a good court test in the U.S. Teachers? of the thesis for explication power of a no-signature-required license when it is creative writing, passed from a second party to thesis essay a third. Are Better Teachers Essays? However, this argument considers the for explication license in vitamin paper the body of contract law, while some argue that it should be considered as copyright law, where there is statement for explication essay, more precedent for no-signature licenses. A good court test will no doubt happen in the next few years, given the popularity of this sort of license and the booming nature of Open Source. License Must Not Be Specific to a Product. The rights attached to the program must not depend on to critical hum 111, the program's being part of a particular software distribution.
If the program is extracted from that distribution and used or distributed within the terms of the program's license, all parties to thesis for explication essay whom the program is redistributed should have the same rights as those that are granted in conjunction with the original software distribution. This means you can't restrict a product that is identified as Open Source to be free only if you use it with a particular brand of Linux distribution, etc. It must remain free if you separate it from the creative writing english software distribution it came with. License Must Not Contaminate Other Software. The license must not place restrictions on other software that is distributed along with the licensed software. For example, the license must not insist that all other programs distributed on statement for explication, the same medium must be open-source software. A version of GhostScript (a PostScript-rendering program) requires that the media on which it is distributed contain only free software programs. This isn't permissible for Open Source licenses.
Fortunately, the GhostScript author distributes another (somewhat older) version of the program with a true Open Source license. Note that there is a difference between derivation and aggregation . Passion Essay? Derivation is when a program actually incorporates part of thesis essay another program into vitamin itself. Aggregation is when you include two programs on thesis statement essay, the same CD-ROM. This section of the Open Source Definition is concerned with aggregation , not derivation. Section 4 is concerned with derivation. The GNU GPL, BSD, X Consortium, and Artistic licenses are examples of licenses that we consider conformant to the Open Source Definition. So is the MPL. This would get us in trouble if any of these licenses are ever changed to be non-Open-Source--we'd have to issue a revision of the parents teachers Open Source Definition immediately.
It really belongs in explanatory text, not in thesis essay the Open Source Definition itself. Analysis of Licenses and Their Open Source Compliance. To understand the Open Source Definition, we need to look at some common licensing practices as they relate to Open Source. A common misconception is to critical hum 111, that much free software is public-domain . This happens simply because the idea of free software or Open Source is thesis, confusing to vitamin many people, and they mistakenly describe these programs as public-domain because that's the statement closest concept that they understand. Creative Writing English Course? The programs, however, are clearly copyrighted and covered by thesis statement, a license, just a license that gives people more rights than they are used to.
A public-domain program is housekeeper cover, one upon which the statement author has deliberately surrendered his copyright rights. It can't really be said to come with a license; it's your personal property to use as you see fit. Because you can treat it as your personal property, you can do what you want with a public-domain program. You can even re-license a public-domain program, removing that version from the public domain, or you can remove the author's name and treat it as your own work. If you are doing a lot of creative writing english course work on statement essay, a public-domain program, consider applying your own copyright to the program and re-licensing it. For example, if you don't want a third party to make their own modifications that they then keep private, apply the GPL or a similar license to your version of the program.
The version that you started with will still be in the public domain, but your version will be under a license that others must heed if they use it or derive from it. You can easily take a public-domain program private, by declaring a copyright and applying your own license to it or simply declaring All Rights Reserved. Free Software Licenses in General. If you have a free software collection like a Linux disk, you may believe the programs on that disk are your property. That's not entirely true. Copyrighted programs are the property of the copyright holder, even when they have an Open Source license like the GPL. The program's license grants you some rights, and you have other rights under the definition of fair use in copyright law. It's important to note that an author does not have to issue a program with just one license. You can GPL a program, and also sell a version of the to critical thinking hum 111 same program with a commercial, non-Open-Source license. This exact strategy is used by many people who want to make a program Open Source and still make some money from it.
Those who do not want an Open Source license may pay for the privilege, providing a revenue stream for essay the author. All of the licenses we will examine have a common feature: they each disclaim all warranties. The intent is to protect the software owner from any liability connected with the program. Since the program is often being given away at housekeeper, no cost, this is a reasonable requirement--the author doesn't have a sufficient revenue stream from the program to fund liability insurance and legal fees. If free-software authors lose the right to disclaim all warranties and find themselves getting sued over statement essay the performance of the programs that they've written, they'll stop contributing free software to the world. It's to our advantage as users to help the author protect this right. Please see Appendix B for the full text of the GPL.
The GPL is a political manifesto as well as a software license, and much of its text is concerned with explaining the rationale behind the license. This political dialogue has put some people off, and thus provided some of the reason that people have written other free software licenses. Of American? However, the GPL was assembled with the assistance of law professors, and is much better written than most of its ilk. I'd strongly urge that you use the GPL, or its library variant the LGPL, if you can. If you choose another license, or write your own, be sure about your reasons. People who write their own licenses should consider that this is statement essay, not a step to be taken lightly.
The unexpected complications of an ill-considered license can create a decades-long burden for software users. The text of the GPL is not itself under the essays GPL. Its license is simple: Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed . An important point here is that the text of the licenses of Open Source software are generally not themselves Open Source. Obviously, a license would offer no protection if anyone could change it. The provisions of the GPL satisfy the for explication essay Open Source Definition. The GPL does not require any of the paper provisions permitted by paragraph 4 of the thesis for explication essay Open Source Definition, Integrity of the Author's Source Code . The GPL does not allow you to take modifications private . Your modifications must be distributed under the GPL. Course? Thus, the essay author of passion for art essay a GPL-ed program is likely to receive improvements from others, including commercial companies who modify his software for their own purposes.
The GPL doesn't allow the incorporation of a GPL-ed program into a proprietary program. Statement For Explication? The GPL's definition of a proprietary program is any program with a license that doesn't give you as many rights as the GPL. There are a few loopholes in the GPL that allow it to be used in parents teachers programs that are not entirely Open Source. Software libraries that are normally distributed with the compiler or operating system you are using may be linked with GPL-ed software; the result is a partially-free program. The copyright holder (generally the author of the program) is the for explication person who places the GPL on paper, the program and has the right to violate his own license. Thesis Statement For Explication Essay? This was used by the KDE authors to distribute their programs with Qt before Troll Tech placed an Open Source license on Q t . However, this right does not extend to any third parties who redistribute the program--they must follow all of the terms of the license, even the ones that the copyright holder violates, and passion essay, thus it's problematical to redistribute a GPL-ed program containing Q t . Thesis Essay? The KDE developers appear to vitamin paper be addressing this problem by applying the LGPL, rather than the GPL, to their software.
The political rhetoric in the GPL puts some people off. Some of them have chosen a less appropriate license for their software simply because they eschew Richard Stallman's ideas and essay, don't want to see them repeated in their own software packages. The GNU Library General Public License. The LGPL is on ignorance decline civilization, a derivative of the GPL that was designed for software libraries. Unlike the thesis statement essay GPL, a LGPL-ed program can be incorporated into a proprietary program. The C-language library provided with Linux systems is an cover, example of LGPL-ed software--it can be used to build proprietary programs, otherwise Linux would only be useful for free software authors.
An instance of an LGPL-ed program can be converted into thesis essay a GPL-ed one at any time. Thinking Hum 111? Once that happens, you can't convert that instance, or anything derived from it, back into an LGPL-ed program. The rest of the thesis provisions of the LGPL are similar to those in the GPL--in fact, it includes the GPL by barriers to critical thinking hum 111, reference. The X license and statement essay, its relatives the BSD and barriers thinking, Apache licenses are very different from the thesis statement GPL and LGPL. These licenses let you do nearly anything with the software licensed under them.
This is because the software that the X and BSD licenses originally covered was funded by monetary grants of the U.S. Government. Since the U.S. citizens had already paid for hotel housekeeper cover the software with their taxes, they were granted permission to make use of thesis statement for explication essay that software as they pleased. The most important permission, and one missing from the GPL, is that you can take X-licensed modifications private. In other words, you can get the source code for a X-licensed program, modify it, and then sell binary versions of the program without distributing the cover source code of your modifications, and for explication essay, without applying the X license to essays and the decline of american civilization those modifications. This is still Open Source, however, as the Open Source Definition does not require that modifications always carry the original license. Many other developers have adopted the X license and its variants, including the BSD (Berkeley System Distribution) and the Apache web server project. Statement For Explication? An annoying feature of the BSD license is a provision that requires you to mention (generally in a footnote) that the software was developed at the University of California any time you mention a feature of a BSD-licensed program in vitamin c research advertising. Keeping track of which software is statement, BSD-licensed in for art something huge like a Linux distribution, and then remembering to mention the University whenever any of those programs are mentioned in advertising, is somewhat of thesis a headache for business people. At this writing, the Debian GNU/Linux distribution contains over 2,500 software packages, and if even a fraction of them were BSD-licensed, advertising for creative writing a Linux system like Debian might contain many pages of footnotes! However, the X Consortium license does not have that advertising provision.
If you are considering using a BSD-style license, use the X license instead. Although this license was originally developed for Perl, it's since been used for thesis statement for explication essay other software. It is, in my opinion, a sloppily-worded license, in that it makes requirements and of american, then gives you loopholes that make it easy to bypass the thesis statement requirements. Perhaps that's why almost all Artistic-license software is now dual-licensed, offering the choice of the parents teachers essays Artistic License or the GPL. Section 5 of the Artistic License prohibits sale of the software, yet allows an aggregate software distribution of more than one program to be sold. For Explication? So, if you bundle an Artistic-licensed program with a five-line hello-world.c , you can sell the bundle. Hotel Housekeeper Letter? This feature of the thesis statement essay Artistic License was the sole cause of the aggregate loophole in paragraph 1 of the Open Source Definition.
As use of the Artistic License wanes, we are considering removing the loophole. That would make the Artistic a non-Open-Source license. This isn't a step we would take lightly, and paper, there will probably be more than a year of statement for explication consideration and debate before it happens. The Artistic License requires you to make modifications free, but then gives you a loophole (in Section 7) that allows you to take modifications private or even place parts of the Artistic-licensed program in the public domain! The Netscape Public License and the Mozilla Public License. NPL was developed by essays decline civilization, Netscape when they made their product Netscape Navigator Open Source. Actually, the essay Open-Source version is called Mozilla ; Netscape reserves the trademark Navigato r for their own product. Eric Raymond and I acted as unpaid consultants during the and the decline of american civilization development of statement for explication this license. I tried, unsuccessfully, to persuade Netscape to use the GPL, and when they declined, I helped them compose a license that would comply with the Open Source Definition. An important feature of the on ignorance NPL is thesis essay, that it contains special privileges that apply to Netscape and nobody else.
It gives Netscape the creative english course privilege of re-licensing modifications that you've made to their software. They can take those modifications private, improve them, and refuse to give you the result. This provision was necessary because when Netscape decided to thesis essay go Open Source, it had contracts with other companies that committed it to provide Navigator to them under a non-Open-Source license. Netscape created the MPL, or Mozilla Public License, to address this concern. The MPL is cover, much like the NPL, but does not contain the clause that allows Netscape to re-license your modifications. The NPL and MPL allow you to take modifications private. Many companies have adopted a variation of the MPL for their own programs. This is unfortunate, because the NPL was designed for the specific business situation that Netscape was in at the time it was written, and is not necessarily appropriate for others to use. It should remain the license of for explication essay Netscape and Mozilla, and others should use the english GPL or the or X licenses. Do not write a new license if it is possible to use one of the thesis essay ones listed here.
The propagation of many different and incompatible licenses works to the detriment of Open Source software because fragments of one program cannot be used in another program with an incompatible license. Steer clear of the Artistic License unless you are willing to study it carefully and edit out barriers to critical hum 111 its loopholes. Then, make a few decisions: Do you want people to statement be able to take modifications private or not? If you want to get the source code for modifications back from the people who make them, apply a license that mandates this.
The GPL and LGPL would be good choices. If you don't mind people taking modifications private, use the X or Apache license. Do you want to parents are better allow someone to merge your program with their own proprietary software? If so, use the LGPL, which explicitly allows this without allowing people to make modifications to your own code private, or use the X or Apache licenses, which do allow modifications to be kept private. Do you want some people to be able to buy commercial-licensed versions of your program that are not Open Source? If so, dual-license your software. I recommend the GPL as the Open Source license; you can find a commercial license appropriate for you to use in thesis statement for explication essay books like Copyright Your Software from Nolo Press.
Do you want everyone who uses your program to pay for vitamin c research paper the privilege? If so, perhaps Open Source isn't for you. If you're satisfied with having only some people pay you, you can work that and keep your program Open Source. Most of the Open Source authors consider their programs to be contributions to the public good, and thesis statement for explication essay, don't care if they are paid at all. The table below gives a comparison of licensing practices: Can be mixed with non-free software. Modifications can be taken private and hotel cover letter, not returned to you. re-licensed by anyone. Contains special privileges for thesis statement for explication essay the original copyright holder over your modifications.
As this essay went to vitamin c research paper press, IBM joined the Open Source world, and the venture capital community is discovering Open Source. Intel and Netscape have invested in Red Hat, a Linux distributor. VA Research, an integrator of Linux server and workstation hardware, has announced an outside investor. Sendmai l Inc., created to commercialize the ubiquitous Sendmail e mail delivery program, has announced six million dollars in funding. IBM's Postfix secure mailer has an Open Source license, and another IBM product, the Jikes Java compiler, has a license that, at this writing, tries but doesn't quite meet the intent of the Open Source Definition. Thesis Statement For Explication? IBM appears to barriers thinking hum 111 be willing to modify the thesis statement essay Jikes license to be fully Open Source, and is collecting comments from the community as I write this. Two internal Microsoft memos, referred to as the Halloween Documents , were leaked to the online public. These memos clearly document that Microsoft is threatened by Open Source and Linux, and that MS will launch an offensive against them to protect its markets.
Obviously, we are in for some interesting times. Essays? I think we'll see Microsoft use two main strategies: copyrighted interfaces and patents . Microsoft will extend networking protocols, including Microsoft-specific features in them that will not be made available to free software. They, and other companies, will aggressively research new directions in computer science and statement, will patent whatever they can before we can first use those techniques in paper free software, and statement, then they'll lock us out with patent royalty fees. I've written an essay for the webzine Linux World on how to fight Open Source's enemies on course, the patent front. The good news is that Microsoft is scared! In the second Halloween document, a Microsoft staffer writes about the exhilarating feeling that he could easily change part of the Linux system to thesis statement essay do exactly what he wanted, and that it was so much easier to thinking hum 111 do this on Linux than it was for a Microsoft employee to change NT!
Efforts to hurt us from inside are the most dangerous. I think we'll also see more attempts to dilute the definition of thesis for explication Open Source to include partially-free products, as we saw with the Qt library in are better essays KDE before Troll Tech saw the light and released an Open Source license. Thesis Essay? Microsoft and parents are better teachers, others could hurt us by releasing a lot of software that's just free enough to attract users without having the full freedoms of Open Source. Thesis Statement For Explication Essay? It's conceivable that they could kill off development of hotel letter some categories of Open Source software by releasing a good enough, almost-free-enough solution. Statement For Explication? However, the strong reaction against the KDE project before the Qt library went fully Open Source bodes poorly for similar efforts by MS and its ilk.
We've escaped Trojan horses so far. Suppose that someone who doesn't like us contributes software that contains Trojan horse, a hidden way to defeat the security of a Linux system. Passion? Suppose, then, that this person waits for the Trojan-horse software to be widely distributed, and then publicizes its vulnerability to security exploits. The public will then have seen that our Open Source system may leave us more vulnerable to this sort of thesis exploit than the closed system of Microsoft, and this may reduce the public's trust in Open Source software. We can argue that Microsoft has its share of security bugs even if they don't allow outsiders to insert them, and that the disclosed source-code model of Open Source makes these bugs easier to find. Any bug like this that comes up on Linux will be fixed the day after it's announced, while a similar bug in Windows might go undetected or unrepaired for writing english course years. Thesis Statement For Explication Essay? But we still need to beef up our defense against Trojan horses.
Having good identification of the people who submit software and modifications is our best defense, as it allows us to use criminal law against the perpetrators of Trojan horses. While I was manager of the Debian GNU/Linux distribution, we instituted a system for all of to critical hum 111 our software maintainers to be reliably identified, and for statement for explication them to participate in a public-key cryptography network that would allow us to passion for art essay verify whom our software came from. This sort of system has to be expanded to include all Open Source developers. We have tremendous improvements to make before Linux is statement for explication, ready for the average person to use. Cover Letter? The graphical user interface is an obvious deficit, and the KDE and GNOME projects are addressing this. System administration is the next frontier: while linuxconf partially addresses this issue, if falls far short of being a comprehensive system-administration tool for the naive user. For Explication Essay? If Caldera's COAS system is successful, it could become the basis of a full solution to the system administration problem. However, Caldera has had trouble keeping sufficient resources allocated to COAS to finish its development, and other participants have dropped off the bandwagon due to creative writing course the lack of progress. The plethora of Linux distributions appear to be going through a shake-out, with Red Hat as the perceived winner and Caldera coming in second.
Red Hat has shown a solid commitment to thesis essay the concept of cover Open Source so far, but a new president and rumors of an Initial Public Offering (IPO) could mean a weakening of this commitment, especially if competitors like Caldera, who are not nearly as concerned about Open Source, make inroads into Red Hat's markets. If the commitment of commercial Linux distributions to thesis statement essay Open Source became a problem, that would probably spawn an hum 111, effort to replace them with pure Open Source efforts similar to Debian GNU/Linux , but ones more directed to the commercial market than Debian has been. Despite these challenges, I predict that Open Source will win. Linux has become the testbed of computer science students, and for explication, they will carry those systems with them into the workplace as they graduate. Research laboratories have adopted the Open Source model because the sharing of information is essential to the scientific method, and essays on ignorance and the civilization, Open Source allows software to be shared easily. Businesses are adopting the for explication essay Open Source model because it allows groups of companies to creative writing english collaborate in solving a problem without the threat of an anti-trust lawsuit, and because of the leverage they gain when the thesis statement for explication essay computer-programming public contributes free improvements to essays decline of american civilization their software.
Some large corporations have adopted Open Source as a strategy to combat Microsoft and to assure that another Microsoft does not come to dominate the thesis essay computer industry. But the most reliable indication of the future of Open Source is its past: in just a few years, we have gone from nothing to a robust body of software that solves many different problems and is reaching the million-user count. There's no reason for us to slow down now.
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abotion essay when she was nearly her 6th months of pregnancy and for explication essay she decided to go for abortion at the hospital, she did not think twice and just went and got the abortion the first time, she felt bad and all, but then when she got pregnant two years after the first abortion, the second time she was already married, but she was having problems with her husband and was in an abusive relationship, so she decided to have a second abortion. This ruined her life and marriage, she became careless about life, she started. informing patients the association and link between abortion and breast cancer. Passion Essay? Side Effects of statement, Abortion Side effects of abortion can both be emotional and physical. Abortion is performed through two methods, which are medical and surgical abortion. The physical effects of an abortion vary concerning the type of creative writing english, abortion that was procured but the emotional side effects are more often than not similar for everyone. The side effects surgical abortion is nausea, vomiting, reaction to anesthesia. than 1% of all abortions are performed to save the life of the mother. It is an extremely rare case when abortion is required to save the mother’s life. Of course, when two lives are threatened and only one can be saved, doctors must always save that life.
However, abortion for essay the mother’s life and abortion for the mother’s health are usually not the same issue. Since every abortion kills an parents are better innocent human being, it is morally abhorrent to use the rare cases when abortion is thesis statement essay, necessary to. It was a statutory offence in 1803 to have an abortion, and it became legal under The Abortion Act 1967 and abortion could only be carried out in a hospital or in a specialised licensed clinic. However termination can only happen up to 28 weeks. Many abortion laws have been passed to make abortion more safe for women and the foetus for example in english course, the 1990’s there was another act which lowered the time limit from 28 weeks to 24 weeks because it was noticed that the thesis for explication, foetus was able to live outside. my own kind therefore abortion is destroying the original plan of God for humanity. And abortion is a perversion for God’s natural design for women like me, it is stated in Genesis 3:16 “to the passion, women he said I will greatly increase your pains in thesis, childbearing; with pain you will give birth to children” if there is an abortion it is and the decline civilization, a huge distortion of statement for explication, God’s design for passion essay me. Finally the third and most important value is related to my conscience. If I have an abortion, I will always think about. question we need to ask ourselves. Does the for explication, abortion mean we are prejudice against the child or are we simply facing a sad reality? Woman must decide on an abortion based on the reality in which they live.
In Rapp’s essay she states had she known of her sons disease she would have had an abortion. If we look at Aristotle’s Virtue Theory we can see how it fits this case. Rapp is stating that she would have done what was best for her child by passion, having an abortion. She would feel she was doing what was right. Christianity, is the number one source for saying that Abortion is morally wrong, is a sin because its committing murder which goes against the laws of God, and believes is should outright be illegal. The Roe v. Wade was the case that changed the American Nation forever.
This case ruled unconstitutional a state law that banned abortions except to thesis for explication, save the life of the vitamin c research paper, mother; this cased ruled that the states could not forbid a mother from getting an abortion. During the time of Roe v. Wade case, most states. greatest good.” (Rsrevision, 2011) In some situations a utilitarian, should be able to thesis for explication essay, justify that it can be alright to deny a woman to have an abortion if it is for the greater good of the barriers to critical thinking, woman. There can be many reasons why women have decided to have an abortion. There are two different ways of thesis, having an abortion. One of the ways women can obtain an to critical thinking abortion is called the morning after pill. By taking this pill you need to go to see a physician for the medicine. This medicine causes the lining of. the math. Thesis For Explication? Abortions are already legal in passion for art, the United States. If they had not been legal the statement for explication, increase would be much higher. Hotel Housekeeper Cover Letter? As of 2010 the US population was approximately 310 million. In five years, they expect the population to statement for explication, reach about 325 million and by 2025, about 257 million.
Even further, their expectations reach as high as 439 million by 2050 (“Population”).Given that the government is c research paper, aware of legal abortions they must have factored that in to their numbers. Clearly, abortions help to control. and celery, rose oils, pine resin, copper scum, boiled honey, sodium carbonate, and even mouse dung.(2) In the Middle Ages, abortion was tolerated because there were no laws against it. (2) There were a variety of abortifacients, such as mixture called “cup of thesis statement for explication, roots” and another known as a “A Cure for All Kinds of Stomach Aches.”(2) However after long time, therapeutic abortion is one of the creative course, most controversial subjects in modern society, is evident capable of generating intense passions, that lead. Statement For Explication Essay? With the theory of individual relativism, it is up to the woman whether she believes the abortion is morally right or wrong, not the hotel, morals of society. Some might ask how a woman could possibly feel that it is a just decision. In cases where the thesis statement for explication, woman is financially, emotionally, mentally, or physically unstable, she may feel that abortion is morally acceptable. After all, if she is not in the position to be able to hotel housekeeper, support the child and give it a good life, what is the purpose of bringing the child.
Constitutional rights and should not be subjected to the vagary of the electorate. The right of freedom of choice should be protected from the tyranny of the majority. An abortion is a way to stop an unwanted pregnancy. Parents can both emotionally and financially limit their families to the number of children they want. In cases of rape, abortion is a good choice. It is essay, wrong to force a mother to bear a rapist’s child. That in it self is further torture of the victim of a heinous crime. Many women become. Abortions remained illegal, despite the medical advancements largely impart to the fact that physicians did not want to english course, share their patients with other practitioners. The American Medical Association stated that abortions were wrong and unsafe.
Therefore, according to the National Abortion Federation, abortions were then made into thesis statement essay, a “physicians-only” practice because they could be performed legally in order to save the paper, woman’s life. It was not until 1973 that abortions were made legal. The legal status of abortion began to change in the U.S., with stricter advertising laws and a newly founded belief in thesis statement, scientific research by are better essays, doctors. Thesis Essay? The leader of this change was the American Medical Association. For most of the early 1900’s, medical personnel and politicians tried to destroy abortion, but it only made abortion more of a private procedure and not one that was often made public(Sachdev 3-7).
During the 1930’s, there was an housekeeper cover estimated “1abortion for thesis for explication essay every 4 pregnancies, and 90% of. measures. The states were coming closer to making abortion legal in all cases up to a designated time proclaimed by the state, and by hotel housekeeper letter, the early 1970’s four states had taken that step and made abortion legal. (Flanders 8, Encarta ’97) The courts now needed to set up a designated time that abortion would be legal and they formed the trimester rule. It stated: In the thesis for explication essay, 1st trimester of pregnancy the government could not interfere with abortion except to essays on ignorance decline of american civilization, insist a licensed physician perform it. In. Pro-Life often state that the aborting should be considered murder. Pro-Choice supporters see abortion as an option for women. For Explication? Some women could be raped or victims of incest. Writing English Course? These types of situations cause women to not want the child and usually constantly remind them of horrible past events.
Though abortion is thesis statement for explication essay, beneficial to those who don’t not want children, those people do not realize how dangerous the abortion process is. It affects psychological aspects of a person and c research paper increases your chance for negative. As you can tell from my opening statement, I am against a woman getting an abortion. I was raised in a Christian home and attend church regularly. Therefore, abortion goes against my belief system as a Christian. In today’s society, abortion has become a convenience when a woman gets pregnant. In addition, there are alternatives to getting an abortion when a woman finds herself with an unwanted pregnancy. First of all, birth control is readily available and in some cases available at no charge. Thesis Statement? In. foetus primarily, is important to these groups and they place great significance on the development of it deeming abortion ‘unjust and discriminatory’. And The? While they are completely for your right to choose what you do with your own body and whether or not you have sexual intercourse they are firmly against your right to choose an abortion. There are also groups that do not believe in abortion due to religious beliefs.
You should try not to be swayed by opinions other than your own and, while this can. Also, the essay, Partial-birth Abortion Act, which had deemed partial-birth abortions illegal, going against a previous Supreme Court ruling in Stenberg v. Carhart, was later deemed unconstitutional. This further supports the belief that an abortion is a mother’s right to choose and a woman has the housekeeper letter, right to for explication, privacy in regards to the actions she takes with her own body. This being said an argument of why abortion should be legal is essays, hugely focused on rape, but in the case of rape the statics are shocking. One of the issues discussed in class was the time of conception. A point mentioned in class was that any time a sperm or egg was destroyed or killed, then abortion was occurring, for example, masturbation or menstruation. The point that is trying to be made is for explication, that if killing the fetus at conception is wrong, which has potential to be a person, then killing the things that have potential to become a person, like sperm and eggs, is wrong also. I do not agree with this point. My reasoning is cover letter, the. Thesis Statement? during this time period, such as hysterotomy and intact dilation. In a hysterotomy, which is similar to a cesarean section, the uterus is cut open and the fetus is removed. This procedure is performed under general anesthesia.
A partial birth abortion, also intact dilation, consists of partially. the last trimester (after 24 weeks) and after the thinking hum 111, fetus is thesis for explication, a viable, state law and creative writing english regulations may prohibit abortion except when it is necessary to preserve the life or health of the woman. Now in statement for explication, force in eleven states, informed consent laws require women to receive state-mandated laws, lectures and booklets on abortion and fetal development and then wait 24 hours having an abortion. In many cases, the doctor or other medical professional must give the lecture. And The Of American? Women are required to make an. Essay about thesis essay The Effects of passion for art, Abortion. outlook or knowledge on the subject. Abortion is an extremely diverse topic because not everyone agrees that abortion is morally right. Though abortion may be a touchy topic, its reality and statement for explication essay it’s not going away anytime soon. Abortion, as well as diversity, is something that we will have to deal with into the future. Passion? So being able to recognize but not necessary accept both sides can be beneficial.
Diversity is especially beneficial for a woman that is contemplating abortion. By recognizing all aspects of. Statement? research, it has been discovered that race is a big indicator of passion, how people feel about abortion practices. In leading studies, African Americans have tended to be less accepting of abortion than whites and it has been found that this may be accounted for by four different factors (Combs and Welch, 1982). Those who have more formal education, higher occupation and income status tend to have a higher support for abortion. These qualities are also what tend to make up the essay, class differences between the. C Research? The abortion rate to that statistic is thesis statement, 14.6 abortions per 1,000 women from the ages of 15-44 years of age. The majority of these abortions were from women in their twenties. A reported 91.9% of these abortions were performed in the early gestation phase which is as far as 13 weeks. In an article published by the Guttmacher Institute, three-fourths of women that have abortions is because they cant afford the child. Three-fourths of the women have fear that having a baby would interfere with school. A Christian Response to Abortion Essay.
By saying Though shalt not slay thy child by causing abortion, nor kill that which is barriers hum 111, already born seems to suggest that killing children by abortion is the same as killing children that are already born. Some Roman Catholics will say that giving birth to the child does not necessarily mean you have to look after it Victoria Gillik, a Roman Catholic: Contraceptives will fail and thesis human beings will make mistakes. Writing Course? There will always be unplanned pregnancies. But. Essay on America#x27;s Abortion Debate. to statement essay, do with his/her body then why is this right imposed on abortion issue alone why is it not extended to the issue of vitamin paper, drugs and for explication others?” Pro-choicer has the belief that women have the right to choose to abort a baby from their womb. Their view is that a baby does not have human rights within the mother's womb. This allows a woman to choose whether or not to abort her baby and how to abort an unwanted child. Pro-choice abortion is supported by on ignorance and the decline of american, Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA) There is also a very strong case against abortion. Modern science has proved that unborn child is a separate human being and not just a part of his or her mother's body. By allowing abortion society is taking the easy way out and not giving life a chance, it should concentrate about thesis for explication essay improving life in society. Unfortunately for those in hotel housekeeper cover letter, the pro-choice lobby the thesis for explication, Christian viewpoint is very much against abortion with the church believing that life begins at conception.
The. Because of essays and the decline, this debate the 1973 U.S Supreme Court ruling in Roe VS Wade which legalized abortion based on the 14th amendments right to privacy. Most Americans believe that abortions should be illegal with exceptions of thesis, rape and incest but the truth is most abortions are not for either of these two reasons, most abortions are done because of various of other reasons such as the mother being to young and having sex without any knowledge of are better, what there doing, because the father doesn’t want to be. At other times some mother’s do not wish to go along with the pregnancy if they realize the child will come out with deformities. Many people believe abortion is the women’s choice. Thesis? Back in the day women had basically no rights. Once a woman was married, she had to ask her husband’s approval for all civil matters. The woman’s only right was to thinking, provide children for the husband. The only role the woman needed to play was to have a male child to keep the statement for explication essay, family line going (Masae 195-198).
Is the. Essay on Abortion: a Controversial Issue. interference in personal matters like abortion. Certainly this right of privacy and choice is very important, but is essays on ignorance decline of american, it enough to override the fundamental right to life? The pro-life view believes that all living beings should be given equal protection under the law right from conception, i.e. from where their biological life begins. Thesis Statement? The right to life is the most basic and english course important right that we have and should be protected over the right to choose . Abortion is called a choice. What is really. Outside the developed world, neither CVS nor amniocentesis account for the bulk of supposed sex-selective abortions, due to their difficulty and high cost.
The most common method, instead, is ultrasound. Ultrasound is a simple, non-invasive method that involves scanning the abdomen of the prospective mother with sound waves that create a visual representation of thesis statement for explication essay, tissues inside her body (including the fetus), and allows the technician who performs it to attempt to locate fetus's genitals - and, therefore. In brief argument, I will discuss my view of abortion and the results of what people think about abortion and what can be done to prevent abortion. I will conduct a slight assessment to see how people in general really feel about abortion. Abortions sometimes happen unsurprisingly, this is parents are better, referred to as a miscarriage, or a mother who decide on whether she wants an abortion intentionally or not. My understanding of abortion is killing a baby within its mother’s womb. This term depend on the.
Essay on Abortion is Never Justified. a woman ended up having more than one child, abortion would be suggested. I believe that abortion is thesis statement, not a solution to population control, even in of american, the direst state of circumstances. Essay? Many groups of passion, people including organisations such as the PCA (which is open to anyone from all different religious backgrounds), believe that a woman's right to essay, an abortion is to critical hum 111, primarily her own. They believe this because a right to an abortion is a right to statement essay, the control of ones own body. the first three months of a woman’s pregnancy is when the baby is usually aborted. There are some occasions where abortions are performed after the first trimester of pregnancy. The two main types of abortion are surgically and medically induced. Both procedures are proven 97 to vitamin c research, 100 percent effective. Both have serious repercussions though. Medically induced abortion can only be used within the first trimester of pregnancy. Many women are given Mifeprex, which stops an important hormone.
The Controversy Surrounding Abortion Essay. They also argue that having an abortion causes psychological problems. Statement? It can even cause medical problems and lead to potential miscarriages in the future. On the other side of the abortion debate are the people who favor pro-choice. Advocates of pro-choice use the strong argument of the ‘freedom of and in America’ as a right. Having an abortion may spark problems, but it should be left up to decline civilization, the woman on whether or not she wants to have an abortion if she is fully aware of the potential consequences. The Pros and for explication essay Cons of creative, Abortion Essay. Statement Essay? with the unborn child’s father receive abortions (“Induced Abortion”). Another debate concerning abortion is the point of writing english course, gestation when a mother terminates the thesis statement essay, pregnancy.
According to a study by the Guttmacher Institue, thirty-three percent of women get an abortion during the are better teachers essays, first six weeks. Eighty-eight percent terminate their pregnancy within the first twelve weeks, and only one and a half percent wait until twenty-one weeks or later (“Induced Abortion”). This is statement for explication, a major issue because people. Abortion spits in on ignorance and the of american, the face of the commonly accepted idea of thesis, human life. The civilized society in which we live and the cultures in which we abide by do not permit one human being to intentionally harm or take the life of essay, another human being without punishment; abortion should be no different.
Adoption is a viable alternative to abortion and basically achieves the thesis for explication essay, same result. There are 1.5 million American families who want to adopt a child (BIRTHCHOICE). There is no such thing as an unwanted child. The third way of preventing abortion is to increase the involvement of men in essays decline of american civilization, the relationship. I think that the father has a very big responsibility because as people say ?It takes two to tango?. If a father was introduced in to the picture there is a high chance that both parents will work together and raise the baby. My fourth way of preventing abortion is to introduce new birth control methods but with out the government funding which would cause a raise in tax and the public. subjected or forced to have an abortion. Who ever has directly or indirectly pressured the mother the moral responsibility particularly lies with them. The responsibility should also fall on the administrators of the health care centers where abortion is done and thesis for explication essay the legislators who made abortion legal (John Paul II).
People think it takes up to a certain number of days for an unborn child to be called a human being from the result of conception. As John Paul II says abortion proclaims from the time. Essay on The Pros and Cons of Abortion. The physical side effects of abortion will vary from woman to woman. There are many side effects and risks that you should be aware of and should talk to your doctor who will be preforming the essays, operation. Serious complications can occur in first timers such as: heavy bleeding, infection, damage to the cervix, scaring to the uterine line, damage to other organs, and in worse cases, death. Other physical side effects after an abortion include nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. You have to statement essay, be aware that. approve of an abortion but at that time she was a student, unmarried and the most scariest thing was she had a relationship with a married man. Essays Decline Civilization? Her pregnancy and having a baby will resulting in expelled from school, family’s shame, and being sued by a man’s wife. I was a nursing student with less experience at that time and I agreed with her that there were no other options open for her except abortion.
After a short discussion then my friend made a quick decision to get an abortion. Although we. In 1973 the United States Supreme Court ruled abortion legal in the Roe vs. Wade case. Although according to Committee for Abortion Rights, a doctor has to be willing to perform the abortion, meaning that women aren’t able to thesis for explication essay, make the and the decline, ultimate decision (Women under Attack, 53). This causes anger in the feminist movement because of the lack of control that women have over their own bodies. They believe that it is their right to do what they want with their own body. They have the statement essay, freedom to control.
The Real Tragedy of Abortion Essay. get pregnant because an abortion can fix that. Bad habits never end and essay if we continue to thesis, tell people that abortion is okay, it will continue to happen. The Abortion laws have been changing for essays as long as they have been around. It seems that nobody will ever come to statement essay, a straight agreement on whether abortion should be legal or illegal. It is the question of fetal protection or women’s rights. Former President Bill Clinton says he has never met anybody that was pro-abortion, and that's not what pro. transpire abortion convey life just to vitamin paper, any extent as the rest of us human essences. The fetus can also destroyed with inadvertent actions of the mother.
The mother can engage in frequent heavy activities, could ingest danger chemicals or drugs thats harmful toward the baby, or meaningfully destroying the baby. (abortion 2) Vacuum aspiration involves the baby suctioned out of the womb and then the woman’s womb is scraped clean with a medical instrument called curettes. (abortion 3) The abortions not only. The Controversy of statement for explication, Abortion Essay. On Ignorance Decline? Therefore, both sides need to accept and respect each other views on the issue for society as a whole to be more accepting of abortion. Emotional Instability The emotions that result from being in a college atmosphere and the emotions that occur with pregnancy do not coincide. Most college students are not emotionally stable enough to thesis for explication essay, carry or give birth to a child. As stated by creative writing, Rosalind Petchesky, women between the ages of eighteen and twenty are at the highest level of emotional insecurity. Essay on Abortion and its Consequences. often repressed and denied.
In the short term emotions are numbed. Thesis For Explication Essay? But at course, this stage she will begin to thesis statement for explication, develop post-abortion syndrome or PAS, and her behaviour can begin to change profoundly. Unfortunately due to the very nature of cover letter, abortoins themselves there is no remedy for the action, and statement for explication essay no perfect remedy for are better teachers essays the dis-order. Thesis? There is however steps that can be taken. Post abortion counseling has proven to hotel, be helpful, and the recent development of a spiritual and psychological program that provides. Abortions Should Be Allowed Essay. uterus. Statement? There are two ways a woman can basically go about having an abortion: induced abortion, which is performed by taking an abortion pill, better known as mifpristone, or vacuum aspiration, an decline in-clinic procedure in which the embryo is removed by a pimp.
Many pro-life supports claim that the statement for explication essay, fetus feels pain during both processes and that it is inhumane to allow anyone to suffer through such pain. Much of the heated debate over abortion also arises over the issue of rights and whether a woman’s right. Barriers To Critical Hum 111? types of an abortion, a medical abortion which consists of the woman taking a set of thesis, pills within her first 9 weeks of pregnancy which cause the baby to be terminated after taking the second set of pills 24 hours after the first set. And the second method is a surgical procedure which is done during the woman first trimester or the second trimester of pregnancy and the woman under goes heavy sudation and the baby is surgically removed. With any surgical procedures not just abortions the woman is. other problems can occur from an abortion, and a 15 or 17 year old may have confusion, and c research paper choose abortion as an easy way out. Statement? Just because a teenager makes the mistake of getting pregnant at a young age, the life of a new born child may have to suffer the consequence. Teenagers must understand the fact that life has struggles and parents are better teachers essays with those struggles they will have to do things that they won’t ever imagine themselves doing.
There are many different forms of abortion, the most common kind is taken.
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ADN: quand les experts se trompent. Souvent paree de toutes les vertus, l’ADN n’est pas la reine des preuves : erreurs de manipulation, d’analyse ou de conservation, faux positifs … les annales policieres et judiciaires ont d’ors et deja repertorie plusieurs cas de personnes, accusees et incarcerees, a tort, parce que leur ADN les designait comme suspectes (voir Quand les experts se trompent). Thesis. Plusieurs scientifiques tirent aujourd’hui la sonnette d’alarme: les taux d’erreurs seraient bien trop importants. En juin 2010, plusieurs utilisateurs de 23andme, l’une des entreprises proposant de decoder son propre ADN (voir L’avenement de la genomique personnelle), decouvrirent, stupefaits, qu’ils n’avaient pas le meme ADN que leurs enfants, freres, soeurs, parents, ou bien qu’ils etaient noirs, ou asiatiques (alors qu’ils etaient blancs)… Quelques jours plus tard, 23andme decouvrit qu’il s’agissait d’une erreur, une plaque comportant 96 empreintes genetiques ayant ete retournee, a 180 degres, entrainant une confusion dans les noms de ses clients. En decembre 2009, la societe deCODE genetics, qui cherchait a concurrencer 23andme en proposant a ses clients une autre interpretation de leur ADN, avait explique a certains d’entre eux, a tort, qu’ils encourraient un risque eleve d’etre atteint par la maladie d’Alzheimer: 23andme avait change le format de ses donnees, mais deCODE ne s’en etait pas apercu, et continuait a utiliser une ancienne grille d’analyse… En aout 2009, un journaliste du New Scientist , qui avait demande a deCODE d’analyser son ADN, recu quant a lui cette etonnante reponse, par e-mail: La question va peut-etre vous paraitre etrange, mais etes-vous bien sur qu’il s’agit d’un Homo sapiens? En l’espece, il s’agissait d’un bug logiciel affectant la facon d’extraire les informations de la base de donnees de deCODE… Mais l’erreur peut aussi etre humaine, et avoir des repercussions d’autant plus graves lorsqu’elle permet de suspecter, voire de condamner, a tort, un innocent.
11 erreurs judiciaires (au moins) imputables a l’ADN aux USA. En 2004, un procureur du New Jersey annonca ainsi que le viol et le meurtre d’une etudiante, 36 ans auparavant, venait enfin d’etre elucide: Grace a l’ADN, nous avons enfin pu mettre un visage sur le meurtrier de Jane Durrua, et ce visage appartient a Jerry Bellamy . Deux ans plus tard, Bellamy fut libere apres que les enqueteurs decouvrirent que l’echantillon genetique issu de la scene du crime avait en fait ete contamine, dans le laboratoire de la police technique et scientifique, au contact de l’ADN de Bellamy, qui devait y etre egalement expertise, mais dans un autre dossier… Gregory Turner, un Canadien, avait ainsi ete accuse de meurtre, au motif qu’on avait trouve l’ADN de la victime sur sa bague, et que la probabilite qu’elle n’emane pas de cette femme de 56 ans etait de 1 sur 163 trillions (soit 163 milliards de milliards). Teachers Essays. On decouvrit, en fait, que l’ADN etait celui de l' experte qui avait analyse sa bague… Il risquait la prison a vie, et avait deja passe 27 mois en detention. L’affaire dite du Fantome d’Heilbronn est probablement la plus connue des erreurs liees a l’ADN. Essay. Qualifiee sur TF1 de plus grande enigme criminelle de l’Histoire , elle mobilisa plus de 100 policiers, sur plus de 1400 pistes differentes, entrainant 2400 analyses genetiques, afin d’identifier une tueuse en serie a qui les polices allemande et autrichienne imputait une dizaine de meurtres, et des dizaines de cambriolages, depuis 1993. En mars 2009, on housekeeper letter, decouvrit que l’ADN de la tueuse en serie etait en fait celui d’une employee de la societe de materiel medical qui fournissait les cotons-tiges de prelevement genetique utilises par la police, et qu’il n’existait donc pas de Fantome d’Heilbronn . Ce meme mois de mars 2009, un homme, mis en examen en 2004 pour le meurtre de sa femme apres analyse de son ADN, etait definitivement mis hors de cause: une consultation du fichier d’empreintes genetiques revela qu’il avait le meme profil genetique qu’un autre homme, connu pour des faits de proxenetisme, mais decede depuis. Brandon L. Statement Essay. Garrett est professeur a l’ecole de droit de Virginie, Peter J. English. Neufeld, cofondateur de l’Innocence Project qui a permis, a ce jour, d’innocenter 261 personnes en demontrant que leur ADN ne correspondait pas a celui du veritable coupable de ce pour quoi ils avaient ete condamnes (plus de la moitie d’entre eux avaient pourtant ete, notamment, condamnes sur la foi de preuves apportees par la police technique et scientifique qui, par la suite, se sont en fait averees erronees). Sur les 137 cas qu’ils ont analyses, en 2009, pour leur etude qu’ils ont consacree aux erreurs des experts de la police scientifique et technique, Garrett et Neufeld ont decouvert 11 erreurs judiciaires imputables, en partie, a une mauvaise interpretation ou exploitation de la preuve par l’ADN . L’une des victimes de ces erreurs judiciaires fit les frais d’une grossiere erreur dans l’analyse de son ADN. Thesis For Explication. Trois autres furent condamnes sur la base de faux temoignages des experts ayant analyse leur ADN.
Pire: l’ADN de sept d’entre eux avaient precisement demontre leur innocence, en vain. Josiah Sutton, un noir americain de 16 ans, fut ainsi condamne pour viol, en 1999, a 25 ans de prison (il n’en fit que 4 ans 1/2). Vitamin Paper. Son ADN ne correspondait pas au sperme trouve sur le lieu du viol, mais cet aspect ne figura pas dans le rapport officiel, et l' expert declara, a contrario, qu’il correspondait bien au sien, avancant un taux de probabilite de 1 sur 694 000 personnes. Essay. Dans les faits, un homme noir sur 16 partageait ses caracteristiques genetiques, et le laboratoire de Houston, implique dans plusieurs centaines d’autres cas litigieux, fut finalement ferme. Gilbert Alejandro fut de meme condamne pour viol sur la base du temoignage de l' expert , qui declara etre sur a 100% que l’ADN du violeur etait le sien. Vitamin Paper. Il s’avera que cet expert , Fred Zain, avait non seulement menti sur son diplome, et qu’il ne possedait aucune qualification a meme de justifier ce pour quoi il travailla pourtant pendant 20 ans pour la police scientifique et technique du Texas, mais egalement qu’il n’avait pas proprement effectue l’analyse en question.
Zain fut finalement implique dans 134 condamnations douteuses, et plusieurs dizaines de personnes, qu’il avait contribue a condamner, furent ensuite innocentes. 1 chance sur 1M, sur 40 000, ou bien sur 3. En aout dernier, Linda Geddes, journaliste au New Scientist revenait de son cote sur le calvaire traverse par Richard Smith, accuse de viol, et qui risquait 25 ans de prison. Le prelevement genetique effectue sur son penis lors de son arrestation comportait deux ADN meles. Thesis Essay. L’expert qui temoigna a son proces estima que la probabilite que l’autre ADN ne soit pas celui de la victime etait de 1 sur 95 000. English. Son superieur hierarchique estima quant a lui que la probabilite etait de 1 sur 47. Thesis Essay. Une expertise ulterieure avanca qu’elle etait plutot de 1 sur 13. Hotel. En changeant de methode statistique, elle n’etait plus que de 1 sur 2… Une etude du National Institute of thesis essay Standards and vitamin paper Technology (NIST), qui avait envoye une seule empreinte genetique a 69 laboratoires americains revela que les methodes utilisees etaient tellement variees que les resultats obtenus variaient d’une magnitude de 10. Thesis For Explication. Les resultats emanant de laboratoires utilisant les memes methodes statistiques n’etaient guere plus rassurants: en fonction des analyses, la probabilite d’identification de l’ADN variait de 1 sur 100 000 a 1 sur un quadrillion (10 puissance 15, soit mille milliards). On pense souvent que l’expertise genetique releve de quelque chose de scientifique.
Dans les faits, c’est aussi et surtout de la statistique ou, plus exactement, un calcul de probabilites, comme le soulignent Elie Escondida et Dante Timelos, auteurs d’un guide de self-defense juridique , Face a la police / Face a la justice, qui notent qu' on barriers, a rarement rappele le fait que la preuve par l’ADN n’est, tout simplement, pas infaillible : Pour profiler quelqu’un, les experts analysent en effet generalement 13 marqueurs (ou locis , regions chromosomiques) de l’echantillon ADN qu’ils expertisent, dans la mesure ou l’analyse de ces marqueurs suffit generalement a distinguer l’empreinte d’un individu, avant d’estimer la probabilite de concordance de profils ( random match probability , RMP, en anglais), a savoir le risque de voir cet ADN correspondre a une ou plusieurs personnes. Thesis For Explication. Des lors, l’objectif n’est donc pas tant de determiner l’ empreinte ADN d’un individu, mais son profil , et ca change tout, pour Escondida et Timelos: Deux ADN differents peuvent donner deux profils ADN semblables justement parce que le profil n’utilise qu’une fraction de l’ADN et non l’ADN dans sa totalite. Pour pallier ces difficultes, les experts vont se livrer a un calcul de probabilites. Paper. L’idee est simple. Statement. Meme si on creative writing english, ne peut certifier que deux profils ADN identiques representent bien un ADN unique, il est toujours possible d’essayer d’estimer la probabilite d’une coincidence fortuite. Thesis Essay. Autrement dit, le resultat d’une expertise ADN n’est pas, contrairement a ce qu’on croit, une affirmation du type « l’ADN retrouve dans cette trace appartient a telle personne » mais bien une affirmation du type « il y a x probabilites pour que l’ADN retrouve dans cette trace appartienne a telle personne ». Hotel Housekeeper. Si on thesis statement, peut refuter, avec une certitude absolue, l’identite entre deux profils, on essays on ignorance and the decline of american, ne peut en revanche jamais confirmer celle-ci avec une certitude de 100%. Statement. En mai 2008, le Los Angeles Times revenait ainsi sur le cas de John Puckett, un Americain qui, en 2004, a l’age de 70 ans, se vit inculpe d’un meurtre commis 30 ans auparavant, parce que son ADN correspondait partiellement au sperme preleve sur la victime. Lors de son proces, les experts de l’accusation avancerent que la probabilite d’une coincidence de profils ADN etait de 1 sur 1,1 millions.
Les experts de la defense, utilisant d’autres methodes de calcul, avancerent les chiffres de 1 sur 40 000, et de 1 sur 16 400. And The Decline Of American. Apres 48h de delibere, les jures le declarerent coupable. Or, d’apres le LA Times , la probabilite que l’ADN de Puckett et celui du meurtrier soient les memes etait en fait de 1 sur 3… Car le fichier genetique repertoriait, a l’epoque, 338 000 profils ADN, et qu’il convenait donc, pour affiner la probabilite, de diviser 338 000 par 1,1 million, soit une probabilite de concordance de profils de 1 sur 3… Interroge par le LA Times , l’un des jures expliqua que le taux de probabilite de 1,1 million etait ce qui leur avait finalement permis de conclure a la culpabilite de Puckett. Thesis Statement. Et que s’ils avaient eu vent de ce taux de 1 sur 3 seulement, le verdict aurait tres certainement ete tres different. Condamne par un expert , innocente par 16 autres. Aux Etats-Unis, la fascination exercee par la police scientifique et technique porte un nom: le CSI Effect, du nom de la serie tele ( Les experts , en VF) qui cartonne en terme d’audience, et qui a bouleverse la facon de presenter le travail de la police a la television.
Or, cette vision, comme toute fascination, est une representation glamour, romancee, exageree et inexacte, pour ne pas dire faussee, de la realite, comme l’ont note plusieurs sociologues et juristes americains: Par exemple la place de la preuve ADN est grandement exageree tout comme sa pertinence. Vitamin. Les procureurs sont pousses a produire toujours plus de preuves scientifiques meme si cela ne presente aucun interet pour l’affaire a priori. Bien que les technologies presentees par la serie et ses derives existent dans les laboratoires criminels, elles demandent bien plus de temps et sont souvent bien plus equivoques dans la realite. Les analystes craignent que les gens en viennent a croire que les sciences legales sont aussi efficaces que dans les series et s’attendent donc a des effets plus spectaculaires dans les cours de justice. Statement. Pour comprendre pourquoi un seul et meme prelevement genetique pouvait ainsi etre interprete de facon si differente, le New Scientist a demande a 17 experts d’analyser un prelevement genetique ayant permis la condamnation d’un homme, Kerry Robinson, pour viol.
Comme le resume sobrement Le Matin , dans un article intitule Crime: peut-on faire confiance a l’ADN?, les avis sont apparus etonnamment divergents : Quatre ont affirme que les resultats n’etaient pas probants, douze ont etabli que la presence de l’homme en question sur le lieu du crime pouvait etre ecartee, et un seul s’est rallie a l’avis qui avait prevalu lors du jugement, concluant qu’il n’etait pas possible d’exclure sa presence sur les lieux. Essays And The Decline Of American Civilization. Autrement dit: pour pres des 3/4 des laboratoires, le prelevement genetique permettait d’etablir l’innocence du prevenu, pour 1/4 d’entre eux, qu’il ne permettait d’etablir rien du tout. Statement Essay. Et le seul laboratoire qui s’est range a l’avis de l’expert ayant contribue a faire condamner cet homme n’a pas affirme qu’il etait le coupable recherche, mais que sa presence sur les lieux ne pouvait pas etre exclue… Pour le New Scientist , la technique est subjective et faillible . Creative English. Or, il suffit de l' opinion d’un seul individu pour finir en prison. Thesis Statement. De fait, Richard Smith et Kerry Robinson, bien qu’innocentes par une grande majorite des laboratoires ayant contre-expertise les echantillons genetiques leur ayant valu condamnations, sont toujours en prison. Pour Raphael Coquoz, charge de cours a l’Ecole des sciences criminelles de l’universite de Lausanne et specialiste de l’ADN, interroge par Le Matin , ces divergences d’expertises ne sont pas tres etonnantes: Un profil ADN n’est pas quelque chose d’univoque : On lui accorde trop de valeur. Vitamin. L’analyse ADN donne une probabilite que telle ou telle personne ait ete presente a un endroit.
Le concept de probabilite est parfois difficile a entendre quand on thesis statement, aimerait voir les choses en blanc ou en noir. En presence d’un profil faible , lorsque les traces sont infimes ou melangees, la probabilite diminue. Passion. Lorsque le profil est de bonne qualite, les certitudes sont elevees, mais on thesis statement for explication essay, n’est jamais sur a 100%. L’ADN n’est qu’un outil parmi d’autres, qui peut mener a des erreurs judiciaires. Vitamin Paper. Il faut le reconnaitre. Thesis Statement. Tout depend en effet d’abord de la qualite de l’echantillon recueilli. Passion For Art Essay. Parfois, il est trop petit, ou abime, degrade, pollue, quand il ne comporte pas plusieurs ADN, qui peuvent se masquer les uns les autres… rendant son analyse encore plus ardue. Thesis For Explication. Le mythe de l’infaillibilite des experts , et la pression de la hierarchie et de la justice sont tels que, par ailleurs, les policiers procedent de plus en plus a des prelevements d’echantillons genetiques sur les scenes de crimes. Un rapport de l’autorite de controle britannique de la genetique (HGC) avait ainsi revele, en 2009, que la police arretait de plus en plus de gens aux seules fins de les ficher genetiquement: alors que la delinquance baissait, les arrestations, et le fichage ADN, progressait, au point que 1 million d’innocents figuraient dans la base de donnees policiere britannique (forte de 6,3 millions de profils, dont 282 000 mineurs de moins de 18 ans), ainsi que 75% des Noirs de 18 a 35 ans.
Dans son rapport sur le projet de loi de finances francais pour 2011, le depute UMP Guy Geoffroy rappelait ainsi que le fichier national automatise des empreintes genetiques (FNAEG) continuait sa montee en puissance, avec 1 582 595 traces genetiques enregistrees au 1er juillet 2010 : Rien que sur l’annee 2010, pres de 375 000 traces supplementaires devraient avoir ete inserees. Depuis la constitution du fichier, de tres nombreux rapprochements d’affaires ont ete realises: 5548 avec une trace non identifiee, 25 884 avec l’empreinte genetique d’une personne mise en cause et 8796 avec celle d’une personne condamnee. Creative. Visitant en octobre dernier un laboratoire de la police technique et scientifique, Brice Hortefeux a ainsi rappele l’objectif fixe par son ministere de l’Interieur: realiser des prelevements d’empreintes genetiques sur 100% des cambriolages et des voitures volees retrouvees . Dans le meme temps, et consequemment, ceux qui sont transmis aux laboratoires d’analyse sont de moins en moins bonne qualite. Thesis For Explication Essay. De plus, il existe plusieurs techniques et methodes statistiques pour expertiser un echantillon genetique. Paper. Et moins l’empreinte est de qualite, plus il faut recourir a des techniques complexes, mais donc egalement plus compliquees a apprehender par un juge, et a fortiori par des jures, qui n’ont jamais ete formes aux subtilites de la statistique ni de la genetique.
La confiance populaire dans la preuve par l’ADN est telle que, sous la pression des juges, victimes, avocats, procureurs ou encore de l’opinion publique, les experts sont bien souvent sommes de parler, sinon de prendre parti, alors meme que certaines empreintes ou prelevements sont tellement abimes, partiels ou complexes a analyser qu’il est tres difficile de distinguer ce qui releve du signal de ce qui releve du bruit ou encore des artefacts techniques, au point qu’il est impossible d’esperer pouvoir en tirer une expertise veritablement fiable. Mais au lieu d’expliquer la methodologie statistique utilisee, afin de permettre a ceux qui vont juger de le faire un connaissance de cause, nombreux sont les experts et les laboratoires qui se contentent d’expliquer qu’ils pensent que l’ADN est (ou pas) celui du suspect, ou de la victime, entrainant juges et jures a condamner quelqu’un en accordant une confiance aveugle a une expertise qui, d’un point de vue scientifique ou statistique, pourrait pourtant etre contestee par un autre expert… Or, comme le rappelle le New Scientist dans son editorial, les jures americains estiment, a 95%, que la preuve par l’ADN est fiable, et un prevenu est plus susceptible d’etre condamne si le dossier comporte une preuve ADN que s’il n’en comporte pas… John Butler, responsable du groupe de genetique appliquee au National Institute of essay Standards and and the decline of american civilization Technology (NIST), a ainsi examine 5000 echantillons ADN de 14 laboratoires differents, et decouvert que 34% d’entre-eux comportaient l’ADN de deux personnes, et 11% celui de trois voire quatre personnes differentes. Parallelement, une etude de Dan Krane, de l’universite de Wright, parue dans le Journal of thesis statement for explication essay Forensic Sciences , a demontre que 3% des echantillons comportant trois ADN differents pouvaient etre interpretes comme ne comportant que deux ADN seulement, et que 70% des echantillons de quatre ADN pouvaient, pareillement, etre analyses comme ne comportant que deux ou trois ADN differents. Or, comme le resume Dan Krane qui, en tant que consultant, effectue regulierement des contre-expertises, si vous ne pouvez determiner combien de personnes etaient presentes sur les lieux, il est ridicule de suggerer que vous pouvez etre en mesure d’identifier le profil ADN ou l’identite de ceux qui y etaient vraiment. On Ignorance Decline Of American. Itiel Dror, professeur de neuroscience au college universitaire de Londres, qui a contribue a l’experimentation du New Scientist , en appelle a la conscience professionnelle des experts : Ceux qui travaillent dans l’analyse des empreintes digitales, et autres disciplines de la police technique et scientifique, ont desormais accepte que la subjectivite et le contexte pouvaient affecter leurs jugements et decisions. Il est desormais aussi temps que les experts genetiques acceptent que, dans certaines conditions, la subjectivite, voire meme certains biais, puissent affecter leur travail.
Le probleme se double du fait que, comme le souligne Linda Geddes dans le New Scientist , les experts n’utilisent pas forcement tous les memes procedures. Thesis For Explication. Un questionnaire, auquel ont repondu 19 laboratoires americains, canadiens, britanniques et australiens, a revele que 11 d’entre eux interdisaient a leurs analystes d’interpreter les resultats de maniere subjective, mais que 4 d’entre eux l’autorisaient regulierement, et deux autres de maniere exceptionnelles. L’ADN, une preuve essentiellement a charge Si la genetique permet souvent d’accuser, ou d’innocenter, quelqu’un sans trop de difficultes, David Balding, un geneticien et statisticien anglais, n’en estime pas moins que juges et jures sont trop frequemment confrontes a des preuves exploitees essentiellement a charge , pour confondre tel ou tel suspect, et non pas seulement de maniere neutre et scientifique. Il est ainsi courant qu’un laboratoire se voit demander si l’ADN de tel suspect, qui a ete apprehende, se trouve aussi sur l’echantillon preleve sur la scene du crime. For Art. Ce qui est tout a fait different que de demander au laboratoire d’identifier le ou les ADN du prelevement, sans faire de lien, d’emblee, avec tel ou tel suspect. Dan Krane et William Thompson, professeur de criminologie a l’universite de Californie, ont ainsi soumis un echantillon de salive preleve sur le sein d’une femme qui avait ete violee a 1000 experts , repartis en quatre categories.
Trois hommes avaient ete suspectes, un seul fut condamne. Thesis Statement For Explication Essay. Les trois premiers groupes devaient estimer si l’ADN de chacun de ces trois suspects pouvait etre identifie, ou non, dans l’echantillon, le quatrieme etant charge d’y rechercher l’ADN de la victime. Tous ont estime que l’ADN de la personne qui leur etait presentee pouvait etre identifie dans l’echantillon de salive en question. Hotel Housekeeper Letter. Or, souligne Dan Krane, pres du tiers des affaires qu’il a a traiter, au quotidien, comportent de tels biais d’interpretation subjective… Le New Scientist explique egalement que les experts sont souvent trop proches de la police, et qu’ils en savent souvent trop sur l’affaire, ou les suspects, au point que cela pourrait constituer un biais dans leurs analyses. Thesis For Explication. Un expert americain, temoignant de facon anonyme, denonce ainsi les risques de partialite de ses confreres: Les laboratoires criminels ne devraient pas etre places sous le controle de l’institution policiere. Passion For Art. Nous sommes des scientifiques, pas des policiers, ni des procureurs. Thesis Statement. Avec Peter Gill, co-inventeur de la preuve par l’ADN avec Sir Alec Jeffreys, et ancien responsable du laboratoire de police scientifique britannique, David Balding a ainsi elabore une methode, le ratio de probabilite ( likehood ratio , LR) , dont l’enonce suffit a mettre a mal l’infaillibilite supposee de la preuve par l’ADN:
Il s’agit de se demander quelle est la probabilite que cette preuve puisse etre utilisee par l’accusation, et quelle est la probabilite qu’elle puisse etre exploitee par la defense. Parents Are Better Teachers Essays. Ensuite, vous faire un ratio des deux. Thesis Statement. Aussi surprenante qu’elle puisse paraitre pour un profane, cette methode a officiellement ete recommandee, l’an passe, par l’International Society for essays on ignorance and the decline of american, Forensic Genetics (ISFG), et le Scientific Working Group on statement for explication, DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM), un laboratoire du FBI charge d’effectuer des recommandations aux laboratoires de police scientifique et technique americains, des lors que l’empreinte genetique s’avere complexe a expertiser. Pour Peter Gill, qui deplore le mythe de l’infaillibilite de l’ADN, le manque de comprehension de la part du public, mais egalement des juges et des avocats, est considerable . Vitamin C Research. Ainsi, aux Etats-Unis, il estime que seuls 10 a 15% des avocats dont les clients ont pourtant ete, en tout ou partie, incrimines sur la base de leur empreinte genetique, effectuent une contre-expertise… Dane Krane, lui, estime que le taux serait plutot inferieur a 1%, soulignant la croyance aveugle qu’accorderait les avocats dans la preuve genetique… Bruce Budowle, ancien responsable du laboratoire genetique du FBI, plaide ainsi pour que les laboratoires generalisent la contre-expertise, et la verification, de leurs analyses, et pour que toutes ces donnees et conclusions soient aussi confiees aux avocats et defenseurs des personnes dont l’ADN a ete identifie. 18 des 19 laboratoires interroges par le New Scientist procedent a de telles contre-expertises, mais dans la majorite des cas, le second analyste a prealablement pris connaissance des conclusions de son predecesseur, faussant ainsi potentiellement leurs resultats. Si 15 de ces laboratoires expliquent qu’en cas de desaccord, c’est le superieur hierarchique qui tranche, seuls deux d’entre eux declarent mentionner, dans leurs rapports, l’existence d’une divergence d’analyses… Il ne s’agit pas pour autant de jeter l’opprobre sur l’utilisation judiciaire de l’ADN, ni de conclure que les expertises seraient systematiquement sujettes a caution. Par contre, le fait que l’on ait d’ores et deja autant d’erreurs, et les biais et problemes de subjectivite souleves par le New Scientist , plaident pour une vigilance accrue en la matiere, d’autant que la police et la justice exploitent de plus en plus la genetique dans leurs enquetes.
L’expertise genetique est une discipline encore relativement nouvelle, mais nous disposons egalement de suffisamment d’elements pour ne plus lui accorder la confiance aveugle qu’on lui prete generalement. Dans son rapport, tres critique (voir Quand les experts se trompent), sur le caractere non scientifique des techniques utilisees par la police technique et scientifique, le conseil national de la recherche americain soulignait ainsi que les methodes developpees dans les laboratoires afin d’aider les forces de l’ordre pourraient grandement beneficier des contributions des chercheurs et scientifiques. Et c’est precisement pour renforcer la confiance que l’on peut accorder au systeme judiciaire, et a la facon qu’ont les experts d’exploiter traces et identifiants genetiques, que Dan Krane a publie dans la revue Science , en decembre 2009, un appel cosigne par 40 autres scientifiques et professeurs de droit, intitule Time for thesis for explication, DNA disclosure (.pdf) (Il est temps de liberer l’ADN), appelant a liberer la base de donnees de profils genetiques de la police americaine, afin que d’autres chercheurs et scientifiques y aient eux aussi acces: Nous pensons que le temps est venu pour le FBI de permettre aux scientifiques d’acceder aux profils genetiques anonymises de sa base de donnees afin qu’ils puissent y effectuer des recherches qui profiteront a l’ensemble de la justice criminelle. Les forces de l’ordre devraient honorer les normes scientifiques et ouvrir leurs bases de donnees ADN au regard scientifique independant. Housekeeper Letter. Cela ne pose guere de risque significatif, et ne peut que renforcer la qualite de l’exploitation judiciaire de l’ADN.
Comme le souligne egalement le New Scientist dans l’editorial qu’il consacra a cette demande, si le FBI s’est trompe dans ses statistiques, les consequences sont tellement profondes que nous devrions pouvoir le savoir. For Explication Essay. S’il ne s’est pas trompe, les recherches ne pourront que renforcer la preuve par l’ADN. Decline Of American. Dans les deux cas, la justice en sortira gagnante . Essay. Cette evaluation serait d’autant plus pressante, mais egalement pertinente, que ladite base de donnees est de plus en plus exploitee par la police et la justice, et qu’elle repertorie plus de 9 millions de profils genetiques, augmentant d’autant la probabilite de voir une ou plusieurs personnes partager le meme profil ADN, et donc deboucher sur des erreurs judiciaires. Thinking Hum 111. Comme l’expliquent Escondida et Timelos, plus un fichier augmente en taille, plus il est cense etre efficace, mais plus sa fiabilite theorique est en chute libre . Interroge par le LA Times , Jonathan Jay Koehler, professeur de droit specialiste des sciences du comportement, et notamment de ce qui preside aux decisions judiciaires basees sur les expertises de la police technique et scientifique, estime que le taux d’erreur, dans les laboratoires, est de l’ordre de 1 pour 1000, qu’il s’agisse d’ADN identifie, a tort, ou bien, a contrario, non identifie alors qu’il aurait pu l’avoir ete: Personne ne voudrait prendre l’avion s’il devait s’ecraser une fois tous les 1000 vols. Thesis Statement Essay. William Thompson, considere comme l’un des meilleurs specialistes des erreurs en matiere de genetique criminelle, se rappelle que lors de la creation des premieres bases de donnees d’ADN, on paper, estimait que les innocents n’avaient rien a craindre, et qu’ils ne devaient donc pas avoir peur d’etre fiches. Mais aujourd’hui, quand on thesis statement essay, regarde la somme d’erreurs repertoriees de par le monde – et nous ne connaissons que la partie emergee de l’iceberg -, le probleme se pose vraiment de savoir combien de personnes nous voulons ainsi ficher. Writing. Et je n’aimerais certainement pas etre l’une d’entre elles. Thesis Essay. 77% des personnes fichees, en France, sont innocentes En 1994, la loi qui avait cree le fichier genetique americain avait expressement anticipe le fait que des chercheurs pourraient y effectuer des controles qualite dans la mesure ou les informations personnelles et identifiables en seraient retirees , ce qu’il est d’autant plus facile a faire que les identifiants genetiques fiches sont non-codants , et donc non susceptibles de reveler d’informations sensibles (une affirmation cela dit contestee par Catherine Bourgain, chargee de Recherches de l’Unite INSERM 535 Genetique epidemiologique et structures des populations humaines , pour qui il n’y a pas d’ADN neutre ).
Si le FBI s’est deja illustre en essayant de camoufler les erreurs identifiees par certains experts dans son fichier genetique, il refuse d’acceder aux demandes des scientifiques precisement (ou, plutot, officiellement ) en raison de considerations liees a la protection de la vie privee, et des caracteristiques genetiques de ceux qui sont fiches dans sa base de donnees. Ces derniers voudraient ainsi verifier le taux d’erreur, au moment de la saisie manuelle des fichiers. Writing English. Une etude portant sur 15 021 profils genetiques contenus dans une base de donnee gouvernementale australienne avait ainsi revele un taux d’erreur de 1 sur 300, ce qui souleve un certain nombre de questions au regard des opportunites manquees d’aboutir sur certaines enquetes . A contrario, l’article que Linda Geddes, du New Scientist , a consacre a cette lettre ouverte, met plutot l’accent sur les risques d’erreurs judiciaires. Statement For Explication Essay. Elle cite ainsi plusieurs experiences, menees sur pres de 300 000 profils genetiques extraits de trois bases de donnees ADN americaines. Hotel Housekeeper Letter. A la grande surprise des scientifiques, plus de 2000 profils partageaient des caracteristiques qui, normalement, auraient du rendre leurs profils uniques . Interroge a ce sujet, Bruce Budowle, ancien responsable scientifique du fichier genetique du FBI, explique que selectionner le profil d’un suspect afin de le comparer a un echantillon preleve sur une scene de crime est a peu pres aussi pertinent que de tenter d’identifier un suspect a partir de sa seule date de naissance: plus la base de donnees contient de profils genetiques, plus grandes sont les chances d’en voir un certain nombre partager certaines caracteristiques. En decembre 2008, la Grande-Bretagne etait condamnee par la Cour europeenne des droits de l’homme a detruire les profils ADN de 850 000 personnes, soit pres de 13% des 6,3 millions d’individus presents dans le fichier genetique de la police britannique. Les juges avaient en effet estime que leur fichage genetique etait une atteinte disproportionnee au respect de la vie privee , au motif que leur casier judiciaire etait vierge, et qu’ils n’avaient pas ete condamnes dans l’affaire qui leur avait valu d’etre fiches, et qu’ils devaient donc toujours etre presumes innocents. Le Fichier national automatise des empreintes genetiques, son equivalent francais, ne comporte, lui, que 1,6 million de profils. Thesis Statement For Explication Essay. Cree en 1998 afin de ficher les criminels sexuels, et lutter contre la recidive, il a depuis ete elargi a la quasi-totalite des personnes a l’??encontre desquelles il existe des raisons plausibles de soupconner qu’??elles aient commis un crime ou un delit (a l’exception notable de la delinquance routiere et financiere). En decembre 2009, alors qu’il n’en recensait que 1,2 million de profils, le nombre de personnes condamnees enregistrees etait de 280 399, soit 23%.
Dit autrement: 77% des personnes fichees genetiquement, en France, n’ont ete que mises en cause et suspectees, mais jamais condamnees. Decline Of American. Elles sont donc toujours presumes innocentes … Comme le soulignait l’an passe Matthieu Bonduelle, secretaire general du Syndicat de la magistrature, au sujet du FNAEG, “ Il faut reconnaitre qu’il permet de resoudre des affaires, mais on thesis for explication, est maintenant dans une logique d’alimentation du fichier. Housekeeper. Personne ne prone le fichage generalise, mais, de fait, on thesis statement for explication essay, est en train de l’effectuer “ (voir Objectif: ficher l’ADN de toute la population). Condamnes par le code: l’immunite logicielle en question. Les algorithmes sont-ils une nouvelle forme de bureaucratie? Les donnees suffisent-elles pour piloter la ville?
Ou en est le Nudge (1/3)? Tout est-il nudgable ? Bodyware: pour une augmentation ordinaire. Les correlations en leurs limites. La toute petite bonne nouvelle de cet article, c’est que 77% des empreintes genetiques contenus dans le fichier francais des empreintes genetiques sont illegales. Mais il faudrait qu’un avocat, ou une association porte l’affaire devant les tribunaux europeens pour que ces empreintes soient effacees. Merci pour cet article d’une densite, d’une clarte et d’une precision rares.
Je suis epoustouflee par la qualite de ce que je viens de lire. Thinking Hum 111. J’ai appris enormement de choses et en suis d’autant plus choquee par ce que j’ai compris du danger du fichage generalise. tres bel article! Merci beaucoup pour toutes ces informations et mises en lumiere.
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Sample ACT Writing Prompt #038; Essays. Click through the tabs below to read SIX different sample ACT essays for this prompt. Each has a different score, and an explanation for that score at the end. See how you can go from a zero to a hero by learning what makes the statement for explication, perfect ACT essay. “School’s out for summer!” How many of us have stated this sentence in June while happily beginning a summer of fun activities?
All students desire the small taste of freedom that comes during the summer months, but we must admit that what we want isn’t always the best thing for passion for art, us. Statement? Few students will admit this, but having an extra few months every year to complete our education would be beneficial to young people entering a world that is more global and letter competitive than ever. With the nine months that are currently provided, students find it difficult to complete their goals before they leave high school. Thesis Statement Essay? Being accepted to a college requires planning and effort which requires time that is difficult to come by during the busy school year. By extending the school year, students will be given the precious time they need in order to truly prepare for the ‘real world’. Colleges look closely at barriers to critical hum 111 how students utilize their time in high school. Do students do well in their courses?
Are students afraid of for explication, taking difficult courses? Are students ‘well-rounded’ with extracurricular activities? Many students may desire to take leadership roles in multiple organizations, but are unable to due to time constraints. With an extra few months each year, students will be able to fulfill all of housekeeper, these requirements. They will be able to take more courses to complete globally while participating in a wider variety of after school activities. With all of the pressures facing teenagers today, many of us struggle to keep a high grade point average. It is very difficult to be involved with outside activities while maintaining academic excellence. For Explication? However, colleges do not take this into consideration when considering the passion for art, growing number of thesis statement for explication essay, applicants that come across their desks each year. Creative Writing English? Many students who are from other nations such as Japan and China spend much more time in thesis statement for explication school, and are therefore at an advantage when being compared to American students. And The Of American? Students in our country need to step up to the global plate and use all twelve months of the year to achieve their goals.
Academics aside, students often struggle to achieve their personal goals within a nine month school year. A student may face a choice between an AP Calculus course and thesis essay a music course. Which looks more impressive on a transcript? The student will sacrifice their personal interest in and the order to look more impressive to thesis essay colleges and thinking hum 111 universities. This may lead to students having higher levels of thesis for explication essay, stress and becoming burnt out. High school is a turning point for many people. It can either be a foundation for a successful life or the beginning of a life of disappointment and deferred dreams. A few extra months of education each year may make all the c research paper, difference. With the additional time, students can take both the courses they want and the courses they need while having more time to work at a reasonable pace and to reduce stress and pressure. Teenagers work hard to build the foundation for their future, and they need as much time as possible to ensure their success. This essay reflects effective skill in responding to the task.
The writer takes a stance on the issue and offers a critical context for discussion. The writer also looks at the underlying cultural influences regarding the issue and offers clear examples of these. The argument is clearly supported by both general and specific examples. The organization of the essay is for explication clear and logical, with effective use of transitions throughout. The introduction and conclusion are effective, well developed and captivating to the reader. Language and vocabulary usage are excellent, and there are few mistakes to distract the reader. Blank test, illegible, not in English, off-topic.
In this essay I will be writing about how year long schools are a bad idea. Students already have to go to passion for art school for much too long. School is a place where students can learn about things that will help them in life and thesis statement for explication essay students are also able to socialize with others during the school year. Summer vacation is the only thing that people look forward too, and even teachers are happy when the school year is over. Writing English? Going on vacation helps students to do better in school and to statement essay graduate on time. My friends and I have a lot of fun during the summer but we also get jobs to earn money so that we can do the fun activities that we like to do. Some parents don’t like that students get to get the summers off but our schools have been that way for many years and I just don’t think that nothing needs to change. This essay shows little skill in replying to the task. While the barriers, writer does take a stance on their opinion in the opening sentence, they fail to thesis statement for explication use any logical argument to support their thesis. There are many different ideas and thoughts scattered throughout the essay without using any logical structure or progression. Parents Teachers Essays? There are leaps between each subject that is addressed and there are no transitions or discernible organization to the essay.
The student repeats different ideas over and over in lieu of explaining them. If you ask any student if they would enjoy going to thesis statement essay school all year, the vast majority would say no. I would be one of the few that would say yes, not because I would enjoy losing my vacation, but because I would want to make sure that I have more time to english course prepare for the real world after I graduate high school. Along with this, I feel that we waste a lot of time preparing for the tests that we have to take at the end of the year, and this might make up for the time that we lose when we are doing that. High school students today have to enter a world where there are not very many jobs.
Students need to learn more in school and statement essay become smarter so that they can get the jobs since many more people are going against them to get these jobs. Cover? Even if students go to thesis for explication essay college, many of them aren’t ready and are shocked when they enter college. Maybe if we went to school during the summer, we could learn what we need to learn so that we will be ready. We waste so much time learning how to take the writing english, state tests every year that we basically waste several months every year, so we should make up the time by learning in the summer. Also, most other jobs in the real world happen all year, so we should just go ahead and get used to that anyway. The writer shows inconsistent skill in addressing the for explication, task. Although there are clear ideas and arguments made, they are rather thin and are not given sufficient explanation throughout the parents are better teachers, essay. Thesis? There is some organizational structure and housekeeper logical progression, but the thesis statement for explication, conclusion is cover letter minimal and not clearly separated from the discussion of the other arguments in the essay. Essay? Transitions are present but are minimal and simplistic. Sentence structure and word choice shows some variety.
There are minimal language usage errors to distract the essay, reader. Experts debate changing the school calendar to year-round schools. Some experts believe that this helps students not to waste time during the summer so that they can learn all the things that they need to learn. Other experts feel that the students of today are already too busy and need a break in the summer to rest and thesis for explication get ready for passion for art, the next school year. Both sides have strong points but it is thesis for explication my opinion that we should keep the summer vacation in the school calendar. I agree that high school should keep the summer vacation because many students will loose interest in school if they aren’t given a break to rest and get ready for the following year. School is very busy for students with both educational and extracurricular activities, and if students don’t get to rest sometimes, they will get burned out and will do worst at school instead of better. Many students already loose their interest in school and drop out before they finish, and I think that taking away summer vacation would just make that problem worse instead of better. I also feel that it is important to passion have summer vacations so that students can do things in the real world instead of statement essay, just inside of a school building. Essay? Most students get jobs over the summer so that they can save money to go to college or to buy cars or other things that they want to buy themselves.
Some parents can’t afford to buy their kids lots of thesis statement, stuff that they need so it helps when the kids can work and buy it for themselves. Creative? Some students also get to go on vacation to other places in the world and meet other people and they can learn lots from that instead of just learning from books inside of school. It just seems to me that going to school all year is thesis statement essay way too long for most people. It is hard enough to make it through the teachers, school year the statement essay, way it is and adding three more months will just be to much for creative writing english course, some people. Students would give up and drop out or fail if they had to stay in school all that time. The writer shows some skill in the writing task. The writer takes a position on thesis for explication essay, the issue and offers arguments and examples to support their claims. Teachers? The student repeats the prompt in statement for explication essay the introduction of the essay, but does not offer any counter arguments in the body of the work. Discussion of each idea is limited to general statements that are never illustrated by specific reasons, examples, or details. The writer does, however, stay on topic and passion for art essay keeps a logical progression to their arguments. Transitions are used, but there are no meaningful connections between the statement for explication, paragraphs of the essay.
There are clear introductions and conclusions but they are underdeveloped, repeating either the given writing prompt or ideas that were just stated in the body of the paper, essay. Language use shows some variety, but there are some distracting usage errors. Educators debate the usefulness of a summer vacation in thesis statement for explication todays changing world. Those who support a year round schedule feel that students will be given more time to prepare for college and for paper, a more competitive job field, while those against it feel that students will become burnt out without a break and will perform more poorly than before due to feeling overwhelmed. Thesis For Explication Essay? There are advantages and hotel housekeeper cover letter disadvantages to each side of the argument, but I feel that having a 12 month school year would be counterintuitive for many reasons, such as a loss of interest and motivation, loss of real life experiences and the fact that three extra months of learning will not solve the bigger issues that face our educational system. Firstly, students don’t really learn the whole time they are in school with the current schedule.
Every spring, students and teachers get burnt out and just do the minimum amount of work required to get through to the end of the school year. The last week of school is often spent just watching movies or doing nothing at all. With an extended school year this attitude will persist for months instead of a few weeks, and nothing will get accomplished anyway. Secondly, students will lose the opportunity to learn things during the summer. Thesis For Explication? Yes, it is possible to learn outside of hum 111, school! Many students get jobs during the summer in order to help with expenses. This helps kids to learn responsibility as well as helping them to try different professions so that they can decide what they want to thesis do with their lives. Some students also use the summer to travel with there families and learn more about c research different places and cultures.
Lastly, extending the school year just seems like a ‘quick fix’ solution to thesis statement for explication essay bigger issues in the American school system. Parents Are Better Essays? Tacking three months onto essay, the school year isn’t going to c research paper fix the dropout rates or inclining test scores. Thesis Essay? It may even worsen these problems due to the drop in both teacher and student morale. In conclusion, nine month long school years are more than long enough for students to learn the are better, things that they need to learn in order to succeed. Thesis Statement For Explication Essay? The problems that students face will only be worsened by a year-long school calendar. Paper? We have had the same school calendar for many decades and many people have managed to learn and succeed without attending school over the summer, so why would we think that students today are any different? The student displays adequate skill in responding to the task.
The writer takes a position and thesis for explication provides clear examples to support their arguments. The writer addresses some counter-arguments to vitamin c research their own position, which shows some complexity and depth to for explication essay their ideas. The development of ideas is logical and essays on ignorance decline civilization adequate, and focus on the original issue is maintained throughout the essay. The organization is thesis statement essay clear but predictable, and transitions between the paragraphs are overly obvious and simplistic. The introduction and c research conclusion are clear and somewhat developed. Language and word choice show some variety and proficiency. However, there are some distracting errors in word usage. Demand for for explication essay, excellence in both academics and extracurricular activities are forcing high school students to work their fingers to the bone in order to reach the high standards that are applied to them in today’s society. This is hardly surprising in a society which admires those who make the passion for art essay, most money and obtain the highest achievements. Having students attend school through the summer would give more opportunities to take courses which interest them while relieving some of the stress that they face and thesis helping the young people of today to prioritize their wants and needs accordingly.
Many schools offer an abundance of interesting courses, but many students, particularly college bound students, do not have the opportunity to take these courses. Instead, they are pressured to take courses which will be required for college as opposed to being able to learn something that grabs there interest. College admissions are more competitive than ever, so students will take difficult and more ‘impressive’ courses in parents essays order to have a leg up instead of thesis for explication essay, being able to learn about things that they enjoy. Life for teenagers today is more stressful than ever. We have parents and teachers who ask about our college and career paths starting in elementary school. Stress is a real problem for many young people today. They have to consider many things: Where should I go to college? How will I pay for college? What should I choose for my career? All of these questions are very stressful and can cause students to turn to unhealthy habits such as drugs and alcohol in order to cope. By adding a few extra months to essays and the of american the school year, students would have many more options and choices, and this would help to decrease the stress that they face in a 9 month school year.
Nobody seems to have enough time available in thesis for explication order to complete what they want to complete. Writing? Students have no time for family, friends, relaxing or perusing hobbies that they enjoy. Thesis Statement Essay? Instead, they must concentrate on school and how to look impressive to colleges in order to obtain admissions and scholarships. Course? Even when young people do take some time to relax, adults often assume that we are ‘lazy young people’ who don’t know how to for explication work hard! While some teenagers are lazy (just the same as there are lazy adults!), they also need to know that some relaxation is important for physical and mental health. While some people may think that this is achieved through a three month summer vacation, they should realize that most teenagers just take on jobs or internships to for art earn money instead of just relaxing… and before they know it, they are back in the stressful school environment. Being in school year round can help students prioritize their sanity by slowing down and taking things at a reasonable pace instead of squeezing everything into thesis statement for explication essay, 9 months. With such high standards for young people today, isn’t it fair that they should have a few extra months a year in order to get everything done and, heaven forbid, have a bit of fun and relaxation? Having year round schooling will help students to work at a more leisurely pace to complete their courses and and the decline prepare for college or the world of work.
They will be able to learn about things that interest them instead of just what they ‘should’ learn for college, and they will be able to have more time to relax and learn how to prioritize their health and thesis mental well being. Having year round schooling will benefit students for years to decline of american civilization come. This essay takes a stance and offers explanation within a larger context of today’s society and culture. The essay demonstrates understanding of the complexities of the argument by thesis essay taking many different perspectives into account without unnerving the argument made by the writer. The development of the essay is logical and fluid. The essay provides both general ideas and specific examples to support the creative english course, thesis. Some ideas are developed fully and thesis statement essay critical conclusions are made. Transitions are well crafted and used appropriately. Language usage is parents teachers essays generally clear, but there are some distracting mistakes with homonyms. Vocabulary is complex and correctly used. Good Luck ACT is the thesis statement for explication essay, free, complete guide to the ACT exam.
We give you detailed information on essay, all the thesis essay, different types of questions on the test, as well as strategies to excel in each section. You can also take our free ACT practice test to see how prepared you are. This site is written by Erica Newsome, an experienced public educator in both the United States and Canada. She has spent her career helping secondary students excel and essays and the decline of american prepare for college. ACT® is the registered trademark of ACT, Inc.
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