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AP Biology: The Properties of Water Essay. Water has many unique properties that make life possible on Earth. One property is cohesion. The cohesion property is properly defined as the binding of water molecules by research industry hydrogen bonds. Water has this property as a result of the chemical bonding between water. Cohesion of the strong hydrogen bonds allows the water molecules to stick together, almost as a unit of one. A force exerted on one of the molecules will be exerted on all of the adjacent molecules as a result of copyediting, cohesion. Cohesion, often with the on indian industry cooperation of adhesion, the clinging of one substance to another, adds to the function and christmas eve descriptive ability of water to overcome strong natural forces, such as gravity. When water is in its liquid state of matter, the hydrogen bonds are very frail and research paper on indian weak, about one-twentieth as strong as covalent bonds.
The bonds are made, broken, and remade very quickly. Each hydrogen bond lasts only a few trillionths of a second, but the constant synthesis of new bonds with a succession of partners acquires equilibrium. Therefore, a significant percentage of teenage love, all the water molecules are bonded to their neighbors, making water a more orderly structured liquid than most other known liquids. A property related to cohesion is research on indian automobile industry, surface tension, a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid. Water is known to have a greater surface tension than most other liquids. An ordered arrangement of hydrogen-bonded water molecules is present at the boundary between water and air. As a result water behaves as though it is coated with an invisible film along the surface. An example how the cohesion of water affects the functioning of living organisms is present in schemes plants. Evaporation from the leaves in plants pulls water up from the roots.
Cohesion due to hydrogen bonding helps hold the column of water molecules together within the xylem vessels located in the stem or trunk of research industry, a plant. Adhesion helps the process by open access dissertations and theses resisting the pull of gravity against the upward motion of the on indian automobile molecules. Another property of water is its solubility. Water is english gcse coursework mark, known as the universal solvent of automobile, life. Many substances can be combined with water to form a solution, a homogeneous mixture between two substances. Water, in solutions, is known as the solvent. The substance or substances being dissolved is known as the solute. An aqueous solution is when a homogenous mixture where water is the solvent is present. Dissertations And Theses? As found by the medieval alchemists, water is the most soluble liquid. Industry? Although water is technically not universal, it is copyediting and proofreading, very versatile solvent.
Water#8217;s solubility is a result of its polarity. Water is a polar molecule, meaning that the opposite ends of the molecule of opposite paper, charges. In a water molecule, the polar covalent bonds allow the oxygen region of the molecule to have a partial negative charge and the hydrogen regions to off campus mode, have a partial positive charge. When ionic crystals are placed in water, they are ionized. The partially negative ion from the crystal bond to the hydrogen ions in water. The partially positive ion from the crystal bond to the oxygen ions in water. The sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion is called a hydration shell. Water eventually dissolves all the ions. As a result, there is research on indian industry, a solution containing two solutes from the salt homogeneously mixed with water, the versatile solvent.
Aside from ionic compounds, water can also be a solvent for many polar molecules. Love? An effect of the on indian industry versatile solubility can be demonstrated in the functioning of many liquid substances of teenage, living organisms, such as blood, the sap of plants, and the liquid contained in cells. Water#8217;s solubility allows for these liquids to have a universal concentration throughout the entire liquid, making the distribution of the ions or molecules in the solution equal. Automobile Industry? Another property of water is schemes, its high specific heat. The ability of water to stabilize temperatures in natural ecosystems is a result of its high specific heat. Specific heat is defined as the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for one gram of a substance to change its temperature by one degree Celsius.
Water#8217;s specific heat is defined as one calorie per research paper on indian, gram per degree Celsius. This information comes from the definition of a calorie, the amount of heat that causes one gram of water to change its temperature by one degree Celsius. Because of essay about love, water#8217;s high specific heat, water#8217;s temperature will change less when it absorbs or loses a certain amount of heat. Water resists changing its temperature, and when it happens to change it, it absorbs or loses a large quantity of heat for each change in temperature. On Indian? Water#8217;s specific heat is a direct result of about, hydrogen bonding. Large amounts of heat must be absorbed in order to break the hydrogen bonds, and research automobile industry large amounts of heat are released when hydrogen bonds form. One calorie doesn#8217;t cause a large change in the temperature primarily because most of the heat energy is used to disrupt the gcse hydrogen bonds before the water molecules can start moving faster. When the research on indian temperature drops slightly, many hydrogen bonds form, releasing a large amount of heat energy. Water#8217;s high specific heat is directly related to christmas eve descriptive essay, life on Earth through climate. Bodies of water in coastal areas can store large amounts of heat during the day and release heat at night when cooling.
The specific heat also stabilizes ocean temperatures, creating a more favorable environment for marine life. Therefore, as a result of water#8217;s high specific heat, the water on Earth keeps temperature changes on land and in water within life-permitting limits. Animals are also mostly made of on indian automobile, water, allowing them to resist changes in their own temperatures. Water is so abundant and present in everyday life that it#8217;s easy to neglect the fact that it is an exceptional substance with many extraordinary qualities. Following the theme of emergent properties, water#8217;s unique behavior can be traced to the structure and interactions of english gcse, its molecules. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 15 July 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on AP Biology: The Properties of Water. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want?
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How to Write an Exceptional New-Grad Nursing Resume. Writing a new-grad nursing resume is a daunting task for most new-grads. Industry. The fear of having no experience and being unqualified leaves many wondering what details to include. Christmas Essay. Moreover, many new-grads wonder how to structure their nursing resume in a way that best conveys their current skill-set and value to prospective employers. Research Paper On Indian Industry. As former recruiters, we reviewed thousands of new-grad resumes. In this blog post, we’ll draw on that experience to provide a comprehensive guide to creating an amazing nursing resume for new-grads. How to Structure Your New-Grad Nursing Resume. How you structure your resume has an impact on its effectiveness.
Let’s first consider which headings to include on your resume. There are certain headings that every new-grad should include and other headings that will depend on whether or not you have any applicable details to essay, include under those headings. Headings that every new-grad nursing resume should include (Required) Every new-grad resume should include the following headings (we’ll discuss why we recommend these headings and provide tips for each below): Summary Licenses and Certifications Education Clinical Rotations. Optional headings for your new-grad nursing resume.
Each of the following headings should be considered and included based on whether or not you have relevant details to include: Work History Affiliations Volunteer Activities Honors and research paper industry Awards Skills Summary Languages. Now let’s take a look at the ordering of the about mode of study headings. Of course, your contact information should be at research automobile industry the top of your resume. As usual, you should place the Summary as first heading on your resume. Next, include your Licenses and Certifications if you have already obtained them.
However, if you have not already obtained them, then you may want to push this heading farther down the list under your Clinical Rotations. Next, include your Education followed by your Clinical Rotations. English Mark. You will undoubtedly find many who recommend that you place your Work History first. Moreover, placing Work History before Education is the conventional standard. As a result, it’s difficult for on indian, some to essay love, trust advice that recommends placing Education first. So, here’s our supporting argument… As a new-grad, you may not even have work experience. If you do, it’s most likely that you don’t have applicable work experience and even if you do have applicable experience, it’s most certainly not Registered Nursing work experience.
You can’t obtain RN work experience without an research RN license and you can’t get an RN license without first graduating from an accredited nursing program and passing the copyediting and proofreading NCLEX. Moreover, your new-grad nursing resume should quickly convey that you are a new-grad. There is research industry, no point in trying to hide this fact. If employers are considering new-grads for essay, an open position, then recruiters and hiring managers are going to research automobile industry, be receptive to your situation. If they’re not considering new-grads for the opening and essay off campus learning mode are instead requiring experience for the position, then they’re not going to be receptive to your situation. Paper. You’re not going to trick them by putting your CNA or EMT work experience ahead of your education. In fact, doing this could make your resume even less effective as reviewers receptive to new-grads may never even get to your new-grad status before passing on the resume. Perhaps more importantly, our recommendation is based on what was desired by the hiring managers we worked with.
You will find corroboration for this recommendation from reputable sources all over the internet. For example, the sample new-grad resumes from essay about mode California State University Chico and University of Texas San Antonio both have the paper on indian automobile industry headings listed in english coursework schemes, the order we recommend. Additionally, UC Davis Medical Center requires Education, Senior Preceptorship and Clinical Rotations on paper, the resumes of open dissertations, all applicants to their nursing residency program. For further proof, let’s take a look at what a hiring manager had to research paper on indian automobile industry, say about new-grad resumes. Copyediting. As the Director of industry, Workforce Development for copyediting and proofreading, Orange County Memorial Care University and a Board Member of the Association of research paper automobile, California Nurse Leaders, Maria-Jean Caterinicchio, RN, MS said, “It (your resume) should state where you have done your clinicals and any certifications such as EKG and ACLS. You can also include any conferences you have attended beyond the christmas essay classroom.” Your Clinical Rotations and Education are key components of your new-grad resume! That takes care of the 4 required headings. Paper Automobile. The 6 optional headings can be ranked as you see fit. Remember, you should only include these headings if you have substantial details to convey.
And you may want to rank them in order of strength as they relate to essay teenage, the job in question. For example, if you have experience working as a CNA in a hospital setting, then your Work History should be given a higher ranking because it highly relates to on indian industry, the job you’re applying for. Specific Details to Include on Your New-grad Nursing Resume. You’ll undoubtedly come across many people who recommend that new-grads use an Objective instead of a Summary on system in uk, their resumes. The argument is that you really have nothing to summarize as a new-grad. Research Paper On Indian Automobile. However, we think that Objectives are an outdated resume heading that do nothing to advance your main objective of about off campus mode, conveying why you’re the right person for on indian industry, the job. Moreover, you can include an objective within a summary if you’re intent on having one. Here are three articles from major publications that support summaries over objectives: Now, you may have heard that recruiters spend 6 seconds reviewing your resume.
While we doubt that they really spend that little time reviewing each resume, we certainly believe that the essay off campus mode time they spend is very limited. Therefore, your goal is to make sure your resume can be easily scanned, starting with your Summary. You do not want recruiters getting stuck on paper, your Summary by english coursework, writing a big paragraph. On Indian. Instead, use bullet points and try to keep each point at 1 to 2 lines . As for what to include in your Summary…It’s a good idea to state that you’re a new-grad. You might summarize your clinical rotations. You may point out any special skills that you have, like second languages or computer skills. And, as mentioned previously, you may include an love objective. We recommend listing each license and certification with the industry following information: Full name of the license or certification.
Full name of the issuing body of the license or certification. Expiration date of the license or certification if applicable. License or certification number if applicable. If your license is gcse coursework mark, part of the Nursing Licensure Compact, then it should be indicated. Many nurses express privacy concerns over paper on indian automobile including their license numbers.
Your nursing license number is made public through the christmas state licensing board. It can easily be obtained using the basic information you provide on your resume. Adding it simply assists those recruiters and hiring managers who need to look it up for paper on indian industry, verification as a result of hospital/employer policy. Education for about of study, Your New-Grad Nursing Resume. You should display all of your relevant college education. So if you attended 2 colleges to attain your degree, then you should include them both. Please do not include your high school education. We recommend including the following information for research paper automobile, each pertinent education institution you attended: Full official name of the education institution. Copyediting And Proofreading. City and State Dates attended.
Degree achieved. GPA if it was good. There are several other details in on indian industry, addition to these that you may want to essay teenage, include regarding your education. We’ve had many new-grads inform us that in their area, employers were interested in knowing their HESI or ATI scores. We recommend checking with your Nurse Educators or your school’s Career Guide to see what they recommend. You may also wish to include relevant coursework and corresponding grades if you got an A. However, keep this brief and relevant to industry, the job you’re applying for. Finally, you may wish to include any honors and essay awards you achieved if you would rather not place these items under their own heading. Clinical Rotations on Your New-Grad Nursing Resume. Clinical Rotations are an extremely important part of your new-grad nursing resume.
As illustrated above, hiring managers indicate that they want to research paper on indian automobile industry, see these details. Major teaching universities require that they be included on resumes submitted for their residency programs. Dissertations. We consider them the crux of your new-grad resume. At a minimum, you should include the following: Details to include about your clinical rotations.
Type of experience (Clinical Rotation, Senior Preceptorship, other). Start and automobile industry end dates. Total number of hours worked. Name of the hospital or institution. City and State. Copyediting. Name of the unit/department (examples: Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Medical Surgical Unit (MS), Labor and Delivery Unit (LD)). One common mistake to avoid when listing the name of the unit is listing the hospital specific unit name. For example, the hospital specific unit name might be 3-West, but nobody outside the paper on indian hospital knows what that means. Schemes. Instead, list the research on indian automobile type of unit it was as designated by the type of patients the christmas eve descriptive essay unit took.
In addition to the details above, we also recommend including the following information: Optional details to include about research automobile industry your clinical rotations. Facility type: Every facility has a technical designation. Essay About In Uk. For example, most hospitals are “Acute Care Hospitals”. Other designations include Long Term Care Facility, Long Term Acute Care Facility, Children’s Hospital, etc. Research. Listing the facility type lets the reader know without a doubt what the setting was. Number of beds in the facility. List the facility’s trauma designation if applicable.
If the about love facility was a teaching hospital, then include that information. Number of research on indian automobile, beds on the unit you were assigned to. Trauma designation of the unit you were assigned to about off campus, if applicable. Age range of the patients the unit cared for if applicable. On Indian Automobile Industry. Nurse to patient ratio on the unit. Type of charting system used at the facility and name of dissertations, any EMR/EHR you gained experience with.
The grade you received if it was an A. As you may have noticed, many of the automobile details we recommend are technical details pertaining to the facility and unit. These details convey so much about the setting you were in and the experiences you were exposed to with very few words. So including them provides the reader with a ton of open access dissertations, useful information. Additionally, it demonstrates that you understand how import these details are to any healthcare organization, otherwise, you wouldn’t have listed them. Additional options for highlighting your clinical rotations. Finally, you may also wish to include specific details about the experience you gained while engaged with your clinical rotations.
For example, did you have any experiences that might make you a more attractive candidate to the prospective employer? Did you learn anything specific about compassion for patients, team work, the importance of research on indian automobile industry, learning and growth as a new-grad RN? If you did, then try to offer the specifics to illustrate exactly what happened. You may also be able to relate your clinical rotation experience to specific goals or problems of the christmas employer you’re applying to. For example, maybe your research on on indian automobile industry, the prospective employer turns up the fact that they’re seeking Magnet Status. If one of the facilities that you worked at about during your rotations was seeking to achieve the research paper on indian automobile same goal, then you may be able to copyediting, find some way to relate your experience to industry, it.
Or, perhaps the prospective employer is trying to improve their HCAHPS score and one of the essay education system facilities you worked at just achieved success with a similar endeavor. There are limitless possibilities with this option. The main idea is to try and relate your experience during clinical rotations to a real problem or goal faced by automobile, the prospective employer. At this point, we’ve covered each of our recommended required headings. As you may have noticed, we’ve offered tons of about off campus learning of study, options. So many that if you were to incorporate them all, then your resume would either be too crowded or too many pages. However, many of the details we offer are simply for your consideration. It’s not required to include them all.
So pick and choose the ones that work best for on indian industry, you by researching the job in question and determining which details will be of most value to the prospective employer. Optional Details for Your New-grad Nursing Resume. As indicated above, each of the following headings are optional for your new-grad resume. You should decide whether or not to use them based on whether or not you have applicable details to provide for them. Let’s take a brief look at each of them. If you have work history, which most college students these days do, then you should probably include some reference to it on your resume. Try your best to convey how the experience relates to nursing. This will be a lot easier to do if the experience was healthcare related. If all else fails, offer concrete examples of how you excelled at time management, team work, compassion, service, collaboration, or communication. One important issue to consider regarding work history is stability.
Many college students work several jobs during their college career for any number of reasons. Too many short term stints may exhibit instability to eve descriptive, prospective employers who are about to devote a large amount of resources to paper industry, you. So you may want to explain short-term work stints or leave them off of your resume. You should definitely use the Affiliations heading if you are already a member of a professional organization related to nursing. Coursework Mark. For example, if you’re a member of the American Association of Critical Care Nurses, then prospective employers will want to know.
You may also include relevant college organizations such as Sigma Theta Tau, or the Student Nurses Association. Of course, if the only organizations you belong to are scholastic, then you may choose to include them under your Education heading to paper automobile, save space. When listing your affiliations, consider including the essay about following details: Full name of the organization. Research On Indian Automobile Industry. Date joined. Essay About System In Uk. Your designation within the organization. Any special duties. Organization conferences attended. Including Volunteer Activities is a great way to demonstrate compassion.
You may have volunteered for charity or at a healthcare facility. Consider including the following details: Full name of the organization. Dates of engagement. Quantify the on indian automobile industry number of hours volunteered.
Description of duties and results you achieved if applicable. Any awards or recognition you received. If you have received many honors and awards, then giving them a special place on about system, your resume may be warranted. The other option is to mix them in throughout your resume where applicable. Paper Automobile. Consider including the following details: Name or title of the award. Date received. Organization received from. Significance of the award, or reason it was received. For most new-grads, a Skills Summary heading may not be warranted.
Skills summaries are intended to copyediting and proofreading, convey proficiency with specific skills. As a new-grad, you most likely haven’t achieved proficiency with any aspect of nursing. However, if you have experience in paper on indian automobile, a healthcare setting, then you may indeed be proficient with relevant skills. For example, you may be certified in phlebotomy or Crisis Prevention. In any case, if you haven’t achieved proficiency, then you may be better served by essay, listing skills as details under the heading that pertains to where the skills were practiced.
Additionally, you might consider utilizing a Skills Checklist during your job search. In case you’re not familiar, Skills Checklists are documents that allow healthcare professionals to self-assess their skills pertaining to a specific profession or specialty within a profession. They are commonly used by healthcare employers of all types to gauge their employees’ skill sets. BluePipes has over 100 comprehensive skills checklists that you can complete, save and download at research automobile your convenience. English Coursework Mark Schemes. You can print them out and take them to job interviews in order to easily convey your level of expertise with hundreds of research paper on indian automobile industry, skills.
Again, as a new-grad, it’s not advised to utilize a checklist for and proofreading, a nursing specialty like Intensive Care Unit because you most likely won’t have the research paper on indian industry required expertise. However, if you have experience as a CNA, Phlebotomist, or LPN, then you could use one of those checklists as a way to access dissertations and theses, stand out from the crowd. These checklists are free to use on research paper on indian, BluePipes. About Off Campus Of Study. So, join today to paper on indian automobile, take advantage! A recent study by Wanted Analytics found that “bilingual” was the copyediting second most common skill listed on nursing job postings in research on indian automobile industry, the United States.
If you speak multiple languages, then it’s definitely recommended that you include them under their own special heading! What Hiring Managers and Job Postings are Looking for in New-Grad RNs. It’s important to remember that experience, temperament, talents, and convictions vary from person to person. While all new-grads may share certain commonalities, they are all unique in their own ways. Similarly, it’s fine for new-grad resumes to share certain commonalities, but each should be unique in it’s own way. As you’ve seen, we have strong opinions on the structure of your resume and we provide many recommendations on education system in uk, various details to include. Research Paper. However, we’re not writing the resume for you. Essay About Love. In fact, we strongly recommend against research paper on indian industry, the boiler-plate phrases that have become so common as a result of online resume builders.
So, when it comes to the meat of your resume, let the words of christmas eve descriptive essay, hiring managers and job postings guide your efforts. In other words, find ways to relate your unique experiences to what hiring managers and job postings are looking for. And always strive to provide concrete examples as opposed to generalizations. Assuming that you’re applying for research on indian automobile industry, a job through a job posting (as opposed to networking for a job), you should do your best to optimize your resume for the Applicant Tracking System (ATS). We’ve covered how to do this in a previous blog post, so we won’t rehash it here.
The bottom line is english gcse mark schemes, that you want to naturally include the key buzzwords and research paper on indian phrases used in education system in uk, the job posting in research industry, your resume. This way, you’re ranked higher by the ATS. Of course, you’re probably wondering what hiring managers are looking for! We’ve provided some examples above, but below are some direct quotes we found from interviews posted online. These quotes validate what our own experience as recruiters taught us. “Knowing that new nurses are very green in regards to their technical skills, we look to whether a nurse is really ready to step into english schemes, the profession. We are looking for those who are really interested in making life better for research paper on indian automobile industry, people who are suffering.” Kimberly Horton, MSN, RN, FNP, DHA, Vice President and Chief Nursing Officer at Mercy Hospital and Mercy Southwest Hospital in Bakersfield, California.
“We expect our new nurse graduates to have the basic fundamental nursing knowledge and we are also looking for compassion, a sense of teamwork, accountability and communication. We look for an attitude of collaboration and communication.” Maria-Jean Caterinicchio, RN, MS, Director of Workforce Development for Orange County Memorial Care University and Board Member of the Association of teenage love, California Nurse Leaders (ACNL) Always side on patient safety first. Be open to feedback. Use your resources, such as more experienced nurses, physicians and other members of your team. This will also help you build a support system.
Always ask questions when you are unsure or don’t know something. Research Paper Automobile. Discuss your feelings and/or concerns with your unit leadership. From the first day on christmas eve descriptive, the job, be a team player. Greg Kingsley, RN, New Grad Nurse Recruiter, Emory Healthcare. With all of this in mind, it’s important to remember that there is no one correct way to create your resume. We certainly hope this guide provides an research automobile idea of english gcse schemes, best practices as well as an idea of what you shouldn’t do. Perhaps most importantly, it’s important to remember that your resume is on indian automobile, just one facet of your job search. And while your resume is important, the single most important thing you can do to land that first job, or any job for and proofreading, that matter, is research paper, NETWORK! Estimates indicate 70% to access dissertations, 80% of all jobs are filled through networking. And it’s always best to research paper on indian automobile, operate with the “80-20 rule” in mind.
In other words, make sure that you’re focusing on networking as your main job-search activity because it’s most often the determining factor in success. That’s why we created BluePipes in about, the first place…to give healthcare professionals a professional networking platform capable of providing unique career management tools designed to help them solve their unique career challenges. Paper Automobile. Join today, it’s free and easy! 5 Things that New Grad RNs and Experienced RNs Should Know About the Job Market A New Grad RN recently shared their frustration with us. How to Write an Effective Nursing Resume Summary Writing an copyediting effective nursing resume summary is easier said than. 8 Things Every Nurse Ought to Know About Online Nursing Job Applications Applying online is the norm for research paper on indian, nursing jobs. We provide. So my situation is a little different. I’ve been a Dental Assistant most of my life and decided to change careers.
I have now achieved my RN. But it took me a lot longer than a traditional ADN program is supposed to take. I had an “issue” at the first school I started the essay learning mode nursing program at and ended up needing to find another school to complete the on indian program. Is this something I should include in about mode of study, my resume (as I see it as a negative thing) or how do I incorporate it to benefit my appearance? I don’t want to leave out info that can hurt me but I’m wondering if the info can hurt me if included. I agree with Kyle. List out research on indian automobile industry, your clinicals. About Teenage. Add a targeted bullet point under each one that relates to the job you are applying for.
Learn about ATS. Read the job posting. What words are on there most? What qualifications MUST you have? What qualifications do they PREFER? All the ones you have – write them down. Yes, use their words. Also read their mission and values. Look through their website.
Encorporate their values with yours. A great place to research paper on indian, do this is in your cover letter. What do you recommend to someone like me whose 19 years old. Access. Has no work experience, this is on indian, my first career.. my resume would be completely blank pretty much. I know you said don’t include high school education.. buts that’s pretty much the access and theses only thing I’ve “accomplished” so far, I was an honor student, GPA 3.9, Received an award for academic excellence all 4 years, advanced diploma. And currently my GPA is research on indian industry, 3.5, I haven’t graduated yet but will in OCT, 2016 with my associates degree in nursing. I’m applying to a new graduate residency program now, that will start in February. About Teenage Love. Please HELP! #128577; how can I make my resume better? Thanks for research paper on indian automobile industry, the inquiry Glenda. Most of the applicants to new graduate residency programs have similar circumstances. To make your resume stand out, be sure to include the details described above regarding your various experiences including clinical rotations and education.
You’re welcome to include your high school education. However, chances are it will not be considered. Just remember that most candidates are going to be in the same boat, so making sure you provide all the details hospitals like to see (as described above) will help you stand out. I hope this helps! Great article! Finally people are talking about about off campus learning New Graduate Registered Nurses and the job search!! The Struggle is research paper automobile, VERY real for copyediting, new, old, reentry, and RN’s seeking a new specialty! Especially in oversaturated markets like California. I invite anybody who is seeking a job to join our Facebook Group RNInterview Tools. Research Paper On Indian Automobile Industry. https://www.facebook.com/groups/PlayingTheGame/
All are invited to dissertations, share what worked for them, post questions, and seek support from others who understand. Members are landing job offers all over on indian automobile industry and we could not be more thrilled. I definitely shared this article and have shared others from essay in uk Blue Pipes in the past. Thank you for research on indian, assisting all of us Nurses in our quest. Glad to hear the article is useful and thanks for sharing, Melissa! Help! I just graduated in May 2016 and got hired as an RN in a hospital. Unfortunately, I resigned after a month as I felt so overwhelmed in the unit I was assigned to. English Gcse Coursework Schemes. Should I include that one month experience in my resume? Thanks for sharing, Aleli and sorry to hear about the research automobile difficulties.
This is access dissertations, a tough situation. Research On Indian Automobile. I believe most career consultants would recommend leaving the job off of copyediting, your resume. Paper Industry. This is because you’ll most certainly be required to explain the short duration in any interview. Moreover, the eve descriptive essay duration was so short that many employers wouldn’t even require an explanation for research automobile industry, the gap in open access dissertations, employment. That said, you may want to research automobile industry, consider the instructions on job applications. Some hospitals have very stringent rules for christmas, entering work history on their applications.
For example, they might require every employer for the past 7 years to research automobile industry, be entered on the application regardless of duration and also require applicants to provide an explanation of any gaps in employment of greater than 1 month. There will be a signing statement in about learning mode of study, the application indicating you attest the information is accurate and complete. If they find out paper automobile, you left the job off the application, it could result in a rescinded job offer. Although the christmas chances of this happening are slim. I hope this information helps!
Nursing is my second career. I taught elementary school before this. Should I include my education for that? Also, should I include teaching school in my work history? I taught for eight years in the same school, so it’s a good example that I can hold a job long term. Thanks! Congratulations on your new career, Priscilla.
Previous work history and education are both optional for your new-grad nursing resume. In your case, I highly recommend including them both as they are both excellent experiences to automobile industry, display. Essay Teenage. However, be sure to keep them brief in order to highlight your nursing skills. I hope this helps! Hello, I was wondering how do I include my phlebotomy certification on paper on indian automobile industry, my resume if it doesn’t have an expiration date? If you are formatting your own resume, you can simply add the license without expiration dates. However, I’m wondering if you’re using BluePipes to christmas, format your resume? Please let me know if so. Thanks! Hi i’m just wondering do you have an example resume with all the information you have listed here for preview? thank you!
My apologies, but we don’t have a sample. We’ll work on research industry, creating though. Thanks! How about and proofreading information on building a new-grad RN Cover letter? When listing previous certifications and licenses, should you list the initial date of obtainment or expiration/ renewal date? Also, regarding Applicant Tracking System, what is the rule regarding parenthesis ()? I ask because in my certifications I have ACLS, PALS, and a bunch of other alphabet soup acronyms. Should I use (ACLS) after Advanced Cardiac Life Support?
Good questions! There are no steadfast rules, but we recommend listing the expiration dates. On our resume builder, licenses are listed with both the acronym and name. For example: ACLS – Advanced Cardiac Life Support. That said, most resume parsers are quite advanced these days, so they should be able to contextualize what is meant by “(ACLS)”. Paper On Indian Automobile Industry. However, as illustrated above, it’s not necessary to essay love, use the parentheses if you don’t want to.
I hope this helps! Help! I work in paper, a long term care nursing facility as an essay about teenage RN for about a year and half now. This is my first nursing job and nursing is research on indian automobile, my second career. What can you suggest in writing my resume? Are my clinical rotations still relevant? Thanks. There isn’t a steadfast rule that applies to your question. I think it’s fair to say that most recruiters and essay about system in uk nursing career advisers would say that your clinical rotations shouldn’t be added to industry, your resume after a year and a half of essay about, working in an LYC facility.
That said, you might still list it in an effort to land a job in research industry, a new-grad training program.
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THE INDIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY A Primer - Semantic Scholar
8-Day App Business Plan: The Ultimate Guide to research automobile industry, Creating Monetizing Your First Mobile App. Total Reading Time: 31 minutes (or download PDF template at copyediting and proofreading end of research post). I have always believed that one of the most creative and exciting ways to eve descriptive, be a solopreneur is by building an app business. When it comes to research on indian automobile industry, creating a Freedom Lifestyle, there are few better ways to create passive income and more freedom in your life. Developing an arsenal of money-making apps takes time and work, but these apps can end up paying you for system in uk, years. I first met Chad Mureta over on indian automobile industry, two years ago, while I was still working at essay Google. Chad had just recently published his book, App Empire: Make Money, Have a Life, and Let Technology Work for You. Since then, Chad and paper on indian automobile I have become very good friends. He#8217;s an incredible human being and I#8217;m grateful to have met him. Chad#8217;s story is wild and off campus learning mode inspiring.
In January 2009, he was driving home when he hit a deer, causing his car to flip four times. The accident crushed and nearly severed his left arm. He had two surgeries and almost $100,000 in hospital bills. It was in the hospital bed that Chad decided to create his first app. The idea and inspiration came from a magazine about apps a friend gave him.
What happened next? Chad went on to become an research industry app millionaire, has created dozens of apps, and built multiple app companies. He has no technical skills, but he does have a brilliant strategy for building a scalable app business. Chad used this strategy to build an empire of off campus mode of study apps and on indian automobile industry passive income. Below, he will share his 8 day business plan template with you. Enjoy! If used properly, the virtual world can be a potent tool to and proofreading, simplify and improve every aspect of your life.
As this virtual world evolves, apps are changing the paper way we communicate and about off campus mode relay information, allowing us to connect with people from paper on indian, Cape Town in South Africa to christmas eve descriptive essay, Montreal in Canada to Shanghai in China. Everywhere! The same way the internet opened up the industry international marketplace for thousands of education in uk businesses, mobile apps have done the same but to the next level because they are always in our pocket traveling with us wherever we go . We have apps that can control cars, allow us to research industry, play the essay education system piano, teach languages, and even recognize songs and paper automobile name the artists. Apps are vital assets that streamline information, enhancing our lives while educating and entertaining us. But it’s important to remember: with apps, it’s all about convenience, convenience, convenience. You have to understand this about the app business: At the essay off campus learning of study core, it’s about research paper on indian automobile industry, how consumers are using this technology to connect with the world. The more you are aware of this, the more money you can make with apps.
You have to think like the essay about learning customer if you’re going to build your own app empire. In this 8-day guide, you will gain essential insights into industry, starting an app business, which will serve as the foundation of your success. Essay Education In Uk! Note : this is the MOST important thing I can teach you. I have students that, after becoming full-time appreneurs and making thousands with their app business, still say this is the most important lesson they learned from me. As with any business, your success will be directly related to your understanding of the marketplace. The App Store is the marketplace of the app business, so in order to paper automobile, understand the market, we have to english schemes, study the research automobile App Store. This seems rather obvious, but you wouldn’t believe how many developers I meet that don’t understand this concept. They don’t watch the market, follow the most successful apps, or try to figure out why those apps are successful. In order to become a great app supplier, you must first become an app addict. That means spending this whole first day researching the teenage market while downloading and playing with tons of apps (give yourself an research automobile industry app budget of $100 to start).
Give yourself a full 8-hour period to coursework schemes, go APP CRAZY. This training period is an investment in your expertise, which will become the lifeblood of your success. The more hours you rack up playing around and research paper on indian studying successful apps, the christmas eve descriptive better you’ll be able to understand their common traits and what users desire. Better yet, if you don’t have a business partner, get friends and family involved to help with your research. This will also allow you to gauge different demographics and how they respond to industry, particular apps. So, how do you keep pace with the market?
The best way is to study Apple’s cheat sheet constantly. The App Store displays the top paid, top free, and copyediting top-grossing apps (the apps that make the most money, including free apps), almost in real-time. Apple provides the same lists in the individual app categories. App Store Top Charts. These charts are golden because they tell us volumes about the market.
The best part is paper automobile industry, this information is freely accessible to gcse mark, anyone, at research industry any moment (unlike the market info for basically every other industry). Review these charts frequently, and keep a notebook of potential trends you spot. The more you review the charts, the more you’ll start to notice little details, such as new apps that jumped the charts or emerging genres. Example : when I first started my app business, I was really into yoga so I wanted to create a yoga app. I looked at gcse coursework schemes the market and research automobile saw just a few yoga apps, but none that had been really successful or hit the top charts (even in their category) so I didn’t go through with it. Fast forward a couple years later and fitness apps are booming. If I had still wanted to develop this app, I would have continuously tracked all yoga apps during these years to copyediting, watch for these apps rising the paper on indian charts, THEN I would strike with my own app because I know the demand is there. Essay Off Campus Learning! People are actively LOOKING for these apps.
If I had published these apps when I first thought of the idea, it would have sat on the store generating little to no revenue. My point: you want to see similar apps to your idea doing well or gaining traction because that means there are active users. However, the paper on indian automobile reason you do market research EVERY DAY is access dissertations and theses, because you want to get in before there’s an influx of the research on indian automobile industry same apps. Luckily, this is open, easy to do when you’re tracking and analyzing the market regularly because most developers aren’t doing this – but more on this below! Doing this repeatedly will also educate you on successful app design, marketing, various pricing models, and new app ideas. The research you’re doing is simple, costs nothing, and it’s actually fun! Here are some questions to ask while you’re researching successful apps in the market: Why is this app successful? What is its rank and has it been consistent? Why do people want this app? (Look at the reviews, google blog posts.) Has this app made the customer a raving fan? Does this app provoke an impulse buy?
Does this app meet any of my needs? Did I become a raving fan after trying it? Will the customer use it again? How are they marketing to automobile, their customers? (Check out the essay system screen shots, icon design, and descriptions.) What is the competitive advantage of this app? What does this app cost? Are there in-app purchases?
Advertisements? Most developers will build an app and expect tons of people to paper automobile industry, find and download it right away. That rarely happens. You have to figure out what people are interested in and the kinds of apps they’re downloading first, then you build your app based on essay off campus learning, that insight. Do not build an app on an idea you THINK will be successful, build an app off an research automobile idea that can be backed by data and essay about in uk research. (Tweet this) Once you’ve put in the necessary research and feel you have a decent grasp on the market, it will be time to look back on the trends you discovered and research paper on indian automobile explore some ideas for potential apps you can develop. Note : If after Day 1, you feel like you aren’t quite grasping the trends, don’t rush this period! Spend the amount of time you need on essay teenage, this step as it’s the foundation and most IMPORTANT part of your business. Paper On Indian Automobile! I repeat, THE most important part of developing apps. App Annie Tracks your apps’ metrics and has extensive app store data to help you make smart business decisions. SensorTower Market Intelligence that apps can#8217;t live without. 148apps.biz Extensive app store metrics.
Straply App Store Optimization tools and research Google Keywords For ideas and trends research. Copyediting! This does not reflect what people are searching for on the App Store, but can give you insight into trends. Games vs Utility Apps: Which is better? ( http://www.appempire.com/game-vs-utility-apps-which-is-better/ ) Video Tip: How to Pick Winning App Ideas (http://www.appempire.com/video-tip-how-to-pick-winning-app-ideas/) Four Mistakes Entrepreneurs Make that Hurt Their App Business ( http://www.appempire.com/four-mistakes-entrepreneurs-make-that-hurt-their-app-business/ ) Day 2: Align Your Ideas with Successful Apps. How do you know if the market wants your app? Again, you’ll need to look at paper on indian automobile industry the Top Apps chart . Access Dissertations! Are apps like the paper industry one you want to and proofreading, create listed there?
If yes, you’ve got a potential winner. Research Paper! If not, keep looking. About Education System! It’s that simple. Don’t hate; Emulate! When you follow in research paper on indian industry the footsteps of english gcse coursework successful apps, you will have a better chance of succeeding because these apps have proven demand and an existing user base. This takes the guesswork out of creating great app ideas. I can’t stress the research on indian industry importance of emulating existing apps enough. It’s easy for and theses, people to fall in research on indian industry love with their own idea, even if the market doesn’t show an appetite for it. But this is one of the open access and theses costliest errors you can make. Unfortunately, developers make this mistake all the time. They focus on generating original ideas and paper on indian automobile industry spend a lot of time and and proofreading effort creating those apps.
When it doesn’t work out, they go to paper industry, the next untested idea, instead of learning from the market. English Gcse Coursework Schemes! Often times, they repeat this cycle until they run out of money and dismiss the app game. This doesn’t have to automobile industry, be your experience. Keep in open mind that most ideas aren’t original. Almost every app idea was inspired by an already existing concept. They emulated, and ADDED innovation. Angry Birds was not the first game of it’s kind on the app store. Automobile! But they created a user experience that was unlike any other. Learning! So don’t mistake emulation for a lack of research on indian automobile industry innovation.
You need to take an eve descriptive existing, successful idea, and IMPROVE it to research paper on indian industry, gain the market advantage. Christmas Essay! A personal example of how to successfully emulate competitors is my Emoji app. First, I took a close look at what the market offered and downloaded all the automobile industry major emoticon apps. Dissertations And Theses! I liked what I saw, but noticed that there was a lack of variety and research paper automobile limited functionality. Competitive emoji app screenshots. I wondered how I could improve upon these existing apps, given that the about off campus learning mode Emoji keyboard had a limited number of emoticons that couldn’t be increased. I was also curious how profitable these apps could be if they were only being used once. I kept brainstorming until it hit me.
I couldn’t add more emoticons to the Emoji keyboard, but I could include unlimited emoticons within my app that people could send as images via text message or email. I created an app that not only research paper on indian automobile, enabled the Emoji keyboard, but also contained an additional 450 emoticons within the app itself, which could be shared via SMS, e-mail, Facebook, and so on. About In Uk! The app was used constantly since users had to return to the app to send an emoticon. The Emoji app was developed in on indian industry two weeks. Copyediting And Proofreading! It followed the freemium model, meaning free with an in-app purchase option. The app hit the number one spot in the App Store’s productivity category and the number 12 spot in automobile industry the top free overall category within six days, raking in nearly $500 per day.
Bingo. On Day 2, compile your top emulation ideas, and ask yourself these six questions: Why are people purchasing this? Can I do something to emulate this idea and copyediting take it to another level? What other ideas would this app’s demographic like? How many other similar apps are in the market? (Visit TopAppCharts.com to find out.) How successful and research on indian automobile consistent have they been? How does their marketing and pricing model work? Same as Day 1 plus blogs and mobile news sites. Eve Descriptive Essay! Day 3: Design Your App#8217;s Experience. You’ve studied the market, you see an opportunity, and you have an idea that could be profitable. Great!
Now it’s time to research industry, turn those thoughts into something tangible. To convey your idea properly, you can simply draw it on a piece of paper. Maybe it will look like a 3-year old’s artwork, but it will still convey what you’re trying to do. Open Dissertations! Some people like putting this together in digital form, using Photoshop or Balsamiq . Whatever you’re most comfortable with, and whatever will give the programmers the details they need, is the way to go. Another cool tool my students have used for research paper on indian automobile industry, those who want to draw on paper, but then move those drawings digital, you can check out: Pop protopying . Mark! For your viewing pleasure, here are the rudimentary drawings (a.k.a. wireframes) for my first app, Finger Print Security Pro. As you can see, it doesn’t have to be pretty! Wireframes/drawings for Finger Print Security Pro. Wireframes/drawings for Finger Print Security App. And here’s how the automobile app’s final design turned out#8230; Final Design for Finger Print Security Pro. To make the design process easier, I look at certain apps in the App Store and reference them to show my programmers what I’m looking for. About Education System! For example, I’ll say, “Download the XYZ app.
I want the ABC functionality to work like theirs. Take a look at the screenshots from paper on indian industry, this other app, and dissertations change this.” I take certain components of apps that I’d like to emulate, and give them to the programmer so that we are as clear as possible. Screenshot: Find apps with designs you want your developer to use. The clearer you are, the fewer misunderstandings and research paper on indian industry problems you will have once it’s time to hand off your drawings to a programmer. The idea is to gcse coursework mark, convey what the on indian app will look like, where everything will be placed, and what happens if certain buttons are selected. This helps the programmer know what you want and will be a useful blueprint when designing your app. Open Access Dissertations And Theses! Do not be vague or ambiguous.
Be extremely detailed, even if something seems obvious, things can get lost in translation. You should know what every part of your app will do. If you don’t, you need to develop your idea more thoroughly. You have to consider your design to be final before you can begin the research paper on indian industry coding phase. Copyediting! Inevitably, you will have ideas for paper on indian automobile industry, additional features once you start testing the initial versions of essay about teenage your app. But if you decide to make major changes after a substantial amount of research work has been done, it can frustrate your programmer. It’s like telling the builder who just installed your fireplace that you want it on about mode of study, the other side of the living room. The news will not go over well. Most people don’t realize this is research on indian automobile, what they are demanding of their programmer when they ask for access, big changes. That’s why it’s important for you to take your time and research carefully plan every aspect of the app before you submit it for coding.
Also keep in mind that new features can be included in about future updates, and updates are crucial to sustainable success, so don’t worry if you can’t get everything in research right away. Getting your app on the store if often more important than perfection because you can start collecting data, which will significantly improve your strategy. If you look at essay about love the top charts , you will notice one thing: QUALITY GRAPHICS. This is extremely, extremely important for your app’s interface (user interface or what the customer will see) and UX (user experience how the customer interacts with your app). When designing your app’s UI, I always tell people to think like Apple . What does this mean? It means creating sleek (i.e. modern), simple, intuitive designs.
What does intuitive mean? When a customer first opens your app, they shouldn’t need a lot of explanation on research paper on indian industry, how to use it. About Mode Of Study! It should be intuitive in that they could start using it right away. Think simple and sleek (look at the top apps for reference). Also, it’s important not to clutter your app.
Apps are meant to research, be simple and easy to use, it’s different than a website, which means apps will need streamlined features. A good rule of practice is to write down all the features you want to have, and then focus on building out 3 of those features really well. About System! You’ll get more users by having an app that does 3 things extremely well, than a overcrowded app trying to do 10 things. Remember: design like Apple. (If you look at on indian automobile industry the app’s Apple features, you’ll see the type of apps they look for.) Balsamiq A wireframing and education system in uk mock up tool with a high focus on usability. Quickly come up with mock ups and easily share them with your developers. Research Paper! POP Turns hand-drawn wireframes to essay about, interactive prototypes. Research On Indian Automobile Industry! Sketch the app on about off campus learning mode, paper; take pictures and add hotspots to link them together; simulate on iPhone. Keynotopia Let#8217;s users design quick and easy interfaces and on indian industry interactive mockups for web, mobile and copyediting and proofreading desktop apps without touching a line of code. Skitch Get your point across with fewer words using annotation, shapes and sketches, so that your ideas become reality faster. Dropbox Organize your ideas, save your mockups, store your files. Jing Share images and short videos of your computer screen.
AppDesignVault Buy templates or get ideas. Paper On Indian! Day 4 6: Hire a Great iOS Programmer. Open Dissertations! Coding your own app, especially if you’re teaching yourself at the same time, will take too long. The likelihood of you getting stuck and giving up is very high. It will also be unsustainable over the long run when you want to paper automobile, create several apps at the same time and consistently update your existing apps. After all, the goal is to get your time back and escape the long hours of the about off campus of study rat race. Therefore, programmers will be the foundation of research on indian industry your business. They will allow you to create apps quickly and scale your efforts. Hiring your first programmer can be a lengthy process as if you’re not feeling comfortable with your options, you shouldn’t just choose whoever.
This will be your right-hand man and the one who makes it all come to life. You need to about in uk, be able to paper automobile, trust your programmer. post the off campus mode of study job filter applicants interview qualified candidates (on Skype face-to-face, no exceptions!) have them sign your NDA, explain your idea give them a micro-test. … all before coding begins! If this process takes more time than expected, it is research on indian automobile industry, time well spent. However, don’t give yourself excuses. English Coursework Schemes! Make sure if you are taking more time, that you’re using it wisely and not procrastinating out of research industry fear or uncertainty of success.
Some people find this step intimidating, but it’s an extremely valuable learning experience. Making great hires will help you avoid unnecessary delays, costs, and frustration in the future. You’ll always be looking to add new talent to your team, so learning how to eve descriptive, quickly and effectively assess programmers is an research on indian automobile important skill to develop. Let’s get started. The first part of open dissertations and theses this step is to post your job to a hiring site.
These websites allow programmers to bid on jobs that you post. As you can imagine, the research competition creates a bidding frenzy that gives you a good chance of getting quality work at a low price. Here are a few of and proofreading my favorite outsourcing sites: Elance or oDesk Huge list of programmers. On Indian Industry! Its work diary feature tracks the hours your programmer is working for you and takes screenshots of their desktop at about teenage certain time intervals. Freelancer This site has the most programmers listed. They claim that twice as many programmers will respond to your ad, and I found this to be mostly true. Guru Big list of paper on indian industry programmers. iOS or Android developer forums Use these forums to create relationships with other appreneurs. About Teenage! Often times, they’ll suggest great teams or programmers they recommend working with.
You can also ask for research paper, advice on hiring your programmer from copyediting and proofreading, those who are going through it with you. Below is a template of research automobile a job posting, followed by an explanation for each of english its components: An exact template for app developer job posting. Enter the skill requirements —What programming languages do they know? For iPhone apps, the skills I list are: iPhone, Objective C, Cocoa, and C Programming. Some advanced game apps require Unity 3D knowledge, this is quite pricey, so if it’s your first app, I strongly suggest not going this route just yet. Give a basic description of your project —Keep it simple and paper automobile industry skill-specific.
Tell the applicants that you will discuss details during the selection process. Do NOT reveal the specifics of your idea or marketing plan. Use general descriptions, and request info on how many revisions (a.k.a. iterations) their quote includes. Post your ad only for a two days —This way programmers have a sense of urgency to english coursework mark, quickly bid on your job. Filter applicants —I always filter applicants using these criteria: They have a rating of four or five stars.
They have at least 100 hours of work logged. Their English is good. Compose individual messages to all suitable applicants, inviting them to a Skype call for further screening. Most of research industry these programmers will overseas, which can present issues with communication and time zone differences. Copyediting! Therefore, a Skype interview is an paper on indian automobile industry absolute must before you can continue. Copyediting! Disqualify anyone who is research paper on indian industry, not willing to jump on a Skype call. Note : There is a difference between programmers and education system in uk graphic designers.
Sometimes one person can do both, other times it’s best to hire a graphics programmer to work with your programmer. Graphics are SO important for research paper on indian automobile industry, apps, that you want quality. English Gcse Schemes! If your programmer has a recommendation of someone they’ve worked with before even better! They always know how to work well together, but you still to interview that person as well. The Interview: Essential Questions to Ask Programmers. Don’t give away any of your specific ideas during this initial conversation. Just talk about general genres, like “a camera app,” or “messaging app,” etc. Whenever the research paper on indian industry topic comes up, say you’ll be more than happy to discuss everything after they sign the NDA (if you search for #8220;NDA template#8221; you#8217;ll find one, just tweak it to meet your needs).
Here are the questions you should ask each applicant before committing to anything: How long have you been developing apps? How many apps have you worked on? Can I see them? Do you have a website? What is it? Do you have references I can talk to? THIS IS IMPORTANT. Many developers will list app’s they’ve worked on#8230;but actually haven’t. You have to copyediting, followup with who they say they’ve worked for research industry, in order to ENSURE they’ve actually developed these apps.
What’s your schedule like? How soon can you start? What time zone do you work in? What are your hours? What’s frustrating for essay off campus of study, you when working with clients? Are you working with a team? What are their skills? Can you create graphics, or do you have somebody who can?
Can I see examples of the graphics work? What happens if you become sick during a project? What if you hit a technical hurdle during the project? Do you have other team members or a network of programmers who can help you? How do you ensure that you don’t compete with your clients?
Can you provide flat-fee quotes? What’s your payment schedule? How do you prefer payment? Can you create milestones tied to payments? Do you publish your own apps on the App Store? How do you submit an app to the App Store? (Can they verbally walk you through the process, or do they make you feel brain challenged?) Finally, mention that you like to start things off with a few simple tests (creating/delivering your app’s icon and paper automobile a “Hello, World!” app) before coding begins. You need to tell them this upfront so they aren’t surprised after they have provided their quote. Most programmers are happy to access and theses, get these tests done without a charge, but some will want a small fee. In either. During the research paper automobile industry interview, pay attention to how well they are able to explain themselves.
Are they articulate? Do they use too much techno babble? Do they speak your native language fluently? Do they seem confident with their answers? How is their tone and demeanor? If you have any issues or worries, you may want to move on to somebody else. But if you can communicate with them easily and your gut is telling you “Yes,” you’ll want to essay about system in uk, proceed to the next step. In either case, thank them for research paper on indian automobile industry, their time and mention that you will follow up with an copyediting NDA agreement if you decide to move forward.
Be prepared to spend a little extra time on paper, developing your new system and about teenage relationship. It#8217;s when appreneurs try to go too fast that they get in research automobile trouble or overlook something that was a red flag . Here are 8 steps to ensure you#8217;re getting the most out of your new developer: 1. Never pay money upfront. It#8217;s just too risky. Don#8217;t pay for and proofreading, what you don#8217;t have. Paper On Indian Automobile! 2. Create milestones and only pay on deliverables. Prior to hiring, have your milestones outlined and system agreed upon by your developer in research on indian industry writing.
Make your expectations clear about what you expect to receive for each milestone. 3. Ask if they offer a cheaper rate. Christmas Essay! Many developers and designers will offer a discount rate on your first project with them. Then once you rehire them for research paper, your next project, it goes back up to their regular rate. 4. Pay with flat rates. It reduces risk and helps your milestones be met in a timely manner. They have no reason to delay or inflate time spent on a feature if they#8217;re not getting paid for open, those hours.
Don#8217;t make the first milestone half-way through your app#8217;s completion. Make the first assignment a small project. Did they communicate well? Were you happy with their work? Did anything feel off? If you have a bad feeling about research paper, someone, move on to someone else right then . It rarely works out or gets better. 6. Daily communication. When first starting with someone new, you should be receiving a daily report and essay talking every day, even if it#8217;s just to research automobile, say, #8220;everything is going smoothly.#8221; Also, keep in mind than prior to hiring you should outline what you expect in terms of communication so they know what you expect daily. 7. Be so clear and detailed, it feels tedious and painful.
You#8217;ve never worked together. Think of development like those #8220;team building#8221; exercises where one person is blindfolded while the copyediting other person tells them what to paper automobile industry, draw. You have to be super detailed about open dissertations and theses, extremely obvious things because you never know what could be misconstrued, no matter how painfully obvious it is. 8. Offer incentives or bonuses. Research Paper On Indian Automobile Industry! I like to offer bonuses to hit a deadline faster or when they overall did an christmas essay incredible job. I think it builds rapport when you show them you appreciate and reward great work. They#8217;ll be more incentivized to continue working for you.
Most of these rules should be followed even if it#8217;s not a new developer, but they become the paper on indian automobile most critical when starting a new relationship. It can be difficult to find a great developer or designer, but they#8217;re out eve descriptive essay there! Sometimes it just takes a little longer to research on indian, find and takes more interviews than you hoped. The point is to english gcse coursework mark, not give up when there#8217;s a road bump. That#8217;s what makes an research paper on indian automobile entrepreneur successful. They understand that when things don#8217;t go their way, it#8217;s not a failure it#8217;s a learning experience. Evernote Remember and act upon ideas, projects and christmas eve descriptive experiences across all the computers, phones and tablets you use. Skype Make internet calls for free and cheap online calls to phones and research on indian automobile mobiles with Skype . 99Designs Designers compete in your mobile app design contest. They submit designs, and you give them feedback. Day 7: Sign NDA Establish Milestones. You must protect your ideas, source code, and any other intellectual property.
These are the essay about learning assets that will build your business, so you need to paper on indian industry, have each potential programmer sign an NDA before you hire them. Open Access Dissertations! Yes, it’s rare to have an idea stolen, but it does happen. As you’re going through this process, you will be getting feedback on paper industry, your programmers’ responsiveness. For instance, if it’s taking too long for essay about learning mode of study, them to industry, sign the NDA, it might indicate how slowly the development process will move. Teenage Love! Buyer beware!
Once the NDA has been signed by both parties, you can share your idea and designs with your programmer. At this stage, it’s critical to ensure they have the skills to complete your app. You do not have any wiggle room here, especially on your first app. Paper On Indian Automobile! Either they know how to make it or they don’t. Access And Theses! You want to hear things like, “I know exactly how to do that” or “I’ve done similar apps, so it will not be a problem.” You don’t want to paper automobile industry, hear things like, “I should be able to do that, but I have to teenage, research a few things” or “I’m not sure but I can probably figure it out.” If you hear those words, switch to an app idea they are confident about or run for the hills. Research Paper On Indian! After you’ve found the best programmer for the job, you can commit to copyediting, hiring them. On day 7, establish milestones and timelines during the research paper automobile industry quoting process (break up the app into several parts), and decide on system in uk, a schedule and processes for industry, check-ins that you’re both comfortable with (ask them directly how they like to be managed). Copyediting! Day 7 is when you’ll be setting up the operations on how your project will run, so be thorough.
Test icon and or Hello World App. Basically, you want to measure their capabilities in some way. This can be anything from developing a basic icon, sending a simplified demo of paper on indian automobile one of your app#8217;s features, or a #8220;Hello Word#8221; app build. 0-25% paid upfront. 25-50% this is paid once 1/2 of the app is open access and theses, completed and approved by you.
50-75% this is paid once 3/4 of the app is paper on indian industry, completed and approved by you. Open! 75-100% this is paid once the app is completed, approved and the final build and deliverables are delivered. Make sure to have a certain number of iterations (i.e. changes after project is over) approved upfront- IE: It could be 3-5 changes, icon changes, etc. Be clear with these to prevent confusion down the road. Do flat fees as much as possible. This way, if the paper automobile developing team (or developers) does not bid the project properly you won’t get hurt for it. After each milestone your developer must send you the code so you have your work and and proofreading are constantly updated or so your work is safe. Regardless of bugs, you should be receiving code as you go along. If they will not provide you with this, do NOT make that milestone’s payment.
Let them know this will be a requirement ahead of time. You will need to periodically review their work, from start to finish. I strongly suggest having a check-in session every day, or every other day, to ensure things are going as planned. Most applications go through multiple iterations during design and development, and I won’t release partial payments until I’m fully satisfied with each milestone. Basecamp ? The #1 project management application. Teamwork Online project management software. Easily manage your projects and team online.
Arman#8217;s note: I strongly recommend Slack for team communication, collaboration, and even project management. Use this link to get $100 in free credits toward a paid account (there is also a free version). Hackpad Create and Organize. Take collaborative notes, share data and files, and use comments to share your thoughts in real-time or asynchronously. Rather than jumping haphazardly into a full-fledged project, I prefer to research industry, gradually ramp up my programmer’s workload by starting with a couple smaller tasks. You need to assess their graphics capabilities, implementation speed, and overall work dynamic (e.g. communication, time zone, etc.).
If you’re underwhelmed with their skills early on, you need to get out quickly. Remember: Hire slow, fire fast. It will pay off over the long run. Gcse Mark Schemes! Here’s my three-step process during the automobile industry coding phase: 1. Mode! Icon —Ask the programmer or designer to research paper on indian automobile, create and deliver the icon of your app. You will probably have several ideas for icons, so pass them on and ask for a finished iTunes Artwork version of the icon. Then once you’ve decided on an icon, design the icon sizes around Apple’s Guidelines for each product. Icon app sizes can be found here: Icon Size Chart.
2. Christmas! Hello, World! —Ask the programmer for paper on indian industry, a “Hello, World!” app. It’s a simple app that opens up and essay about off campus learning shows a page that displays “Hello, World!”, and it will take them 10 minutes to create. The idea here is not to test their programming skills, but to determine how they will deliver apps to you for testing. This app should include the icon they created, so you can see how it will look on your phone. 3. App Delivery —When the programmers are ready to automobile industry, show you a test version of your app, they have to create something called an “ad hoc” (a version of your app that can be delivered to and run on about education system, your iPhone, without the use of the App Store). This ad hoc version of your app needs to be installed on your phone before you can test it. The initial installation was a bit cumbersome in the past, but a new service called TestFlight has simplified the process. I ask all programmers to use this service even if they have not used it before. They will be able to figure it out, and you’ll be able to install your test apps with a few touches on your phone. Now that you’ve begun coding, it’s important to look for ways to increase productivity, lower costs, and systematize your business. Here are 3 ways I systematize my business from the beginning: What in your business can be automated?
What can be done by other people? Really think about that. Research Automobile Industry! It#8217;s easy to find yourself doing something because you#8217;re the fastest and best at it, but if you can create templates or POSs to send to others, or even better automated actions, while you work on about, the really important things, then you#8217;re not only research paper automobile industry, optimizing your business you#8217;re preparing your business for growth. Some examples: Receiving a lot of email? Most emails are about the same types of topics. Create an autoresponder or template. Education System In Uk! Are you uploading all your own apps to iTunes? Turn this into a template or video and give to a PA or TA. Even important systems like, how to paper automobile, choose good keywords, can be handed off to someone else to get your app in the store faster, then just makemupdates for testing. Building a new app?
Reuse successful screenshot templates, icons, and copy. You already know it converts well just adjust it to fit the current app and copyediting submit. Your production times will drastically increase. There are tons of high-quality resources already made that you can use for research paper on indian automobile, your apps instead of building from scratch. You can use stock photos/graphics , stock music and copyediting sounds, and most importantly you can buy and reuse code to research industry, significantly lower production costs. Whether you#8217;re reskinning an app or building a custom app, you can use these stock options to save costs and work faster. There are a lot of talented people on freelance websites that you can use on a per essay system, project basis to get things done quickly. And for really cheap too! Half the battle is with yourself and realizing that you don#8217;t have to control every little detail. Empower your team or your hires to on indian automobile industry, make decisions themselves. Once you realize that imperfections are OK and essay don#8217;t always affect the bottom line, you#8217;ll find yourself producing things much faster and more efficiently.
Give yourself a pat on the back — you’ve made serious progress! But don’t get too caught up with yourself, because a big mistake many appreneurs make is publishing their app to on indian automobile, the store and thinking they’re done. Once your app is on the store, now it’s GO TIME. This is when you’ll use ninja marketing and monetization strategies to generate revenue and bring in customers from essay about in uk, all over the world. Testico You can to put the icon you#8217;ve created on your iPhone or iPad home screen, and automobile industry generate automatic previews of coursework standard icon sizes on the standard iPhone screen. Stock Websites: http://www.pond5.com Video, sound effects, music, after effects, photos and illustrations http://audiojungle.net Audio http://graphicriver.net Graphics www. Research Automobile! istockphoto .com / Graphics. Wow, that#8217;s it folks!
Your complete 8 day app business plan. Since I know you may need/want to refer to the business plan template again in the future, I have a special PDF template of the entire post that I#8217;d like to coursework, give you for free. You can get this right now by entering your email below and download on the next page. Enjoy! Do you know anyone who would like to create an app or start an automobile industry app business, but doesn#8217;t know where to start? Send them this complete guide. They#8217;ll love you for it! 3 Fast Ways to Grow Your Lean Startup with Eric Ries. The Key to Identifying Your Vocation and Career Path. How to Stop Competing and Get Your Dream Job Today. Arman, have you launched any apps yet with this plan?
Personally? No. Apps are Chad#8217;s domain :). He has a massive App Empire community that use this strategy, and he still uses it himself today. Copyediting! He also gives more details on this in research automobile his book: http://wilg.me/1soyHhc. Thanks.
Yes, I#8217;ve been following Chad for access, a while now. He inspired me to launch 6 of my own apps. Research Paper On Indian Automobile! Wow, great stuff Zain! What#8217;s been your biggest learning/lesson so far? The importance of app marketing and releasing a refined product! The importance of releasing a quality product. Great note .. couldn#8217;t find the essay NDA Template; did I just miss it? Can you please post a link to that in the response?
Thanks for research paper automobile industry, catching that. We don#8217;t have that, but they#8217;re all pretty standard. If you search for one you can tweak it to meet your specific needs and you#8217;ll be good to essay about system in uk, go. It#8217;s more about putting them through the research paper automobile industry process of signing than the access dissertations actual NDA itself. I#8217;m super late to this conversation but I really loved what you wrote. On Indian Industry! It#8217;s super helpful. I have an essay idea for an app but I#8217;m curious what the standard time is to expect for creating a quality product from research to deployment. I want to realistically set my expectations. Automobile! Can you offer any ballpark estimates on how long the process should be based on your experience? Love it, glad to hear that Chris!
I wish I could answer that from my own experience, but I can#8217;t. Chad is the access and theses real app expert here and it#8217;s his post, so I would check out: http://www.appempire.com for more resources and info. From my observations though, if you set yourself a tight deadline it can be pretty quick. Paper On Indian Automobile! Other people spend a lot of about time stuck in research paper automobile industry that #8220;development#8221; stage trying to get it all perfect. Don#8217;t do that. Good luck! :) Planning a mobile app development project can be tricky, there#8217;s lots to think about (especially marketing and post launch optimisation and gcse mark support). It#8217;s easy to underestimate the cost of app projects and focus your effort doing the wrong things.
We#8217;ve developed hundreds of apps for research paper on indian automobile industry, customers all over the world and developed a simple test to open access and theses, check your planning activities are on point. It#8217;s a quick checklist (takes two minutes) and will help crystallise your thinking around mobile, you can check it out here: http://waracle.net/5-key-considerations-when-planning-for-mobile/ How to Upgrade to the Newest iPhone for Free. Every Time. This Is What the Latest Science Says About Empathy. When Is The Right Time to Quit Your Job and Finally Become a Solopreneur. How and on indian industry What to Pack for Your Next Travel Adventure. 7 Minutes to Launching Your Blog or Website on WordPress. Education In Uk! Case Studies (9) Contempo Philosophy (15) Digital Marketing (10) Experiments (10) Mindset (50) Productivity (21) Science Psychology (15) Self-Directed Living (62) Solopreneurship (56) Tools (17) Topics (1) Travel (12) How to Achieve True Freedom: Declare Your Freedom Lifestyle and on indian Become a Solopreneur.
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3 Fast Ways to research paper automobile industry, Grow Your Lean Startup with Eric Ries. Christmas Eve Descriptive! How to Get out of research automobile industry a Funk and Create an Exciting Vision. The Key to Identifying Your Vocation and Career Path. #127759; https://t.co/Wqn0YcyJoB 4 hours ago RT @JRohlederLaw: 3 Fast Ways to Grow Your #LeanStartup with @ericrieshttps://t.co/9vGtB3ZTw9 by @armanassadi#startup#entrepreneurship h… 2017/10/04 What It’s Like to Die: Meeting God Through My Experiences With DMT https://t.co/y3dCecRKOA 2017/10/03 A study out of UCSD reports that getting just enough sleep is actually better than getting too much. According to. https://t.co/5jjvrvuoDH 2017/09/28. The site was created by Arman Assadi, a former Googler turned solopreneur with a mission to teach and inspire people to create self-directed lives as solopreneurs.
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A Comprehensive Study of Performance of Indian Automobile Industry
Free Environmental Studies essays. Renewable energy is now capturing a good share of the worldwide headlines because of concerns about declining supplies of research on indian automobile, fossil fuels, escalating population and about, industrialization triggering ever-increasing demand of fuels. Worldwide ethanol demand is increasing continuously. Conventional crops such as corn and sugarcane are unable to meet the global demand of bioethanol production due to research paper automobile, their primary value of essay about off campus learning mode, food and feed. On Indian? Therefore, lignocellulosic substances such as agricultural wastes are attractive feedstocks for bioethanol production and they are too cost effective, renewable and abundant. Bioethanol from this agricultural waste could be a promising technology, though the process has several challenges and limitations such as biomass transport and handling, and ef’cient pretreatment methods for copyediting, total deligni’cation of lignocellulosics. In this review are discussed efficient and available technologies for bioethanol production from agricultural waste. Keywords: Bioethanol, Pretreatment, Bioethanol production, Biomass, Lignocellulosic biomass, Agricultural waste.
Fossil energy sources such as oil, coal, natural gas, etc are important factors for research paper industry, the world’s present economy development, they make everything work from fuel to electricity and other goods. (Uihlein A. et al., 2009). The last few decades brought with them excessive consumption of fossil fuels, especially in large urban areas, and a high level of pollution. (Ballesteros I et al., 2006). The global production of oil is decreasing significantly from year to year and that’s due to the expansion of human population and increasing of christmas essay, industrial property, which is also generating a high energy consumption. (Campbell CH, Laherrere JH, 1998). Renewable sources , as wind, water, sun, biomass, geothermal heat might be the future, the alternative needed for the energy industry wheres the fuel production and the chemical industry may have as an alternative for the near future the biomass (Lynd LR, Wang MQ, 2003). The renewable biomass fuels such as bioethanol, biodiesel, biohydrogen, etc., derived from sugarcane, corn, switchgrass, algae, etc. Industry? can become the perfect substitutes for all petroleum-based fuels.
Each person’s share of electricity and fuel used in making food and goods and their transport represint the about teenage love energy consumption rate. A possible motor fuel on organic farms in the short and medium terms is represented by biogas. This alternative fuel can be produced by on indian, anaerobic digestion of organic material. When it is used as biofuel, the CO2 present in it is removed for increasing the energy content and it can be stored at high pressure. Biogas can be a substitute as fuel for boilers, propane and natural gas and in rural areas for electricity generation. Biogas energy usage expansion has continued across the European Union. According to copyediting, Eur Observ’ER, about 13. 4 million tonnes oil equivalent (Mtoe) of biogas primary energy were produced during 2013, which is 1.2 Mtoe more than in 2012 representing a 10.2% growth. However, the biogas sector’s momentum was more sluggish than in 2012 (16.9% between 2011 and 2012, giving an additional 1.8 Mtoe) and it is expected to research paper on indian, lose some of its impetus in 2014 in a number of countries whose sector expansion controlling policy changes will limit the essay future use of energy crops. 52.3 TWh (TeraWatt hour) of biogas electricity produced in 2013 in the European Union. The growth of biofuels consumption for use in transport in the European Union (EU-28) has dwindled in the past few years and finally dropped by research on indian, about 1 million toe (6.8%) between 2012 and 2013 according to in uk, EurObserv’ER, to a consumption level of 13.6 million toe.
Nevertheless, sustainable biofuel consumption, certified and thus eligible for inclusion in automobile European targets increased slightly by 1.1% to 11.8 Mtoe (EurObserv’ER Database 2013). To meet carbon dioxide reduction targets specified in the Kyoto Protocol, countries across the globe have elaborated for education, future energy demands, state policies toward the research paper automobile increased and economic utilization of biomass. This were considered as well to decrease reliance and dependence on the supply of fossil fuels. Biomass can be a huge source of transport fuels such as bioethanol and education system in uk, is commonly used to research paper on indian, generate power and heat, especially through combustion. About Education System? In present ethanol is the most widely used liquid biofuel for paper automobile industry, motor vehicles (Demirbas A., 2005, Lewis SM, 1996). The importance of ethanol is increasing due to global warming and climate change. Bioethanol has been receiving widespread interest at the international, national and regional levels. The global market for bioethanol has entered a phase of rapid, transitional growth and eve descriptive essay, many countries around the world are shifting their focus toward renewable sources for power production because of depleting crude oil reserves. Paper On Indian Industry? The trend is extending to transport fuel as well. Ethanol has potential as a valuable replacement of gasoline in the transport fuel market. However, the cost of bioethanol production is more compared to fossil fuels.
Source: United States Energy Information Administration. Figure 1. World Ethanol Fuel Production and Consumption by Year. Table 1. World Ethanol Fuel Production and Consumption by essay mode, Year. year production consumption. 2000 297.37 283.15.
2001 317.26 261.85. 2002 362.96 303.34. 2003 454.31 355.49. 2004 501.94 437.80. 2005 578.03 494.44. 2006 701.94 623.52. 2007 910.48 797.22. 2008 1201.22 1092.45. 2009 1296.34 1252.60.
2010 1487.61 1376.94. 2011 1448.46 1349.63. Current ethanol production based on research on indian corn, starch and essay teenage, sugar substances may not be desirable due to their food and feed value. Economy of the ethanol production process from grains is depen- dent on the market of its by-product e distillers’ dried grains with solubles (DDGS) e as animal food. The market of DDGS may not expand like that of ethanol in the future (Taherzadeh and Karimi, 2007). Cost is an important factor for large scale expansion of bioethanol production. Paper On Indian Industry? The green gold fuel from lignocellulosic wastes avoids the about in uk existing competi- tion of food versus fuel caused by grain based bioethanol production (Bjerre et al., 1996). It has been estimated that 442 billion liters of bioethanol can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass and that total crop residues and wasted crops can produce 491 billion liters of research automobile industry, bio- ethanol per year, about 16 times higher than the actual world bioethanol production (Kim S., 2006). Lignocellulosic materials are renewable, low cost and are abundantly available. It includes crop resi- dues, grasses, sawdust, wood chips, etc. Extensive research has been carried out on ethanol production from christmas eve descriptive essay lignocellulosics in the past two decades.
Hence bioethanol production could be the route to the effective utilization of agricultural wastes. Rice straw, wheat straw, corn straw, and sugarcane bagasse are the major agricultural wastes in terms of quantity of paper, biomass available (Kim S., 2006). Current industrial processes for bioethanol production use sugarcane (Southern hemisphere) or cereal grain (Nothern Hemisphere) as feedstocks; but they have to copyediting, compete directly with food sector (Wheals et al, 1999). Although these are the predominant feedstocks that are used today, projected fuel demands indicate that new alternative, low-priced feedstocks are needed to research paper on indian automobile, reduce ethanol production costs (Palmarola-Adrados et al, 2005). The largest potential feedstock for ethanol is lignocellulosic biomass, which includes materials such as agricultural residues (corn stover, crop straws, sugar cane bagasse), herbaceous crops (alfalfa, switchgrass), short rotation woody crops, forestry residues, waste paper and other wastes (municipal and industrial) (Kim and Dale, 2005). Bioethanol production from copyediting these feedstocks could be an attractive alternative for disposal of these residues (Wymam, 2001). Importantly, lignocellulosic feedstocks do not interfere with food security. Moreover, bioethanol is very important for both rural and urban areas in research paper automobile terms of copyediting, energy security reason, environmental concern, employment opportunities, agricultural development, foreign exchange saving, socioeconomic issues etc.
To avoid conflicts between food use and industrial use of crops, only wasted crops are assumed to be available for producing ethanol. Wasted crops are defined as crops lost during the year at all stages between the farm and research paper on indian automobile, households level during handling, storage and eve descriptive, transport. The agriculture residue includes corn stover, crop straws and sugar cane bagasse. The full utilization of some crop residues may give rise to automobile industry, soil erosion and english gcse mark schemes, decrease soil organic matter. Therefore, a 60% ground cover by residues, instead of 30%, is recommended due to uncertainties of local situation (Kim and Dale, 2004). Most wasted biomass comes from rice, corn, and research paper automobile industry, wheat. The US, Asia and the European Union are leading producers of agricultural by-products, such as straw from open access dissertations rice, corn and cereal crops. Surplus straw offers an on indian ideal feedstock for off campus learning mode, the manufacture of cellulosic ethanol, presenting no competition to the production of food or animal feed. Nor is any additional land use required to produce bioethanol based on on indian automobile industry these types of feedstock, as they are automatically created as a by-product during existing production of rice, maize and cereals. As a result, about 240 million tons of cereal straw are produced each year as an agricultural by-product in the EU alone.
Only a small part of this is currently utilized. Long term studies have shown that up to 60% could be taken of the field and are thus available for further uses. By processing this amount of straw, about 25% of the predicted EU demand for petrol could be replaced by coursework, cellulosic ethanol in 2020, solely out of surplus material. This means that cellulosic ethanol can play a key role along Europe??s path towards sustainable and climate-friendly road transport. Figure 2. Lignocellulosic feedstocks of research paper on indian automobile, different regions worldwide.
In the access dissertations and theses US, corn stover is the main residue available for on indian automobile industry, conversion into cellulosic ethanol, the second most important feedstock being cereal straw. The Billion Ton study released by the Department of about, Energy estimates the volumes of corn stover and cereal straw available in a sustainable way at 190-290 million tons. In Brazil, where sugar cane has already been used to produce bioethanol for paper industry, many years, some 545 million tons of sugar cane are forecast for the 2011-2012 harvest, which will in turn give rise to copyediting and proofreading, approx. 73 million tons of bagasse. On Indian? Even after deduction of the amounts used to generate energy in existing plants, around 11 million additional tons of cellulosic ethanol could be produced.
This is equivalent to about 50% of Brazil??s current ethanol production (Clariant International Ltd, 1995 ‘ 2012). The most important processing challenge in the production of biofuel is pretreatment of the biomass. Lignocellulosic biomass is composed of three main constituents namely hemicellulose, lignin and cellulose. Pretreatment methods refer to the solubilization and separation of one or more of these components of biomass. It makes the about remaining solid biomass more accessible to further chemical or biological treatment (Demirbas, 2005). The lignocellulosic complex is made up of a matrix of cellulose and automobile industry, lignin bound by hemicellulose chains. The pretreatment is in uk, done to break the matrix in order to reduce the degree of crystallinity of the cellulose and increase the fraction of amorphous cellulose, the most suitable form for enzymatic attack. Pretreatment is undertaken to bring about a change in the macroscopic and microscopic size and structure of biomass as well as submicroscopic structure and chemical composition. It makes the research paper lignocellulosic biomass susceptible to quick hydrolysis with increased yields of monomeric sugars (Mosier et al, 2005). Goals of an effective pretreatment process are formation of sugars directly or subsequently by hydrolysis to avoid loss and/ or degradation of sugars formed to limit formation of eve descriptive essay, inhibitory products to reduce energy demands and to minimize costs.
Physical, chemical, physicochemical and biological treatments are the four fundamental types of pretreatment techniques employed. In general a combination of research paper automobile, these processes is used in the pretreatment step. 3.1. English Coursework Schemes? Physical pretreatment. Physical pretreatment can increase the accessible surface area and size of pores, and decrease the crystallinity and degrees of polymerization of cellulose. Different types of research on indian automobile industry, physical processes such as milling (e.g. ball milling, two-roll milling, hammer milling, colloid milling, and vibro energy milling) and english coursework mark schemes, irradiation (e.g. by gamma rays, electron beam or microwaves) can be used to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis or biodegradability of lignocellulosic waste materials. Milling can be employed to alter the inherent ultrastructure of lignocelluloses and degree of crystallinity, and consequently make it more amenable to cellulase (Mais et al, 2002).
Milling and research paper automobile industry, size reduction have been applied prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, or even other pretreatment processes with dilute acid, steam or ammonia, on several lignocellulosic waste materials, MSW and activated sludge (Muller et al, 2007). Among the milling processes, colloid mill, fibrillator and dissolver are suitable only for wet materials, e.g. wet paper from domestic waste separation or paper pulps, while the extruder, roller mill, cryogenic mill and hammer mill are usually used for dry materials. The ball mill can be used for either dry or wet materials. Grinding with hammer milling of waste paper is christmas eve descriptive essay, a favorable method (Walpot, 1986). Milling can improve susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis by reducing the size of the materials, and degree of crystallinity of lignocelluloses (Fan et al, 1980) , which improves enzymatic degradation of these materials toward ethanol or biogas. Without any pretreatment, corn stover with sizes of research paper on indian, 53’75 ??m was 1.5 times more productive than larger corn stover particles of 425’710 ??m (Zeng et al 2007). Irradiation by e.g. Essay Teenage? gamma rays, electron beam and microwaves can improve enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocelluloses. Paper On Indian? The combination of the radiation and other methods such as acid treatment can further accelerate enzymatic hydrolysis (Kumakura and Kaetsu, 1984). Irradiation has enhanced enzymatic degradation of cellulose into glucose. Copyediting And Proofreading? However, pre-irradiation is more effective in air than in acid solution (Mamar and Hadjadj, 1990).
3.2. Physico-chemical pretreatment. Pretreatments that combine both chemical and physical processes are referred to as physico-chemical processes (Chandra et al, 2007). 3.2.1. Steam explosion (autohydrolysis) Among the physico-chemical processes, steaming with or without explosion (autohydrolysis) has received substantial attention in pretreatment for automobile, both ethanol and biogas production. The pretreatment removes most of the hemicellulose, thus improving the enzymatic digestion. In steam explosion, the pressure is suddenly reduced and makes the about learning materials undergo an explosive decompression. Paper On Indian Automobile? High pressure and consequently high temperature, typically between 160 and open access, 260 ??C, for research paper industry, a few seconds (e.g.
30 s) to several minutes (e.g. 20 min), were used in steam explosion (Boussaid et al, 1999), (Varga et al, 2004), (Sun et al, 2004). The steam explosion process is christmas, well documented and was tested in research paper on indian automobile lab-and pilot processes by several research groups and companies. Its energy cost is relatively moderate, and it satisfies all the requirements of the pretreatment process. The process of steam explosion was demonstrated on a commercial scale at christmas, the Masonite plants. Research On Indian Automobile Industry? Increase in temperature up to christmas eve descriptive essay, a certain level can effectively release hemicellulosic sugars. However, the sugars loss steadily increases by further increasing the automobile industry temperature, resulting in a decrease in total sugar recovery (Ruiz et al, 2008). Special care should be taken in selecting the copyediting and proofreading steam explosion conditions in order to avoid excessive degradation of the physical and chemical properties of the cellulose. In very harsh conditions, lower enzymatic digestibility of lignocelluloses may also be observed after steam explosion. For instance, generation of research automobile, condensation substances between the polymers in steam explosion of wheat straw may lead to a more recalcitrant residue (Sun et al, 2005).
3.2.2. Steam explosion with addition of SO2. Steam pretreatment can be performed with addition of about off campus learning mode, sulfur dioxide (SO2), while the research paper industry aim of adding this chemical is to improve recovering both cellulose and hemicellulose fractions. The treatment can be carried out by 1’4% SO2 (w/w substrate) at elevated temperatures, e.g. 160’230 ??C, for a period of e.g. 10 min (Eklund et al, 1995).
3.2.3. Ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) AFEX is one of the alkaline physico-chemical pretreatment processes. Here the biomass is exposed to liquid ammonia at relatively high temperature (e.g. 90’100 ??C) for a period of e.g. 30 min, followed by immediate reduction of open dissertations, pressure. The effective parameters in on indian the AFEX process are ammonia loading, temperature, water loading, blowdown pressure, time, and number of treatments (Holtzapple et al, 1991). The AFEX process produces only a pretreated solid material, while some other pretreatments such as steam explosion produce a slurry that can be separated in a solid and a liquid fractions (Mosier et al, 2005). The AFEX process can either modify or effectively reduce the lignin fraction of the lignocellulosic materials, while the hemicellulose and cellulose fractions may remain intact.
At optimum conditions, AFEX can significantly improve the enzymatic hydrolysis. The optimum conditions for AFEX depend on about love the lignocellulosic materials. Research Paper Industry? For example, the optimum conditions in pretreatment of switch grass were reported to be about about education system 100??C, ammonia loading of 1:1 kg of industry, ammonia per kg of dry matter, and 5 min retention time (Alizadeh et al, 2005). One of the major advantages of AFEX pretreatment is about learning, no formation of some types of inhibitory by-products, which are produced during the other pretreatment methods, such as furans in paper on indian industry dilute-acid and steam explosion pretreatment. Essay About Mode? However, part of phenolic fragments of lignin and other cell wall extractives may remain on the cellulosic surface. Research On Indian Automobile? Therefore, washing with water might be necessary to remove part of open and theses, these inhibitory components, although increasing the amount of research paper industry, wastewater from the process (Chundawat et al, 2007. However, there are some disadvantages in dissertations using the on indian AFEX process compared to some other processes. AFEX is essay, more effective on the biomass that contains less lignin, and the AFEX pretreatment does not significantly solubilize hemicellulose compared to other pretreatment processes such as dilute-acid pretreatment. Research On Indian? Furthermore, ammonia must be recycled after the pretreatment to reduce the cost and essay about learning mode of study, protect the environment (Eggeman and Elander, 2005), (Sun and Cheng, 2002).
3.2.4. CO2 explosion. Supercritical carbon dioxide has been considered as an extraction solvent for non-extractive purposes, due to several advantages such as availability at relatively low cost, non-toxicity, non-flammability, easy recovery after extraction, and environmental acceptability (Zheng and Tsao, 1996). Supercritical carbon dioxide displays gas-like mass transfer properties, besides a liquid-like solvating power (Zheng et al, 1995). It was shown that in on indian the presence of water, supercritical CO2 can efficiently improve the enzymatic digestibility of aspen (hardwood) and southern yellow pine (softwood) (Kim and Hong, 2001).
The delignification with carbon dioxide at high pressures can be improved by co-solvents such as ethanol’water or acetic acid’water, and can efficiently increase the lignin removal. Carbon dioxide molecules should be comparable in size to those of water and ammonia, and should be able to penetrate small pores accessible to water and ammonia molecules. 3.2.5. Liquid hot-water pretreatment. Cooking of lignocellulosic materials in liquid hot water (LHW) is one of the hydrothermal pretreatment methods applied for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials since several decades ago in e.g. pulp industries. Water under high pressure can penetrate into the biomass, hydrate cellulose, and remove hemicellulose and part of lignin. The major advantages are no addition of christmas eve descriptive essay, chemicals and no requirement of corrosion-resistant materials for hydrolysis reactors in this process. The feedstock size reduction is on indian automobile, a highly energy-demanding operation for the huge bulk of materials on a commercial scale; there could be no need for size reduction in LHW pretreatment. In addition, the process has a much lower need of chemicals for neutralization of the produced hydrolyzate, and teenage, produces lower amounts of neutralization residues compared to many processes such as dilute-acid pretreatment. Research Paper Automobile Industry? Hemicelluloses’ carbohydrates are dissolved as liquid-soluble oligosaccharides and can be separated from insoluble cellulosic and lignin fractions. LHW can enlarge the accessible and susceptible surface area of the cellulose and make it more accessible to coursework mark schemes, hydrolytic enzymes (Zeng et al, 2007).
Pretreatments with steam and LHW are both hydrothermal pretreatments. Higher pentosan recovery and lower formation of inhibitory components are the main advantages of LHW pretreatment compared to steam explosion. For instance, treating of de-starched corn fiber with hot water at 160 ??C for 20 min dissolved 75% of the research paper xylan (Dien et al, 2006). At higher temperatures, e.g. 220 ??C, LHW can dissolve hemicelluloses completely and remove lignin partially within 2 min with no chemicals used (Sreenath et al, 1998). Xylan removal via percolation reactor, or by base addition (adjusting the pH) during the process, has been suggested to reduce the formation of inhibitors such as furfural and degradation of xylose(Laser et al, 2002) . The pH, processing temperature, and time should be controlled in eve descriptive essay order to optimize the enzymatic digestibility by LHW pretreatment. An optimized condition for LHW pretreatment of corn stover was reported to be 190 ??C for 15 min, in which 90% of the cellulose conversion was observed by subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis . LHW pretreatment at 160 ??C and a pH above 4.0 can dissolve 50% of the fibers from corn fibers in 20 min (Mosier, 2005). 3.2.6. Microwave oven and research paper on indian automobile industry, electron beam irradiation pretreatment.
Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass in a microwave oven is also a feasible method which uses the high heating ef’ciency of a microwave oven and it is also easy to operate (Bjerre et al, 1996). English Gcse Coursework Mark? Microwave treatment utilizes thermal and non-thermal effects generated by microwaves in aqueous environments. In the thermal method, internal heat is generated in the biomass by microwave radiation, resulting from the vibrations of the polar bonds in the biomass and the surrounding aqueous medium. Thus a hot spot is created within the inhomogeneous material. This unique heating feature results in an explosion effect among the particles and improves the research paper on indian industry disrup- tion of recalcitrant structures of lignocellulose (Hu and essay education, Wen, 2008). Thermal pretreatment provides an acidic environment for autohydrolysis by releasing acetic acid from the lignocellulosic materials. In the non-thermal method, i.e., the electron beam irradiation method, polar bonds vibrate, as they are aligned with a continu- ously changing magnetic ‘eld and automobile, the disruption and shock to the polar bonds accelerates chemical, biological and physical processes (Sridar, 1998). High energy radiation results in more changes in cellulosic biomass including increase of speci’c surface area, decrease of degree of polymerization and crystallinity of cellulose, hydrolysis of copyediting and proofreading, hemicellulose and partial depolymerization of lignin. 3.3.
Chemical pretreatment. 3.3.1. Industry? Alkaline hydrolysis. Alkaline pretreatment refers to the application of alkaline solutions such as NaOH, Ca(OH)2 (lime) or ammonia to remove lignin and essay about learning of study, a part of the hemicellulose, and efficiently increase the accessibility of enzyme to the cellulose. The alkaline pretreatment can result in a sharp increase in saccharification, with manifold yields. Pretreatment can be performed at low temperatures but with a relatively long time and high concentration of the base. For instance, when soybean straw was soaked in ammonia liquor (10%) for research paper on indian, 24 h at room temperature, the hemicellulose and lignin decreased by 41.45% and 30.16% respectively (Xu et al, 2007). However, alkaline pretreatment was shown to be more effective on agricultural residues than on wood materials. 3.3.2. Alkaline peroxide. Alkaline peroxide is an christmas eve descriptive effective method for pretreatment of biomass.
In this method, the research lignocelluloses are soaked in pH-adjusted water (e.g. to pH 11’12 using NaOH) containing H2O2 at room temperatures for a period of time (e.g. 6’24 h). The process can improve the enzymatic hydrolysis by delignification. 3.3.3. Education? Organosolv process. Organosolv can be used to provide treated cellulose suitable for enzymatic hydrolysis, using an organic or aqueous organic solvent to research paper on indian automobile, remove or decompose the network of lignin and possibly a part of the essay about off campus mode hemicellulose (Curreli et al, 1997). In this process, lignocellulose is mixed with organic liquid and water and heated to dissolve the lignin and part of the on indian hemicellulose, leaving reactive cellulose in the solid phase.
In addition, a catalyst may be added either to reduce the operating temperature or to enhance the and proofreading delignification process (Chum et al, 1985) . Lignin in the biomass can be extracted from the solvent for e.g. generation of electricity, process heat, lignin-based adhesives and other products, due to industry, its high purity and coursework schemes, low molecular weight (Pan et al, 2005). In organosolv pretreatment of research paper industry, lignocellulosic materials, a large number of off campus of study, organic or aqueous-organic solvents at temperatures of 150’200 ??C can be used with or without addition of catalysts such as oxalic, salicylic, and acetylsalicylic acid. Research On Indian Automobile Industry? Furthermore, the solvent may accompany acetic acid released from acetyl groups developed by hydrolysis of essay about, hemicelluloses. A variety of research paper automobile industry, organic solvents such as alcohols, esters, ketones, glycols, organic acids, phenols, and ethers have been used. However, the price of solvent and simplicity in recovery of solvent should also be considered. The applied solvents should be separated by e.g. evaporation and condensation, and recycled to reduce the operational costs of the process. Removal of solvents from the pretreated cellulose is usually necessary because the solvents might be inhibitors to open dissertations, the enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation or digestion of hydrolyzate (Sun and Cheng, 2002). 3.3.4. Wet oxidation. Wet oxidation has been applied as pretreatment for both ethanol and biogas production.
In this process, the materials are treated with water and air or oxygen at temperatures above 120??C (e.g. 148’200??C) for on indian industry, a period of and proofreading, e.g. 30 min (Palonen et al, 2004). The temperature, followed by reaction time and oxygen pressure, are the most important parameters in wet oxidation (Schmidt and research paper on indian, Thomsen, 1998). The process is exothermic, and therefore it becomes self-supporting with respect to heat while the system in uk reaction is initiated. Wet oxidation of the hemicellulose faction is a balance between solubilization and degradation. Research On Indian Industry? This process is an effective method in separat ing the cellulosic fraction from lignin and christmas eve descriptive, hemicellulose. Oxygen participates in research on indian the degradation reactions and allows operation at comparatively reduced temperatures by about off campus, enhancing generation of organic acids. However, the control of reactor temperature is critical because of the fast rates of reaction and heat generation. The main reactions in paper wet oxidation pretreatment are the formation of acids from copyediting and proofreading hydrolytic processes, as well as oxidative reactions. All three fractions of lignocellulosic materials are affected in research paper on indian this process.
The hemicelluloses are extensively cleaved to monomeric sugars; the lignins undergo both cleavage and oxidation; and copyediting, cellulose is partly degraded. The cellulose becomes highly susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis (Schultz et al, 1984). Similar to many other delignification methods, the lignin produced by wet oxidation cannot be used as a fuel, since a major part of the lignin undergoes both cleavage and oxidation. This phenomenon considerably reduces the income from this by-product at industrial scale for ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials (Galbe and Zacchi, 2002) . Wet oxidation can also be performed by oxidation agents such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Studies showed that the pretreatment with hydrogen peroxide greatly enhanced the susceptibility of cane bagasse to enzymatic hydrolysis. About 50% of the lignin and most hemicellulose were solubilized by treating the biomass with 2% H2O2 at 30??C within 8 h, giving 95% efficiency of glucose production from research paper on indian automobile cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis. 3.3.5. Christmas? Ozonolysis pretreatment.
Pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials can be performed by treatment with ozone, referred to research paper industry, as ‘ozonolysis’ pretreatment. Christmas? This method can effectively degrade lignin and part of hemicellulose. The pretreatment is usually carried out at room temperature, and does not lead to inhibitory compounds (Vidal, 1988). However, ozonolysis might be expensive since a large amount of ozone is required (Sun and Chang, 2002). The main parameters in ozonolysis pretreatment are moisture content of the sample, particle size, and ozone concentration in the gas flow. Among these parameters, an essential factor is the percentage of water in the feed, and paper, it has the most significant effect on the solubilization.
The optimum water content was found to be around 30%, corresponding to the saturation point of the fibers. This is an attractive pretreatment method since it does not leave acidic, basic, or toxic residues in access and theses the treated material (Neely, 1984). 3.3.6. Acid hydrolysis pretreatment. Treatment of research automobile, lignocellulosic materials with acid at a high temperature can efficiently improve the enzymatic hydrolysis. Sulfuric acid is the most applied acid, while other acids such as HCl and nitric acid were also reported (Taherzadeh, 2007) . Essay About Education System In Uk? The acid pretreatment can operate either under a high temperature and low acid concentration (dilute-acid pretreatment) or under a low temperature and high acid concentration (concentrated-acid pretreatment).
The lower operating temperature in concentrated-acid pretreatment (e.g. 40 ??C) is a clear advantage compared to on indian, dilute-acid processes. However, high acid concentration (e.g. 30’70%) in the concentrated-acid process makes it extremely corrosive and dangerous. Therefore, this process requires either specialized non-metallic constructions or expensive alloys. The acid recovery, which is necessary in the concentrated-acid process for economical reasons, is an energy-demanding process. On the other hand, the neutralization process produces large amounts of gypsum. The high investment and maintenance costs also reduce the commercial interest in this process as a commercial option (Sun et al, 2004). Dilute-acid hydrolysis is probably the most commonly applied method among the chemical pretreatment methods. It can be used either as a pretreatment of lignocellulose for enzymatic hydrolysis, or as the actual method of hydrolyzing to fermentable sugars.
Different types of reactors such as batch, percolation, plug flow, countercurrent, and shrinking-bed reactors, for either pretreatment or hydrolysis of dissertations and theses, lignocellulosic materials by the dilute-acid processes, have been applied. The major drawback of some pretreatment methods, particularly at low pH is the formation of different types of inhibitors such as carboxylic acids, furans and research on indian automobile, phenolic compounds (Taherzadeh and Karimi, 2007). These chemicals may not affect the enzymatic hydrolyses, but they usually inhibit the teenage love microbial growth and paper on indian automobile industry, fermentation, which results in english gcse schemes less yield and productivity of ethanol or biogas. Therefore, the on indian automobile pretreatments at low pH should be selected properly in order to avoid or at off campus mode of study, least reduce the formation of these inhibitors. 3.4.
Biological pretreatment. Microorganisms can also be used to treat the lignocelluloses and enhance enzymatic hydrolysis. Automobile Industry? The applied microorganisms usually degrade lignin and hemicellulose but very little part of cellulose, since cellulose is more resistance than the other parts of lignocelluloses to copyediting and proofreading, the biological attack. Research Paper On Indian Automobile? Several fungi, e.g. brown-, white- and soft-rot fungi, have been used for this purpose. White-rot fungi are among the most effective microorganisms for biological pretreatment of lignocelluloses (Sun and Cheng, 2002). Biological treatments with microorganisms or enzymes are also investigated to improve digestion in biogas production. The biological pretreatment might be used not only for lignin removal, but also for biological removal of specific components such as antimicrobial substances (Srilatha et al, 1995). Solid-state fermentation of orange peels by fungal strains of essay, Sporotrichum, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillum enhanced the availability of feed constituents and reduced the level of the antimicrobial substances. In a similar work, cultivation of white-rot fungi was used to detoxify olive mill wastewater and improve its digestion. Low energy requirement, no chemical requirement, and mild environmental conditions are the main advantages of biological pretreatment.
However, the treatment rate is very low in most biological pretreatment processes (Sun and Cheng, 2002) Table 2. Summary of some bio-deligni’cation processes. Substrate Microorganism for research paper, lignin degradation Time of essay, pretreatment % of substrate converted to reducing sugars. Sugarcane bagasse Pleurotus ostreatus. Phanerochaete sordida; Pycnoporus cinnabarinus 115. Phlebia sp. Research Paper On Indian Automobile Industry? MG-60 (A marine fungus) 5 weeks. 92% deligni’cation; total reducing sugar. yield 11.26 0.73 mg/g.
71% deligni’cation; total reducing sugar. yield 11.56 0.51 mg/g. 73.6% deligni’cation; Total Reducing sugar. 41% lignin degraded. 4. Enzymatic hydrolysis. Sacchari’cation is the essay about off campus learning mode of study critical step for bioethanol production where complex carbohydrates are converted to simple monomers. Compared to acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis requires less energy and mild environment conditions (Ferreira et al, 2009)). The optimum conditions for cellulase have been reported as temperature of 40-50 C and pH 4-5 (Neves et al, 2007). Assay conditions for xylanase have also been reported to be 50 C temperature and pH 4-5 (Park et al, 2002).
Therefore, enzymatic hydrolysis is advantageous because of its low toxicity, low utility cost and low corrosion compared to acid or alkaline hydrolysis (Taherzadeh and Karimi, 2007). Moreover, no inhibitory by-product is formed in enzymatic hydrolysis (Ferreira et al, 2009). However, enzymatic hydrolysis is carried out by cellulase enzymes that are highly substrate speci’c (Banerjee et al, 2010). Here cellulase and hemicellulase enzymes cleave the bonds of cellulose and hemicellulose respectively. Cellulose contains glucan and hemicellulose contains different sugar units such as mannan, xylan, glucan, galactan and arabinan. Cellulase enzymes involve endo and paper on indian automobile industry, exoglucanase and b-glucosidases. Endoglucanase (endo 1,4-D glucanhydrolase or E.C. 18.104.22.168) attacks the dissertations and theses low crystallinity regions of the cellulose ‘ber, exoglucanase (1,4-b-D glucan cellobiohydrolase or E.C. 22.214.171.124) removes the cellobiase units from the free chain ends and ‘nally cellobiose units are hydrolysed to glucose by b-glucosidase (E.C.
126.96.36.199). Hemicellulolytic enzymes are more complex and are a mixture of at least eight enzymes such as endo-1,4-b-D-xylanases, exo-1,4-b-D xylocur- onidases, a-L-arabinofuranosidases, endo-1,4-b-D mannanases, b-mannosidases, acetyl xylan esterases, a-glucoronidases and a-galactosidases (Jorgensen et al, 2003). Cellulose is hydrolysed to glucose whereas hemicellulose gives rise to automobile industry, several pentoses and hexoses. Several species of Clostridium, Cellulomonas, Thermonospora, Bacillus, Bac- teriodes, Ruminococcus, Erwinia, Acetovibrio, Microbispora, Strepto- myces are able to education system in uk, produce cellulase enzyme. Automobile? Many fungi such as Trichoderma, Penicillium, Fusarium, Phanerochaete, Humicola, Schizophillum sp. also have been reported for cellulase production. Among the various cellulolytic microbial strains Trichoderma is one of the most well studied cellulase and hemicellulase producing fungal strains (Xu et al, 1998). Trichoderma is able to produce at least two cellobiohydrolases and ‘ve endoglucanases and three endoxylanases. However, Trichoderma lacks b-glucosidase activity that plays an ef’cient role in polymer conversion. On the other hand, Aspergillus is a very ef’cient b-glucosidase producer.
Trichoderma cellulase supplemented with extra b-glucosidase has been studied several times. Combina- tion of english gcse, Trichoderma reesei ZU-02 cellulase and cellobiase from Aspergillus niger ZU-07 improved the hydrolysis yield to 81.2% with cellobiase activity enhanced to 10 CBU/g substrate (Chen et al, 2008). Various factors in’uence yields of monomer sugars from ligno- cellulose. Temperature, pH and mixing rate are the main factors of enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material (Olsson et al, 1996). Research Industry? Other factors that affect yield are substrate concentration, cellulase enzyme loading, and surfactant addition. Open Access And Theses? High substrate concentration may lead to substrate inhibition. Cellulase contributes to the major cost of the lignocellulosic ethanol technology. Therefore, an ef’cient pretreatment is to be selected to decrease cellulose crystallinity and to remove lignin to the maximum extent, so that hydrolysis time as well as cellulase loading will be minimized. Surfactants modify the cellulose surface by adsorbing lignin onto surfactant and thus the surfactant prevents the research on indian automobile industry enzyme from unproductive binding with lignin and lowers enzyme loading (Eriksson et al, 2002). The sacchari’ed biomass is used for fermentation by several microorganisms.
But the industrial utilization of lignocelluloses for bioethanol production is hindered by the lack of ideal microor- ganisms which can ef’ciently ferment both pentose and christmas eve descriptive essay, hexose sugars (Talebnia et al, 2010). Research Paper? For a commercially viable ethanol production method, an ideal microorganism should have broad substrate utilization, high ethanol yield and productivity, should have the ability to withstand high concentrations of ethanol and high temperature, should be tolerant to inhibitors present in hydrolysate and have cellulolytic activity. Genetically modi’ed or engineered microor- ganisms are thus used to essay, achieve complete utilization of the sugars in the hydrolysate and better production bene’ts. The processes usually employed in the fermentation of ligno- cellulosic hydrolysate are simultaneous sacchari’cation and research paper on indian, fermentation (SSF) and separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). Conventionally or traditionally the SHF process has been employed but SSF is superior for ethanol production since it can improve ethanol yields by removing end product inhibition and eliminate the need for separate reactors. It is dissertations and theses, also cost effective but difference in optimum temperature conditions of enzyme for hydrolysis and fermentation poses some limitations (Neves et al, 2007) . The higher ethanol yield coef’cient from SSF would be partially due to more conver- sion of xylose to xylitol under the SSF conditions (Buaban et al, 2010). A compar- ative study between the two processes (SHF and research paper automobile industry, SSF) is open dissertations, presented in Table 3. Table 3. Comparison between the two main fermentation techniques.
Fermentation process Features and advantages Limitations. and fermentation ‘ Low costs. ‘ Higher ethanol yields due to removal of end product inhibition of sacchari’cation step. ‘ Reduces the research on indian industry number of reactors required Each step can be processed at its optimal operating conditions. ‘ Separate steps minimize interaction between the steps ‘ Difference in english gcse coursework optimum temperature conditions of enzyme for paper industry, hydrolysis and fermentation.
‘ End product inhibition minimizes the about teenage love yield of ethanol. Chance of contamination due to long period process. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation. Studies have shown that SSF is a better alternative to SHF. The slow xylose consumption during fermentation in SHF may be due to the presence of toxic compounds which inhibit the growth and research, fermentation activity of the microorganism. The drawback of eve descriptive, SSF can be removed by using thermo-tolerant micro- organisms like Kluyveromyces marxianus which has been developed to withstand the higher temperatures needed for enzymatic hydrolysis. Apart from SSF or SHF, the available alternatives are consoli- dated bioprocessing (CBP) and simultaneous sacchari’cation and co-fermentation (SSCF) (Cardona et al, 2009). In CBP, cellulase production, biomass hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation are all together carried out in research paper on indian automobile industry a single reactor . The process is also known as direct microbial conversion (DMC). Mono- or co-culture of microorganisms is generally used to ferment cellulose directly to ethanol. Application of CBP requires no capital investment for purchasing enzyme or its production. Bacteria such as Clostridium thermocellum and some fungi including Neurospora crassa, Fusarium oxysporum and Paecilomyces sp have shown this type of activity.
However, CBP is not an ef’cient process because of poor ethanol yields and long fermentation periods (3-12 days) (Szczodrak and copyediting and proofreading, Fiedurek, 1996). In SSCF the co-fermenting microorganisms need to be compatible in terms of operating pH and temperature . A combination of Candida shehatae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was reported as suitable for the SSCF process (Neves et al, 2007). Sequential fermentation with two different microor- ganisms in different time periods of the fermentation process for research on indian, better utilization of sugar has also been employed using S. Open Access? cerevisiae in the ‘rst phase for hexose utilization and C. shehatae in research on indian automobile the second phase for pentose utilization but ethanol yields achieved are not high (Sanchez and essay mode of study, Cardona, 2008). Some native or wild type microorganisms used in the fermen- tation are S. cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Zymomonas mobilis, Pachy- solen tannophilus, C. shehatae, Pichia stipitis, Candida brassicae, Mucor indicus etc. Among all the best known yeast and bacteria employed in paper automobile industry ethanol production from english schemes hexoses are S. Research Paper Automobile Industry? cerevisiae and Z. mobilis respectively . But S. cerevisiae cannot utilize the main C-5 sugar e xylose e of the hydrolysate . Native organisms such as Pichia and Candida species can be used in place of english gcse coursework mark schemes, S. Paper Industry? cerevisiae and they can utilize xylose but their ethanol production rate is at essay about of study, least ‘vefold lower than that observed with S. cerevisiae . Different microorganisms have shown different yields of ethanol depending on their mono- mer utilization (Table 4). Table 4 Ethanol yields from various substrates by various microorganisms. Substrate Fermenting microbe Yield of ethanol Feature of the employed microorganism. Can ferment both glucose and xylose.
Utilizes xylose and glucose present. Adapted at increased concentration. Co-ferment glucose and xylose and. utilizes ethanol in absence of sugar. Ferment only glucose. Ferment glucose ‘rst and then. xylose from the mixture. Sugar cane bagasse. Rice straw Pichia stipitis BCC15191. Recombinant Escherichia coli KO11.
Pichia stipitis NRRL Y-7124. Pichia stipitis A. Candida shehatae NCL-3501. Pichia stipitis NRRL Y-7124 0.29 0.02 g ethanol/g available fermentable sugars (glucose and xylose) after 24 h. 31.50 g of ethanol/L in 48 h equivalent to paper on indian industry, a theoretical maximum yield of 91.5% 0.35 gp/gs Calculated as ‘nal ethanol. 0.41 gp/gs concentration divided by total sugar in the fermentation medium. 0.45 g/g and 0.5 g/g of sugar utilized produced from autohydrolysate by free and immobilized cells in 48 h.
0.37 g/g and 0.47 g/g of sugar utilized produced from acid hydrolysate by free and immobilized cells in 48 h. Maximum ethanol production achieved 4 g/L. Maximum ethanol production achieved 6 g/L (78% of theoretical maximum) Can ferment both glucose and xylose. Utilizes xylose and glucose present in essay about off campus learning hydrolysates. Adapted at increased concentration of hydrolysate. Co-ferment glucose and xylose and. utilizes ethanol in absence of on indian automobile industry, sugar. Ferment only glucose.
Ferment glucose ‘rst and then xylose from the mixture. Genetic engineering has been employed to develop the various aspects of fermentation from higher yield to better and wide substrate utilization to essay about system in uk, increased recovery rates. Research Automobile Industry? A number of genetically modi’ed microorganisms such as P. stipitis BCC15191 (Buaban et al, 2010) , P. stipitis NRRL Y-7124, recombinant E. coli KO11, C. shehatae NCL-3501 S. cerevisiae ATCC 26603 have been developed. Strict anaerobic hemophilic bacteria such as Clostridium sp. and Thermoanaerobacter sp. have been proposed to explore the bene’ts of fermentation at elevated temperatures. Some other thermo-tolerant microorganisms developed are K. marxianus, Candida lusitanieae and christmas, Z. mobilis (Bjerre et al, 1996). Lignocellulosic biomass has been projected to be one of the main resources for economically attractive bioethanol production.
Though theoretical ethanol yields from sugar and starch (g ethanol/ g substrate) are higher than from lignocellulose, these conventional sources are insuf’cient for worldwide bioethanol production. In that aspect agricultural wastes are renewable, less costly and abundantly available in research paper on indian automobile industry nature. Agricultural wastes do not demand separate land, water, and energy requirements. They do not have food value as well. For economically feasible bioethanol production, several hindrances are to be overcome. These refer to the four major aspects which are feedstock, conversion technology, hydrolysis process, and fermentation con’guration. About Love? With regard to feedstock major obstacles are cost, supply, harvesting, and handling. As regards conversion technology the hindrances are biomass pro- cessing, proper and cost effective pretreatment technology to liberate cellulose and research paper industry, hemicellulose from their complex with lignin. In respect of the hydrolysis process the challenge is to achieve an ef’cient process for depolymerization of cellulose and hemi- cellulose to produce fermentable monomers with high concentra- tion. In this aspect enzymatic hydrolysis may be the most potent alternative process for sacchari’cation of complex polymer. Several efforts have been made to reduce the cost of and proofreading, cellulase enzyme to optimize the research on indian industry enzymatic hydrolysis process.
Finally, in case of gcse mark, fermentation con’guration, the challenges involved are xylose and glucose co-fermentation, and the use of recombinant microbial strains. In conclusion it may be said that to solve the technology bottlenecks of the conversion process, novel science and ef’cient technology are to be applied, so that bioethanol production from agricultural wastes may be successfully developed and optimized in the near future. 1. Buffiere P, Loisel D, Bernet N, Delgenes JP. Towards new indicators for the prediction of solid waste anaerobic digestion properties. Water Sci. Technol. Automobile Industry? 2006;53:233’241. 2. Mark? Grethelin HE. Paper Automobile? The effect of pore size distribution on the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of essay education system in uk, cellulosic substrates. Biotechnol.
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Effects of dilute-acid and eve descriptive essay, steam explosion pretreatments on the cellulose structure and kinetics of cellulosic fraction hydrolysis by dilute acids in lignocellulosic materials. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 1994;45:23’34. 23. Mes-Hartree M, Saddler JN. The nature of inhibitory materials present in pretreated lignocellulosic substrates which inhibit the enzymic hydrolysis of cellulose.
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Biotechnol. Paper Automobile? Lett. 1984;6:541’546. 25. Laser M, Schulman D, Allen SG, Lichwa J, Antal MJ, Jr, Lynd LR. A comparison of liquid hot water and steam pretreatments of sugar cane bagasse for copyediting and proofreading, bioconversion to paper on indian, ethanol. Bioresource Technol. 2002;81:33’44. 26. Sun XF, Xu F, Sun RC, Wang YX, Fowler P, Baird MS.
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Ruiz E, Cara C, Manzanares P, Ballesteros M, Castro E. Evaluation of steam explosion pre-treatment for essay about love, enzymatic hydrolysis of sunflower stalks. Enzyme Microb. Tech. 2008;42:160’166. 29. Sun XF, Xu F, Sun RC, Fowler P, Bairdd MS. Characteristics of degraded cellulose obtained from steam-exploded wheat straw.
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Pretreatment of switchgrass by research, ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. Essay About Off Campus Mode Of Study? 2005;124:1133’41. 33. Mosier N, Wyman C, Dale B, Elander R, Lee YY, Holtzapple M, Ladisch M. Features of promising technologies for pretreatment of research on indian, lignocellulosic biomass. Bioresource Technol. About Love? 2005;96:673’686. 34.
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Handbook on bioethanol: production and utilization. Taylor Francis; Washington DC, USA: 1996. 36. Sun Y, Cheng J. Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for coursework mark schemes, ethanol production: A review. Research Paper On Indian Industry? Bioresource Technol. Gcse Schemes? 2002;83:1’11. 37. Eggeman T, Elander RT.
Process and economic analysis of pretreatment technologies. Research Paper? Bioresource Technol. 2005;96:2019’2025. 38. Zheng Y, Tsao GT. Avicel hydrolysis by essay teenage, cellulase enzyme in supercritical CO2. Biotechnol. Lett. 1996;18:451’454.
39. Zheng Y, Lin H-M, Wen J, Cao N, Yu X, Tsao GT. Supercritical carbon dioxide explosion as a pretreatment for research paper automobile, cellulose hydrolysis. Biotechnol. Gcse Coursework Mark Schemes? Lett. 1995;17:845’850. 40. Kim KH, Hong J. Supercritical CO2 pretreatment of lignocellulose enhances enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis. Research Paper On Indian? Bioresource Technol. 2001;77:139’144.
41. Pasquini D, Pimenta MTB, Ferreira LH, Curvelo AAdS. Essay Learning Mode Of Study? Extraction of lignin from sugar cane bagasse and Pinus taeda wood chips using ethanol-water mixtures and carbon dioxide at on indian automobile industry, high pressures. About Education System In Uk? J. Supercrit. Fluid. 2005;36:31’39. 42. Zeng M, Mosier NS, Huang CP, Sherman DM, Ladisch MR. Microscopic examination of changes of plant cell structure in corn stover due to hot water pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis.
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Bioresource Technol. Paper Automobile Industry? 2005;96:1986’1993. 46. Mosier NS, Hendrickson R, Brewer M, Ho N, Sedlak M, Dreshel R, Welch G, Dien BS, Aden A, Ladisch MR. Industrial scale-up of pH-controlled liquid hot water pretreatment of corn fiber for fuel ethanol production. Appl. Biochem. Christmas Eve Descriptive Essay? Biotechnol. 2005;125:77’97. 47.
Palmqvist E, Hahn-H??gerdal B. Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. II: Inhibitors and mechanisms of inhibition. Bioresource Technol. 2000;74:25’33. 48. Sanchez G, Pilcher L, Roslander C, Modig T, Galbe M, Liden G. Dilute-acid hydrolysis for fermentation of the Bolivian straw material Paja Brava. Bioresource Technol. 2004;93:249’256. 49. On Indian Automobile Industry? Schell DJ, Farmer J, Newman M, McMillan JD. Dilute-sulfuric acid pretreatment of corn stover in pilot-scale reactor: Investigation of yields, kinetics, and enzymatic digestibilities of solids.
Appl. Essay Love? Biochem. Paper Automobile Industry? Biotechnol. 2003;105:69’85. 50. Kassim EA, El-Shahed AS. Enzymatic and chemical hydrolysis of certain cellulosic materials. Agr. Wastes. 1986;17:229’233. 51.
Xu Z, Wang Q, Jiang Z, Yang X-X, Ji Y. Teenage? Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated soybean straw. Research? Biomass Bioenerg. 2007;31:162’167. 52. Curreli N, Fadda MB, Rescigno A, Rinaldi AC, Soddu G, Sollai F, Vaccargiu S, Sanjust E, Rinaldi A. Dissertations? Mild alkaline/oxidative pretreatment of wheat straw. Process Biochem. 1997;32:665’670. 53. Research Paper On Indian? Itoh H, Wada M, Honda Y, Kuwahara M, Watanabe T. Bioorganosolve pretreatments for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of beech wood by ethanolysis and white rot fungi. J. Biotechnol. 2003;103:273’280.
54. Pan X, Gilkes N, Kadla J, Pye K, Saka S, Gregg D, Ehara K, Xie D, Lam D, Saddler J. Bioconversion of hybrid poplar to essay, ethanol and co-products using an organosolv fractionation process: optimization of process yields. Research Paper Industry? Biotechnol. Christmas Eve Descriptive? Bioeng. 2006;94:851’861. 55. Rolz C, de Arriola MC, Valladares J, de Cabrera S. Effects of paper on indian, some physical and chemical pretreatments on the composition and enzymatic hydrolysis and digestibility of lemon grass and citronella bagasse. Agr. Wastes. 1986;18:145’161. 56.
Pan X, Arato C, Gilkes N, Gregg D, Mabee W, Pye K, Xiao Z, Zhang X, Saddler J. Biorefining of softwoods using ethanol organosolv pulping: Preliminary evaluation of process streams for manufacture of fuel-grade ethanol and co-products. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2005;90:473’481. 57. Schultz TP, McGinnis GD, Biermann CJ. Similarities and differences in pretreating woody biomass by steam explosion, wet oxidation, autohydrolysis, and rapid steam hydrolysis/continuous extraction. Proceedings of christmas eve descriptive essay, Annual Symposium on Energy from Biomass and Wastes; Lake Buena Vista, FL, USA.
1984. 58. Palonen H, Thomsen AB, Tenkanen M, Schmidt AS, Viikari L. Evaluation of paper on indian industry, wet oxidation pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of softwood. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. Gcse Schemes? 2004;117:1’17. 59. Research Paper On Indian Industry? Varga E, Klinke HB, Reczey K, Thomsen AB.
High Solid Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Wet Oxidized Corn Stover to Ethanol. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2004;88:567’574. 60. And Proofreading? Garrote G, Dominguez H, Parajo JC. On Indian Automobile? Hydrothermal processing of lignocellulosic materials. Holz Als Roh-und Werkst. 1999;57:191’202.
61. Schmidt A, Thomsen A. Optimization of wet oxidation pretreatment of wheat straw. Bioresource Technol. 1998;64:139’151. 62. Galbe M, Zacchi G. A review of the production of ethanol from essay education system in uk softwood. Appl. Microbiol. Research Paper On Indian? Biotechnol. 2002;59:618’628.
63. Azzam AM. Pretreatment of about education, cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and ethanol fermentation. J. Environ. Sci. Heal. 1989;24:421’433. 64. Vidal PF, Molinier J. Paper On Indian Automobile? Ozonolysis of Lignin ‘ Improvement of in vitro digestibility of eve descriptive, poplar sawdust.
Biomass. Research On Indian? 1988;16:1’17. 65. Neely WC. Factors affecting the pretreatment of biomass with gaseous ozone. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 1984;26:59’65. 66.
Taherzadeh MJ, Karimi K. Acid-based hydrolysis processes for ethanol from lignocellulosic materials: A review. BioResources. 2007;2:472’499. 67. Jones J, Semrau K. Wood hydrolysis for off campus learning mode of study, ethanol production previous experience and the economics of selected processes.
Biomass. 1984;5:109’135. 68. Taherzadeh MJ, Karimi K. Enzymatic-based hydrolysis processes for paper, ethanol from lignocellulosic materials: A review. BioResources. 2007;2:707’738. 69.
Srilatha HR, Nand K, Babu KS, Madhukara K. Fungal pretreatment of orange processing wastes by solid-state fermentation for improved production of methane. Process Biochem. 1995;30:327’331. 70. Dhouib A, Ellouz M, Aloui F, Sayadi S. Effect of bioaugmentation of activated sludge with white-rot fungi on olive mill wastewater detoxification. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 2006;42:405’411.23. 71.
Stone JE, Scallan AM, Donefer E, Ahlgren E. In Uk? In: Cellulases and paper industry, their Applications. Hajny GJ, Reese ET, editors. American Chemical Society; Washington DC, USA: 1969. 72. Mohammad J. Taherzadeh , K. Karimi: Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Wastes to Improve Ethanol and Biogas Production: A Review, Journal of Molecular Sciences, Sep 2008. 73. Nibedita Sarkar, Sumanta Kumar Ghosh, Satarupa Bannerjee, Kaustav Aikat, Bioethanol production from agricultural wastes: An overview. 74. Uihlein A, Schbek L. Environmental impacts of a lignocellulosic feedstock biore’nery system: an assessment. Biomass and Bioenergy 2009;33:793-802. 75.
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84. Bjerre AB, Olesen AB, Fernqvist T. Pretreatment of wheat straw using combined wet oxidation and on indian, alkaline hydrolysis resulting in convertible cellulose and hemicellulose. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 1996;49: 568-77. 85. Talebnia F, Karakashev D, Angelidaki I. Production of bioethanol from wheat straw: an essay love overview on pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation. Bio- resource Technology 2010;101(13):47, 44-53. 86. Neves MA, Kimura T, Shimizu N, Nakajima M. State of the art and future trends of bioethanol production, dynamic biochemistry, process biotech- nology and molecular biology. On Indian Industry? Global Science Books; 2007:1-13.
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Explore the full Revision Policy. ii The company does not condone plagiarism, copyright infringement or any form of academic dishonesty. All provided sample services must only be used for off campus learning of study reference purposes while being cited properly. Please read the Fair Use Policy. Ultius is the trusted provider of content solutions for consumers around the research, world. Connect with great American writers and get 24/7 support.
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